This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Centurion Mk3 - the ‘atomic tank’, named so due to its use in nuclear weapons testing in the Woomera test range, Australia
|Type||Main battle tank|
|Place of origin||United Kingdom|
|In service||1946–present (derivatives still in service)|
|Wars||Korean War |
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
War of Attrition
Yom Kippur War
South African Border War
Operation Motorman (AVRE)
Falklands War (BARV)
Gulf War (AVRE)
|Unit cost||£35,000 (1950), £38,000 (1952)|
|Mass||51 long tons (52 t)|
|Length||Hull: 25 ft (7.6 m)|
Overall: 32 ft (9.8 m) with 20pdr
|Width||11 ft 1 in (3.38 m) with side plates|
|Height||9 ft 10.5 in (3.01 m)|
|Crew||4 (commander, gunner, loader, driver)|
|105 mm L7 rifled gun|
20 pdr (84 mm) rifled gun
17 pdr (76.2mm) rifled gun
|Co-axial .30 cal Browning machine gun|
|Engine||Rolls-Royce Meteor; 5-speed Merrit-Brown Z51R Mk. F gearbox|
650 hp (480 kW)
|Power/weight||13 hp/t (9.2 kW/t)|
|Ground clearance||1 ft 8 in (50.8 cm)|
|50 miles (80 km) Mk 2/Mk 3|
|Speed||22 mph (35 km/h)|
The Centurion was the primary British main battle tank of the post-Second World War period. Introduced in 1945, it is widely considered to be one of the most successful post-war tank designs, remaining in production into the 1960s, and seeing combat in the front lines into the 1980s. The chassis was also adapted for several other roles, and these have remained in service to this day.
Development of the Centurion began in 1943 with manufacture beginning in January 1945. Six prototypes arrived in Belgium less than a month after the war in Europe ended in May 1945. It first entered combat with the British Army in the Korean War in 1950, in support of the UN forces. The Centurion later served in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, where it fought against US-supplied M47 and M48 Patton tanks and it served with the Royal Australian Armoured Corps in Vietnam.
Israel used Centurions in the 1967 Six-Day War, 1973 Yom Kippur War, and during the 1978 and 1982 invasions of Lebanon. Centurions modified as armoured personnel carriers were used in Gaza, the West Bank and on the Lebanese border. The Royal Jordanian Land Force used Centurions, first in 1970 to fend off a Syrian incursion within its borders during the Black September events and later in the Golan Heights in 1973. South Africa deployed its Centurions in Angola during the South African Border War.
It became one of the most widely used tank designs, equipping armies around the world, with some still in service until the 1990s. As recently as the 2006 Israel–Lebanon conflict the Israel Defense Forces employed heavily modified Centurions as armoured personnel carriers and combat engineering vehicles. The South African National Defence Force still employs over 200 Centurions, which were modernised in the 1980s and 2000s as the Olifant (elephant).
- 1 Development
- 2 Deployment in Western Europe
- 3 Service history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
In 1943, the Directorate of Tank Design, under Sir Claude Gibb, C.B.E., F.R.S., was asked to produce a new design for a heavy cruiser tank under the General Staff designation A41. After a series of fairly mediocre designs in the A series in the past, and bearing in mind the threat posed by the German 88 mm gun, the War Office demanded a major revision of the design requirements, specifically: increased durability and reliability, the ability to withstand a direct hit from the German 88 mm gun and providing greater protection against mines. Initially in September 1943 the A41 tank was to weigh no more than 40 long tons (45 short tons; 41 t); the limit for existing Mark I and Mark II transport trailers and for a Bailey bridge of 80 ft (24 m) span. The British railway loading gauge required that the width should not exceed 10 ft 8 in (3.25 m) and the optimum width was 10 ft 3 in (3.12 m), but, critically, for the new tank this restriction had been lifted by the War Office under pressure from the Department of Tank Design (British & American Tanks of WWII – Chamberlain & Ellis 1969). A high top speed was not important, while agility was to be equal to that of the Comet. A high reverse speed was specified, as during the fighting in southern Italy, Allied tanks were trapped in narrow sunken roads by the German Army. The modified production gearbox had a two-speed reverse, with the higher reverse speed similar to second gear.
The department produced a larger hull by adapting the long-travel five-wheel Christie suspension used on the Comet with the addition of a sixth wheel, and extending the spacing between the second and third wheels. The Christie suspension, with vertical spring coils between side armour plates, was replaced by a Horstmann suspension with three horizontally sprung, externally mounted two-wheel bogies on each side. The Horstmann design did not offer the same ride quality as the Christie system, but took up less room and was easier to maintain.  In case of damage by mines, individual suspension and wheel units could be replaced relatively easily. The hull was redesigned with welded, sloped armour and featured a partially cast turret with the highly regarded 17 pounder (76.2 mm/3 inch) as the main gun and a 20 mm Polsten cannon in an independent mounting to its left. With a Rover-built Rolls-Royce Meteor engine, as used on the Comet and Cromwell, the new design would have excellent performance.
But even before the Outline Specification of the A41 was released in October 1943, these limits were removed and the weight was increased from 40 tons to 45 long tons (50 short tons; 46 t), because of the need for heavier armour and a wider turret (too wide for the tank to be transported by rail) with a more powerful gun. The new version carried armour equal to the heaviest infantry tanks, while improved suspension and engines provided cross-country performance superior to even the early cruiser tanks. The War Office decided it would be wiser to build new trailers, rather than hamper what appeared to be a superb design. Historian David Fletcher states, "But was Centurion, after all, a Universal Tank? The answer has to be a qualified negative." The design mockup, built by AEC Ltd, was viewed in May 1944. Subsequently, twenty pilot models were ordered with various armament combinations: ten with a 17-pdr and a 20 mm Polsten gun (of which half had a Besa machine gun in the turret rear and half an escape door), five with a 17-pdr, a forward Besa and an escape door, and five with a QF 77 mm gun and a driver-operated hull machine gun.
Prototypes of the original 40-ton design, the Centurion Mark I, had 76 mm of armour in the front glacis, which was thinner than that on the then current infantry tanks (the Churchill), which had 101 mm or 152 mm on the Churchill Mk VII and VIII being produced at the time. However, the glacis plate was highly sloped, and so the effective thickness of the armour was very high—a design feature shared by other effective designs, such as the German Panther tank and Soviet T-34. The turret was well armoured at 152 mm. The tank was also highly mobile, and easily outperformed the Comet in most tests. The uparmoured Centurion Mark II soon arrived; it had a new 118 mm-thick glacis and the side and rear armour had been increased from 38 mm to 51 mm. Only a handful of Mk I Centurions had been produced when the Mk II replaced it on the production lines. Full production began in November 1945 with an order for 800 on production lines at Leyland Motors, Lancashire the Royal Ordnance Factories ROF Leeds and Royal Arsenal, and Vickers at Elswick. The tank entered service in December 1946 with the 5th Royal Tank Regiment.
Soon after the Centurion's introduction, Royal Ordnance finished work on the 84 mm calibre Ordnance QF 20 pounder tank gun. By this point, the usefulness of the 20 mm Polsten had been called into question, it being unnecessarily large for use against troops, so it was replaced with a Besa machine gun in a completely cast turret. The new Centurion Mark III also featured a fully automatic stabilisation system for the gun, allowing it to fire accurately while on the move, dramatically improving battlefield performance. Production of the Mk 3 began in 1948. The Mk 3 was so much more powerful than the Mk 1 and Mk 2, that the earlier designs were removed from service as soon as new Mk 3s arrived, and the older tanks were then either converted into the Centurion armoured recovery vehicle (ARV) Mark 1 for use by the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers or upgraded to Mk 3 standards. Improvements introduced with the Mk 3 included a more powerful version of the engine and a new gun sight and gun stabiliser.
Design work for the Mk 7 was completed in 1953, with production beginning soon afterwards. One disadvantage of earlier versions was the limited range, initially just 65 miles (105 km) on hard roads, hence external auxiliary tanks and then a "monowheel" trailer were used. But the Mk7 had a third fuel tank inside the hull, giving a range of 101 miles (163 km). And it was found possible to put the Centurion on some European rail routes with their larger loading gauges.
The Centurion was used as the basis for a range of specialist equipment, including combat engineering variants with a 165 mm demolition gun Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers (AVRE). It is one of the longest-serving designs of all time, serving as a battle tank for the British and Australian armies from the Korean War (1950–1953) to the Vietnam War (1961–1972), and as an AVRE during the Gulf War in January–February 1991.
Deployment in Western Europe
By early 1952, with the Cold War heating up, NATO needed modern heavy tanks to meet the T-34 versions with the Warsaw Pact countries, and to deter Soviet forces by stationing them with the BAOR in West Germany, where the French had just the light AMX-13, and the Germans had none. America was keen to have Centurions supplied to Denmark and the Netherlands under the Mutual Defence Assistance Program, as production of the M48 Patton would not start until April 1952. A Mk 3 cost £31,000 or £44,000 with ammunition. The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps deployed a regiment of Centurions to Germany to support the Canadian Brigade.
On 14 November 1950, the British Army's 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, equipped with three squadrons of Centurion Mk 3 tanks, landed in Pusan. The first recorded Centurion kill occurred in Busan against a North Korean captured Cromwell tank. Operating in sub-zero temperatures, the 8th Hussars learnt the rigours of winter warfare: their tanks had to be parked on straw to prevent the steel tracks from freezing to the ground. Engines had to be started every half hour, with each gear being engaged in turn to prevent them from being frozen into place. During the Battle of the Imjin River, Centurions won lasting fame when they covered the withdrawal of the 29th Brigade, with the loss of five tanks, most later recovered and repaired. In 1953, Centurions of the 1st Royal Tank Regiment were also involved in the Second Battle of the Hook where they played a significant role in repelling Chinese attacks. In a tribute to the 8th Hussars, General John O'Daniel, commanding the US 1st Corps, stated: "In their Centurions, the 8th Hussars have evolved a new type of tank warfare. They taught us that anywhere a tank can go, is tank country: even the tops of mountains."
The Egyptians destroyed Port Said's Inner Harbour, which forced the British to improvise and use the Fishing Harbour to land their forces. The 2nd Bn of the Parachute Regiment landed by ship in the harbour. Centurions of the British 6th Royal Tank Regiment were landed and by 12:00 they had reached the French paratroopers. While the British were landing at Port Said, the men of the 2 RPC at Raswa fought off Egyptian counter-attacks featuring SU-100 tank destroyers.
After establishing themselves in a position in downtown Port Said, 42 Commando headed down the Shari Muhammad Ali, the main north-south road to link up with the French forces at the Raswa bridge and the Inner Basin lock. While doing so, the Marines also took Port Said's gasworks. Meanwhile, 40 Commando supported by the Royal Tank Regiment remained engaged in clearing the downtown of Egyptian snipers. Lieutenant Colonel Norman Tailyour arranged for more reinforcements to be brought in via helicopter.[verification needed]
In 1967, the Royal Australian Armoured Corps' (RAAC), 1st Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) Squadron transferred to "A" Squadron, 3rd Cavalry Regiment Vietnam. Although they successfully conducted combat operations in their areas of operations, reports from the field stated that their lightly-armoured M113A1 armoured personnel carriers were unable to force their way through dense jungle limiting their offensive actions against enemy forces. The Australian government, under criticism from Parliament, decided to send a squadron of Australian Centurion tanks to South Vietnam. The 20-pdr armed Australian Centurions of 'C' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment landed in South Vietnam on 24 February 1968, being headquartered at Nui Dat in III Corps (MR3).
Colonel Donald Dunstan, later to be governor of South Australia, was the deputy task force commander of the Australian forces in South Vietnam Dunstan had quite possibly been the last Australian to use tanks and infantry in a combined operation during the Second World War, (as part of the Bougainville campaign), and the first since the war to command Australia's tanks and infantry in combat. When he temporarily took over command during Brigadier Ronald Hughes's absence, he directed that the Centurions be brought up from Nui Dat to reinforce the firebases at Coral and Balmoral, believing that they were a strong element that were not being used. Besides adding a great deal of firepower, Dunstan stated, he "couldn't see any reason why they [the Centurions] shouldn't be there". His foresight enabled the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) to inflict approximately 267 enemy casualties during the six-week-long Battle of Coral–Balmoral, as well as capturing 11 prisoners, 36 crew-served weapons, 112 small arms, and other miscellaneous enemy weapons.
After the battles at firebases Coral and Balmoral, in which the 1 ATF defeated the 141st and 165th NVA Infantry Regiments in May 1968; a third Centurion troop, which included two tankdozers, was formed. By September 1968, 'C' Squadron was brought to its full strength of four troops, each equipped with four Centurion tanks. By 1969, 'B' Squadron, 3rd Cavalry; 'A' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment; 'B' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment; and 'C' Squadron, 1st Armoured Regiment, had all made rotations through South Vietnam. Originally deployed as 26 Centurion tanks, after three and a half years of combat operations, 58 Centurions had served in country; 42 had suffered battle damage with six beyond repair and two crewmen had been killed in action.
The Centurion crews, after operating for a few weeks in country, soon learned to remove the protective armoured side skirts from both sides of the tank, to prevent the vegetation and mud from building up between the track and the mudguards. Each Centurion in Vietnam normally carried a basic load of 62 rounds of 20 pounder shells, 4,000 rounds of .50 cal and 9,000 rounds of .30 cal machine gun ammunition for the tank commander's machine gun as well as the two coaxial machine guns. They were equipped with petrol engines, which necessitated the use of an extra externally mounted 100-imperial-gallon (450 L) fuel tank, which was attached to the vehicle's rear.
In 1965, the bulk of India's tank fleet was older M4 Sherman tanks, but India also had Centurion Mk.7 tanks, with the 20 pounder gun, and also AMX-13 and M3 Stuart light tanks. The Centurion Mk.7 at that time was one of the most modern western tanks.
The offensive of Pakistan's 1st Armoured Division was blunted at the Battle of Asal Uttar on 10 September. Six Pakistani armored regiments were opposed by three Indian armoured regiments. One of these regiments, 3 Cavalry, fielded 45 Centurion tanks. The Centurion, with its 20 pounder gun and heavy armour, proved to be more than a match for the M47 and M48 Pattons. On the other side, when Pakistani Army armoured division primary composed of M47 Pattons and M48 Pattons, they proved to be only able to penetrate a few of the Centurion tanks, as witnessed in the Battle of Chawinda in the Sialkot sector. A post-war US study of the tank battles in South Asia concluded that the Patton's armor could, in fact, be penetrated by the 20-pounder tank gun (84 mm) of the Centurion (later replaced by the even-more successful L7 105mm gun on the Mk. 7 version which India also possessed) as well as the 75 mm tank gun of the AMX-13 light tank.
In 1971, at the Battle of Basantar, an armoured division and an armoured brigade of the Pakistani I Corps confronted two armoured brigades of the Indian I Corps, which had Centurion tanks. This resulted in a substantial tank battle, between the American-built tanks of the Pakistani Army and the Indian Army's mixture of Soviet T-55s and British Centurions. Casualties were heavily skewed against the Pakistani force, with 46 tanks destroyed.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The first country which bought Centurion tanks was Egypt. The first tanks were received in 1950. Israel's formerly British Centurions were first delivered in 1959. Differing varieties of the Centurion were bought by Israel over the years from many different countries or captured in combat. Following their acquisition the Israelis quickly up-graded the tanks with British 105 mm L7 instead of the original 20-pounder main gun and renamed them Sho't ("scourge" or "whip"). When the Six-day War broke out in 1967, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) had 293 Centurion / Sho't tanks that were ready for combat out of a total of 385 tanks. In Sinai Egypt had 30 Centurion tanks. All 30 Egyptian tanks were destroyed or captured by Israel during the conflict. Israel also captured about 30 Jordanian Centurion tanks from a total of 90 in Jordanian service. 25 tanks were abandoned in Hebron by the 10th Jordanian Independent Tank Regiment.
All Sho't tanks were upgraded with the more efficient Continental AVDS-1790-2A diesel engine (also used in the M48 and the M60 tanks) and an Allison CD850-6 transmission from 1970 to 1974. The upgraded version was named Sho't Kal Alef and was followed by three additional sub variants called Bet, Gimel and Dalet according to the upgrades added. The upgrades included thicker armour, new turret rotating mechanism, new gun stabiliser, improved ammunition layout with more rounds and increased fuel capacity. A modern fire control system, an improved fire extinguisher system, better electrical system and brakes, and the capability of installing reactive armour completed the modifications. They have American radios and either have the original 7.62 mm calibre MG on the commander's cupola or a 12.7 mm calibre HMG. The Sho't Kal can be distinguished from the Centurion by its raised rear deck, to accommodate the bigger engine.
The Sho't Kal version of Centurion earned its legendary status during the Battle of "The Valley of Tears" on the Golan Heights in the 1973 Yom Kippur War. 105 Sho't Kal tanks of the 7th Armoured Brigade and 20 Shots of the 188th Brigade defeated the advance of some 500 Syrian T-55s and T-62s and the Sho't Kal became emblematic of Israeli armour's prowess. During the entire war, 1,063 Israeli tanks were disabled (more than half of them Centurions), about 600 of them were completely destroyed or captured. Some 35 Israeli Centurions were captured by Egypt, dozens more were captured by Syria and Iraq. On the other hand, 2,250 Arab tanks were disabled (including 54 Jordanian Centurions), 1,274 of them were completely destroyed or captured. After the war, to replace Israeli losses, the United States delivered 200 M60 and M48 tanks and the United Kingdom delivered 400 Centurion tanks to Israel.
The Israelis started to retire the Sho't Kal during 1980s and they were completely retired during the 1990s. Most of them were converted to Nagmasho't, Nagmachon, and Nakpadon heavy Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Puma armored engineering vehicles.
1991 Gulf War
In the 1991 first Gulf War, 12 FV4003 Centurion Mk5 AVREs were deployed with 32 Armoured Engineer Regiment as part of British operations during the war. Three were lost in training in two separate incidents involving vehicle fires and detonation of munitions. One AVRE was destroyed on 5 February 1991 and two were destroyed in a second incident the next day. Four minor injuries were sustained.
This section does not cite any sources. (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Fifty Centurions were purchased by Jordan between 1954 and 1956 and by 1967 about 90 Centurions were in service. The Jordanian Army used its Centurion tanks in the Six-Day War. In 1967, the 10th Independent Tank Regiment was equipped with 44 Centurion Mk.V tanks armed with 20pdr guns, but was initially deployed on East Bank. Later, the unit was moved urgently to the Hebron area, in West Bank, in order to link with the supposed Egyptian advance. Some Centurion tanks were destroyed and about 30 captured by the Israeli Army. Israelis entering Hebron captured 25 Jordanian Centurion tanks. The Royal Guards Brigade had one regiment that was also equipped with Centurions.
After the 1967 war, the army was rearmed and more Centurion tanks were purchased.
In September 1970 (Black September) Jordan used Centurions of the 40th Armoured Brigade against invading Syrian T-55 tanks. Jordan lost 75 to 90 tanks out of 200 involved. Most of them were destroyed by Syrian tank fire at ar-Ramtha. But some of them were destroyed by PLO in Amman. Palestinians used captured Centurion tanks against the Jordanian army.
In 1972, Centurion tanks were reequipped with 105 mm guns. During the Yom Kippur War, the Jordanian 40th Armoured Brigade was deployed in the Golan front to support Syrian troops and show King Hussein's concern for Arab solidarity. The 40th Armoured Brigade moved northward towards Sheikh Meskin, but its counterattack was uncoordinated and largely ineffective as the Israelis were in prepared defensive positions.
In 1982–1985, 293 surviving Centurions of the Jordanian Army were refitted with the diesel engine and transmission of the M60A1 tank in place of the original Meteor petrol engine, Belgian SABCA computerised fire-control system, which incorporated a laser range-finder and passive night sight for the gunner, Cadillac Gage electro-hydraulic turret drive and stabilisation system and a new Teledyne Continental hydropneumatic suspension in place of the Horstmann units. These upgraded vehicles were called the Tariq. After retirement from service with the arrival of ex-British Challenger tanks in the late 1990s, several Tariqs were converted into heavy APCs.
South Africa ordered 203 Centurion Mk 3 tanks from the United Kingdom in 1953. The South African Centurions entered service between 1955 and 1958, and included about 17 armoured recovery vehicles. South Africa's major strategic priorities at the time revolved around assisting the British Armed Forces and other member states of the Commonwealth of Nations during a conventional war in the Middle East or Anglophone Africa. The Centurions were procured specifically because they were compatible with Commonwealth tank tactics and preexisting British armoured formations.
Following South Africa's withdrawal from the Commonwealth in 1961, its priorities shifted toward internal security and diversifying national arms procurement outside traditional suppliers such as the United Kingdom. To that end, 100 Centurion Mk 3s and 10 Centurion-based recovery vehicles were sold off to Switzerland in 1961. The remaining Centurions were largely relegated to reserve roles as a result of maintenance problems compounded by parts shortages and a tendency to overheat in the hot African climate. In 1972, the South African Army retrofitted some of its Centurions with the engines and transmission of American-made M48 Patton tanks in an attempt to improve technical performance. The upgraded Centurions were designated Skoikaan and proved unpopular due to their high fuel consumption and poor operating range.
Tanks reentered the mainstream of South African military doctrine in 1975, following Operation Savannah, which saw the lightly armoured South African forces in Angola threatened by large formations of Soviet tanks supplied to the People's Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) and their Cuban allies. Operation Savannah was followed by further modifications and trials under Project Semel, and the South African government was obliged to finance the creation of a new private sector enterprise, the Olifant Manufacturing Company (OMC), to refurbish the Centurions. During this period South Africa managed to restore its tank fleet to its original size by purchasing a number of surplus Centurion hulls from Jordan and India. The passage of United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, which imposed a mandatory arms embargo on the country, forced South Africa to purchase the hulls without turrets or armament. OMC upgraded each Centurion with a 29-litre Continental turbocharged diesel engine and a new transmission adopted from the M60 Patton. The refurbished Centurions were also armed with a South African variant of the Royal Ordnance L7 105 mm main gun. They were accepted into service with the South African Armoured Corps as the Olifant Mk1A in 1985.
South African expeditionary forces clashed with FAPLA T-54/55 tanks during Operation Askari in late 1983 and early 1984; however, due to the enormous logistical commitment needed to keep the Olifants operational so far from conventional repair facilities, they were not deployed. At length the South African mechanised infantry, bolstered by Eland and Ratel-90 armoured car squadrons, succeeded in destroying the tanks on their own, although severe delays were encountered due to their lack of adequate anti-tank weaponry. Morale also suffered when inexperienced armoured car crews were ordered to take on the Angolan T-54/55s in their vulnerable vehicles. Criticism in this regard led to the deployment of a single squadron of thirteen Olifant Mk1As to the Angolan border, where they were attached to the 61 Mechanised Battalion Group. Following the Lusaka Accords, which effectively ensured a ceasefire between South Africa and Angola, these Olifants were placed into storage and the tank crews rotated out.
The collapse of the Lusaka Accords and the subsequent launch of Operation Moduler in late 1987 led to the Olifant squadron being reactivated on the direct orders of South African State President P.W. Botha. On 9 November 1987 the Olifants destroyed two Angolan T-55s during a heated nine-minute skirmish. This marked the first occasion South African tanks had been sent into battle since World War II. Throughout Operation Moduler, South African forces typically dispersed into an "arrowhead" formation, with Olifants in the lead, Ratel-90 armoured cars on the flanks, and the remainder of the mechanised infantry to the rear and centre. Three Olifants were abandoned in a minefield during Operation Packer and subsequently captured by FAPLA, while another two were damaged beyond immediate repair by mines but successfully recovered. A number of others suffered varying degrees of track and suspension damage due to mines or Angolan tank fire, but were able to keep moving after field repairs.
In the early 1990s, the Olifant Mk1A was superseded by the Olifant Mk1B, which incorporated major improvements in armour protection, a slightly more powerful engine, a double armoured floor for protection against mines, and a torsion bar suspension.
At the end of the Second World War, it was clear that the mix of tanks in service with the Swedish Armed Forces was not just obsolete but also presented a large logistical problem. Kungliga Arméförvaltningens Tygavdelning (KAFT, the weapons bureau of the army administrative service) conducted a study that concluded that the most cost-effective alternative would be to purchase the newly developed Centurion Mk 3, which, while quite modern, was judged to also have upgrade potential for future requirements. A purchase request was sent to Great Britain, but the reply was that no deliveries could be made before the needs of the British Army had been satisfied, which was deemed to take between five and 15 years. Thus, in 1951, the vehicle bureau of KAFT was set to develop a Swedish alternative project, E M I L. Parallel with this, negotiations were initiated with France about buying the AMX-13.
The British stance altered in early December 1952, due to the economic necessity of increasing exports to earn scarce foreign currency. Britain offered to sell the desired Centurions immediately. Minister of Defence Torsten Nilsson arbitrarily placed an order of 80 Mk 3, with Swedish Army designation stridsvagn 81 (strv 81), around new year 1952/1953, with the first delivery in April 1953. In 1955, Sweden ordered a batch of 160 Centurion Mk 5 (also designated strv 81), followed by a batch of 110 Centurion Mk 10 around 1960 (designated strv 101). The Centurions, together with the Stridsvagn 103, formed the backbone of the Swedish armoured brigades for several decades. The Mk 3 and the Mk 5 were upgraded with a 105 mm gun in the 1960s, becoming strv 102.
Between 1983 and 1987, the Centurions had a midlife renovation and modification (REMO) done, which included among other things night vision equipment, targeting systems, laser range finders, improved gun stabilisation, thermal sleeves on the barrel and exhaust pipes and reactive armour developed by the Swedish FFV Ordnance. Around 80 strv 102 were upgraded with Continental diesel engines and Allison gearboxes in the early 1980s, becoming strv 104.
The Swedish Army gradually phased out its Centurions and Strv 103 during the 1990s as a consequence of comparative tests of the T-72, Leclerc, M1A1 and Leopard 2. They were replaced with the Stridsvagn 121 and Stridsvagn 122.
An Australian Army Mk 3 Centurion Type K, Army Registration Number 169041, was involved in a small nuclear test at Emu Field in Australia in 1953 as part of Operation Totem1. Built as number 39/190 at the Royal Ordnance Factory, Barnbow in 1951 it was assigned the British Army number 06 BA 16 and supplied to the Australian Commonwealth Government under Contract 2843 in 1952.
It was placed less than 500 yards (460 m) from the 9.1 kt blast with its turret facing the epicentre, left with the engine running and a full ammunition load. Examination after detonation found that it had been pushed away from the blast point by about 5 feet (1.5 m), pushed slightly left and that its engine had stopped working, but only because it had run out of fuel. Antennae were missing, lights and periscopes were heavily sandblasted, the cloth mantlet cover was incinerated, and the armoured side plates had been blown off and carried up to 200 yards (180 m) from the tank. It could still be driven from the site. Had the tank been manned, the crew would most likely have been killed by the shock wave.
169041, subsequently nicknamed The Atomic Tank, was used in the Vietnam War. In May 1969, during a firefight, 169041 (call sign 24C) was hit by a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG). The turret crew were all wounded by fragmentation as the RPG hollow charge jet entered the lower left side of the fighting compartment, travelled diagonally across the floor and lodged in the rear right corner. Trooper Carter was evacuated, while the others remained on duty and the tank remained battleworthy.
The Atomic Tank is now located at Robertson Barracks in Palmerston, Northern Territory. Although other tanks were subjected to nuclear tests, 169041 is the only one known to have withstood a blast and to go on for another 23 years of service, including 15 months on operational deployment in a war zone.
- 1950: Korean War – United Kingdom
- 1955: Suez Crisis – United Kingdom
- 1965: Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 – India
- 1967: Six-Day War – Israel, Jordan
- 1969: Vietnam War – Australia
- 1971: Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 – India
- 1972: Operation Motorman – United Kingdom, 165 mm AVREs with dozer blades were used to destroy barricades set up by the IRA in Northern Ireland, the 165 mm demolition guns were pointed to the rear and covered up
- 1973: Yom Kippur War – Israel, Jordan, Kuwait
- 1982: 1982 Lebanon War – Israel
- 1982: Falklands War – United Kingdom, single Centurion Beach Armoured Recovery Vehicle (BARV)
- 1988: South African Border War – South Africa
- 1991: Gulf War/Operation Desert Storm – United Kingdom, Centurion AVREs
Centurion Pilot Vehicles
- 20 built late 1944-early 1945
- P1 – P5
- Armed with 17 pdr with 20 mm Polsten cannon and 7.92 BESA in ball mounting at turret rear.
- P6 – P10
- 17 pdr with linkage to 20 mm Polsten and turret rear escape hatch
- P11 – P15
- 17 pdr with linkage to 7.92 mm BESA and turret rear escape hatch
- P16 – P20
- Armed with 77mm HV and driver-operated hull machine gun
Centurion production mark numbers
- Centurion Mk 1
- 17pdr armed version. Six early vehicles sent to 5th Royal Inniskilling Dragoon Guards, 22nd Armoured Brigade at Gribbohm, in Germany, May 1945.
- Centurion Mk 2
- Fully cast turret
- Centurion Mk 3
- Fitted with 20pdr, 2 stowage positions for track links on glacis
- Centurion Mk 4
- Projected close-support version with 95 mm CS howitzer
- Centurion Mk 5
- Browning machine guns fitted to coaxial and commander's cupola mounts, stowage bin on glacis
- Centurion Mk 5/1 a.k.a. FV 4011
- Increased glacis armour, two coax machineguns: one .30 Browning & one .50 caliber Browning for ranging the 84 mm (20 pounder) main gun
- Centurion Mk 5/2
- Upgunned to 105 mm
- Centurion Mk 6
- Upgunned and uparmoured Mk 5
- Centurion Mk 6/1
- Mk 6 fitted with IR equipment
- Centurion Mk 6/2
- Mk 6/1 fitted with ranging gun
- Centurion Mk 7 a.k.a. FV 4007
- Revised engine decks, and a third internal fuel tank
- Centurion Mk 7/1 a.k.a. FV 4012
- Uparmoured Mk 7
- Centurion Mk 7/2
- Upgunned Mk 7
- Centurion Mk 8
- Resilient mantlet and new commanders cupola
- Centurion Mk 8/1
- Uparmoured Mk 8
- Centurion Mk 8/2
- Upgunned Mk 8
- Centurion Mk 9 a.k.a. FV 4015
- Upgunned and uparmoured Mk 7
- Centurion Mk 9/1
- Mk 9 with IR equipment
- Centurion Mk 9/2
- Mk 9 with ranging gun fitted
- Centurion Mk 10 a.k.a. FV 4017
- Upgunned and uparmoured Mk 8
- Centurion Mk 10/1
- Mk 10 with IR equipment
- Centurion Mk 10/2
- Mk 10 with ranging gun fitted
- Centurion Mk 11
- Mk 6 fitted with IR equipment and ranging gun
- Centurion Mk 12
- Mk 9 fitted with IR equipment and ranging gun
- Centurion Mk 13
- Mk 10 fitted with IR equipment and ranging gun
- A41 [20 mm]
- Centurion prototype with coaxial Polsten cannon
- A41 [Besa]
- Centurion prototype with coaxial Besa MG—later fitted with experimental CDL
Fighting Vehicle numbers
- FV 3802
- Self-propelled 25-pdr artillery prototype based on the Centurion—engine at the rear as in the gun tank, but only five road wheels per side. The gun was fitted in a barbette with 45° traverse to each side. Accepted in principle in 1954, but abandoned in favour of FV3805 in 1956.
- FV 3805
- Self-propelled 5.5in artillery prototype, again based on the Centurion—engine at the front and driver over the trackguard. Project stopped in 1960 in favour of the FV433 105 mm SP Abbot. The single surviving prototype of the FV3805, which had its 5.5 inch gun removed, is known to be located on the Isle of Wight on the south coast of England. This prototype was converted into an artillery observation vehicle. As of August 2015, there is currently a crowd-sourced restoration project in process, with the intent to have the vehicle in fully operational and running capacity by 2017, where it is hoped to be capable of driving in the 2017 Tankfest celebration at the Bovington Tank Museum.
- FV 4002 Centurion Mk 5 Bridgelayer
- (1963) – Mk 5 chassis with a No 5 Tank Bridge. The 52 ft by 13 ft bridge can be launched in less than two minutes, can span a gap of 45 ft (14 m) and with a height difference of up to 8 ft and can bear up to 80 tons.
- FV 4003 Centurion Mk 5 AVRE 165
- (1963) – AVRE (Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers) vehicle with a 165 mm demolition gun with a range of about 2,000 yards and firing a 60 lb HESH projectile for breaching obstacles. It was fited with a hydraulically operated dozer blade or a mine plough and could carry a fascine bundle or a roll of metal Class 60 Trackway, tow the Viper mine-clearance equipment or a trailer. This variant had a five-man crew and was used in the 1972 Operation Motorman and in the 1991 Gulf War.
- FV 4004 Conway
- "FV 4004 Self-propelled gun, 120 mm, L1 gun, Mk 3" prototype based on a Centurion 3 hull with a larger calibre 120 mm L1 gun in a turret made from rolled plate. To be an interim design until Conqueror tank entered service. One built before the project was cancelled in 1951.
- FV 4005 Stage 2
- An experimental tank destroyer with a 183 mm gun L4, which was a modified version of the BL 7.2-inch howitzer. Project started in 1951/52, and developed in July 1955. It used a lightly armoured, fully enclosed and traversable turret on a Centurion hull. By August 1957, the tank destroyer was dismantled.
- FV 4006 Centurion ARV Mk 2
- (1956) – Mk 1 / Mk 2 / Mk 3 hull with the turret replaced by a superstructure housing a winch. The winch is powered by an auxiliary engine and is capable of pulling of up to 90 tons using a system of blocks. Armed with a single .30 inch machine gun on the commander's cupola.
- FV 4007 Centurion Mk 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8/1, 8/2
- FV 4008 Duplex Drive Amphibious Landing Kit
- 12 lightweight panels forming a skirt around a permanently fixed deck; the panels are jettisoned with explosive charges.
- FV 4010 a.k.a. Heavy Tank Destroyer G.W. Carrier
- Malkara Anti Tank Guided Missile launcher vehicle
- FV 4011 Centurion Mk 5
- FV 4012 Centurion Mk 7/1, 7/2
- FV 4013 Centurion ARV Mk 1
- (1952) – Based on Mk 1 / Mk 2 hull. Turret replaced by a superstructure housing a winch driven by a 72 hp Bedford QL truck engine. About 180 units were built, some of them were used in the Korean War. After 1959, they were used solely as training vehicles.
- FV 4015 Centurion Mk 9
- FV 4016 Centurion ARK
- (1963) – Armoured Ramp Carrier. Built on a Mark 5, the vehicle itself is part of the bridge. It can span a gap of up to 75 feet, and can bear up to 80 tons.
- FV 4017 Centurion Mk 10
- FV 4018 Centurion BARV (1963)
- Beach armoured recovery vehicle. The last Centurion variant to be used by the British Army. One vehicle was still in use by the Royal Marines until 2003. Replaced by the Hippo, which is based on a Leopard 1 chassis.
- FV 4019 Centurion Mk 5 Bulldozer
- (1961) – Centurion Mk V with a dozer blade identical to that of the Centurion AVRE. One such tank was usually given to every Centurion-equipped squadron.
- FV 4202 40 ton Centurion
- Used to develop various concepts later used in the Chieftain
- Centurion [Low Profile]
- Variant with Teledyne Low-profile Turret
- Centurion [MMWR Target]
- Cobbled together radar target tank.
- Centurion Marksman
- Fitted with Marksman air defence turret
- Centurion Ark ( FV 4016)
- Assault Gap Crossing Equipment (Armoured ramp carrier)
- Centurion ARV Mk I
- Armoured Recovery vehicle
- Centurion ARV Mk II
- Armoured Recovery Vehicle with superstructure
- Centurion AVLB
- Dutch armoured vehicle laying bridge
- Centurion AVRE 105
- Combat Engineer Version armed with 105 mm gun
- Centurion AVRE 165
- Combat Engineer Version armed with 165 mm L9A1 gun
- Centurion BARV
- Beach Armoured Recovery Vehicle
- Centurion Bridgelayer (FV 4002)
- Class 80 bridgelayer
- Centurion Mk 12 AVRE 105
- Ex-Forward Artillery Observer vehicles converted to AVRE role.
- Centurion Target Tank
- A Gun tank with most items removed from turret and dummy gun fitted(?), much thicker (1 inch?) Bazooka plates fitted and extra armour in places. Used on Lulworth Ranges (perhaps others?) c1972-5 to train GW missile crews using inert missiles. Nominally driver only.
- Centurion Mk V, 2
- A Mk V upgraded with the British 105 mm L7A1 gun and the Browning co-axial machine gun replaced by the German MG3. 106 Mk Vs were upgraded from 1964.
- Centurion Mk V, 2 DK
- Mk V, 2 with laser range finder and night vision optics. 90 units were upgraded in 1985.
- Sho't Meteor
- Centurion Mk 5 tanks with the original Meteor engine purchased in 1959.
- Sho't Kal Alef/Bet/Gimel/Dalet
- Modernised Centurion tanks with 105 mm gun from 1963 and new powertrain of the Continental AVDS-1790-2A diesel engine mated to the Allison CD850-6 transmission. Entered service in 1970. By 1974, all Israeli Centurions were upgraded to Sho't Kal (Mk 13 armour) and had a pintle-mounted .50 cal HMG. Sub-variants indicate upgrades received by Sho't Kal tanks during their operational life, including a new turret rotating mechanism, a new gun stabiliser, a new fire-control system and preparations for the installation of the Blazer ERA.
- Israeli heavy armoured personnel carriers based on the Centurion tank's chassis.
- A quadruple tubular launcher for 290 mm ground-to-ground rockets mounted on Centurion tank chassis. The project was cancelled after a single prototype was built. Both this vehicle and an earlier version based on Sherman chassis are often referred to as MAR-290.
- Operated by Singapore, modernised with Israeli assistance, similar to Israeli variant, with diesel engine and new main gun, and possibly reactive armour.
- Centurion Mk 5 NL and Mk 5/2 NL
- Circa 1965, Dutch Mk 5 and 5/2 tanks were equipped with infrared headlights, searchlight, and viewing equipment, of Philips design instead of the types used on British tanks. Around the same time, a .50-caliber ranging machine gun was added, as was a spare wheel bracket on the rear of the turret, and from 1969, the M1919 Browning machine guns were replaced by FN MAGs. From 1973, the tanks’ radio sets were replaced by Philips-designed ones.
- Centurion bruggenlegger
- Between 1962 and 1965, 17 Mk 5 gun tanks were converted to bridge layers (Dutch: bruggenlegger) , using the same bridge and mechanism as the American M48 and M60 AVLBs.
- Centurion dozertank
- Also in 1962–65, 17 Mk 5s with 20-pounder guns were converted to dozer tanks by fitting adapted blades from old M4 Sherman dozers. Once ammunition stocks for the 20-pounders were exhausted, the guns were removed and the turrets fixed facing to the rear, with the smoke grenade launchers relocated to the now front of the turret with spotlights installed there as well to assist dozer operations at night.
- Centurion tanks redesigned and rebuilt by South Africa with the help of Israel; considered the best indigenous tank design on the African continent. The name, 'Olifant' derives from the Afrikaans word for 'elephant' - being a heavy animal and indicating the heaviest combat vehicle in the South African Army.
- (1974) 810 hp fuel-injected petrol engine, three-speed semi-automatic transmission.
- Olifant Mk 1
- (1978) 750 hp diesel engine, semi-automatic transmission.
- Olifant Mk 1A
- (1985) Retains the fire control system of the original Centurion but has a hand-held laser rangefinder for the commander and image-intensifier for the gunner.
- Olifant Mk 1B
- (1991) Torsion bar suspension, lengthened hull, additional armour on the glacis plate and turret, V-12 950 hp diesel engine, computerised fire control system, laser rangefinder.
- Olifant Mk 2
- Redesigned turret, new fire control system. Can mount an LIW 105 mm GT-8 rifled gun or a 120 mm smooth bore gun.
The designations follows the pattern of main gun calibre in centimetres followed by the service order number. Hence the strv 81 is read as the first tank with an 8 cm gun, while the strv 101 is the first tank with a 10 cm gun that was accepted into service.
- Stridsvagn 81
- Swedish Army designation for both the initial 80 Mk 3 Centurions (20 pdr gun) and the 1955 purchase of 160 Mk 5 Centurions, all with Imperial instrumentation, Swedish radios, etc. Pre-NATO threading made the screws incompatible with the later Strv 101.
- Stridsvagn 101
- Swedish Army designation for its 110 Mk 10 Centurions (105 mm gun) bought in 1958 with Swedish instrumentation and radios, etc.
- Stridsvagn 102
- Swedish Army designation for Stridsvagn 81 upgunned in 1964–1966 to 105 mm main gun.
- Stridsvagn 101R
- Swedish Army designation for Stridsvagn 101 upgraded in 1980s with Renovation/modification (REMO).
- Stridsvagn 102R
- Swedish Army designation for Stridsvagn 102 upgraded in 1980s with REMO and frontal armour matching the 101R.
- Stridsvagn 104
- Swedish Army designation for the 80 Stridsvagn 102 which in addition to the REMO received the same powerpack as the Sho't Kal Alef, consisting of a Continental diesel and an automatic gearbox from Allison.
- Stridsvagn 105
- Swedish Army designation for Stridsvagn 102R upgraded with new suspension, firecontrol systems etc. Prototype only.
- Stridsvagn 106
- Swedish Army designation for Stridsvagn 101R upgraded with new suspension, etc. Not built.
- Bärgningsbandvagn 81
- Swedish Army designation for Centurion ARV.
- Panzer 55
- 100 Centurion Mark 3's ordered in 1955 and delivered between 1956 and 1957.
- Panzer 57
- 100 Centurion Mark 7's ordered in 1957 and delivered between 1958 and 1960
- 100 additional Centurion Mark 5's were ordered from South Africa in 1960
- 150 of the vehicles were subsequently re-armed with the 105 mm L7.
- Israel Gun tanks retired, many hulls converted to Nagmachon APCs, Nakpadon ARVs or Puma CEVs.
- Jordan Chassis re-used for the modern Temsah APC
- South Africa In service as the indigenously developed and upgraded Mk1A/B and Mk2 Olifant
- Australia Replaced by Leopard 1.
- Austria Now fixed in bunkers.
- Canada Initially ordered 274 Mk 3 tanks, plus nine armoured recovery vehicles and four bridge-layers and additional orders followed. The Mk 5 (upgunned to 105 mm) were used later. From 1969 to 1970, the Canadian Army lists 77 tanks based in Germany (mostly Mk 5 and Mk 11's) and the remainder in Canada (60 at CFB Wainwright AB, 59 at CFSD Longpointe QC, 46 at CFB Gagetown NB, 30 at CFB Borden, 29 at CFB Meaford ON, 27 at CFB Calgary AB, 12 at CFB Petawawa ON, six at RCEME School Kingston ON and one at the LETE Test Establishment Orleans, CFB Ottawa ON) for a total of 347 tanks (including 120 Mk 5s, three Mk 5 recovery tanks and some Mk 11s with IR and ranging guns fitted). Replaced by Leopard C1. Many of the tanks were sold to Israel, which converted them to diesel. Some are still in use as variants.
- Denmark Replaced by Leopard 1.
- Egypt Replaced by T-55s, T-62s, M60A3s and M1A1s.
- India Retired
- Iraq Retired
- Kuwait, handed over to Somalia circa 1977
- Netherlands Initially received 435 Mk 3 tanks beginning in 1953, increased to 592 by 1956; all were paid for by the United States as part of the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. As one was lost to an accidental fire in 1953, 591 gun tanks were on strength, and were soon upgraded to Mk 5 standard with 20-pounder gun and the British radio sets replaced by American types; one fuel mono-trailer was also available per tank. From 1956 to 1958, 66 ARV Mk 2s were procured, and in 1959–60, 70 Mk 7 tanks were delivered from the UK; these were all held in war reserve until 1969, when they were disposed of. Over the years 1960–72, 343 Mk 5 tanks were gradually upgunned with 105 mm guns to Mk 5/2 standard, as were 19 Mk 7s (to Mk 7/2) in 1966–68. Between 1962 and 1965, 17 Mk 5 tanks were converted to bridge layers, using the same bridge and mechanism as the American M48 and M60 AVLBs; at the same time, another 17 Mk 5s with 20-pounder guns were converted to dozer tanks. As an experiment, one Mk 5/2 and one Mk 7/2 were converted by installing a diesel engine in 1968; though successful, it was not adopted because the cost approached that of buying a new Leopard 1. All Centurions were replaced by Leopard 2 MBTs in the 1980s, after having been used alongside Leopard 1s in the 1970s. Many Mk 5 and all Mk 7 tanks were returned to the United States (which had paid for them), which appears to have shipped most to Israel.
- New Zealand 12 retired without replacement.
- Singapore 63 Centurion Mk3 and Mk7s bought from India in 1975 and more from Israel in 1993–1994, all upgraded to Israeli standard with new main guns and diesel engines It has since been replaced by the Leopard 2SGs.
- Somalia – Christopher F. Foss, writing in the second edition of Jane's Main Battle Tanks said that 'Kuwait was believed to have supplied Somalia with about 35 Centurions.' The Military Balance 1987–88 (p. 112) listed 30 Centurions held by the Somali Army.
- Sweden Replaced by Stridsvagn 122 (Leopard 2A5S)
- Switzerland Replaced by Leopard 2
- United Kingdom Replaced by Chieftain
Tanks of comparable role, performance and era
- AMX 50 (France)
- ARL 44 (France)
- E-50 Standardpanzer (Nazi Germany; reached design stage only)
- FV 214 Conqueror (UK)
- FV4101 Tank, Medium Gun, Charioteer (UK)
- IS-3 (Soviet Union)
- IS-4 (Soviet Union)
- Panther II (Nazi Germany)
- T-54/55 (Soviet Union)
- T26E1 Super Pershing (US)
- T32 (US; did not enter service)
- T42 (US; did not enter service)
- M46/M47 Patton
- Tank, Infantry, Black Prince A43 (UK; did not enter service)
- Emrys, Hughes. "Mr". millbanksystems. millbanksystems. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
- "Centurion (A41) – Main Battle Tank – History, Specs and Pictures – Military Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery". Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Dunstan 2003, pp. 5, 14.
- Jackson, Robert (2010). "Centurion". 101 Great Tanks. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-4358-3595-5. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015.
- Tucker-Jones, Anthony (2012). Armoured Warfare in the Korean War. Casemate Publishers. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-84884-580-0. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015.
- Dunstan 2003, p. 3.
- Joiner, J. H. (1990). One More River To Cross. Pen and Sword. p. 439. ISBN 978-1-4738-1691-6. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015.
- Bishop, Chris (1999). The encyclopedia of modern military weapons. Barnes & Noble Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7607-1631-1. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015.
- Malkasian, Carter (2001). The Korean War 1950–1953. Taylor & Francis. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-57958-364-4. Archived from the original on 27 February 2015.
- Dunstan 2003, p. 8.
- Scholtz, Leopold (2013). The SADF in the Border War 1966–1989. Cape Town: Tafelberg. ISBN 978-0-624-05410-8.
- Antill, P. (23 February 2001). "Centurion tank". historyofwar.org. Archived from the original on 6 February 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Dunstan 2003, p. 22.
- Munro 2005, pp. 25.
- Munro 2005, pp. 33.
- Norman, Michael (1967). Centurion 5. Armour in Profile. 23. Great Bookham, Surrey: Profile Publications.
- Bud, Robert; Gummett, Philip, eds. (2002). Cold War, Hot Science: Applied Research in Britain's Defence Laboratories, 1945–1990. Science Museum. p. 142. ISBN 978-1-900747-47-9.
- Munro 2005, pp. 28.
- Fletcher (1989), p. 122.
- Norman p. 2
- Munro 2005, pp. 40.
- Munro 2005, pp. 46.
- "Big British Tank Aims on the Run". Popular Science: 142–143. April 1952. ISSN 0161-7370. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014.
- Munro 2005, pp. 48.
- Munro 2005, pp. 62.
- Munro 2005, pp. 61-63.
- Dunstan 2003, pp. 36–37.
- Munro 2005, pp. 135-137.
- Dunstan 2003, p. 16.
- Dunstan 2003.
- Munro 2005, pp. 158–162.
- Varble 2003, pp. 16–17.
- Varble 2003, pp. 70–71.
- Varble 2003, p. 72.
- Dunstan 1982, p. 176.
- Starry 1978.
- McAulay 1988, p. 196.
- McAulay 1988, p. 37.
- McAulay 1988, p. 221, 241, 242.
- McAulay 1988, p. 197.
- McAulay 1988, p. 345.
- McAulay 1988, p. 346.
- McAulay 1988, p. 237, 238, 276 ".50 cal coax".
- McAulay 1988, p. 278.
- 90 mm M36 GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE "Jackson" Post W.W.II, the M36 was employed by the US Army in Korea and was distributed to friendly nations including France, where it was used in Indo-China (Vietnam), Pakistan.
- The Battle for Ravi-Sutlej Corridor 1965 A Strategic and Operational Analysis Archived 7 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Prabhakar, Peter (2003). Wars, proxy-wars and terrorism : post independent India. New Dehli: Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-890-7.
- Jabber, Paul (1981). Not by war alone : security and arms control in the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-520-04050-2.
- Staff Writer (16 February 2012), The Centurion Sho't of Israel – Centurion (A41) – Main Battle Tank, militaryfactory.com, archived from the original on 16 January 2013, retrieved 23 December 2012
- Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla Mary (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 995. ISBN 978-1-85109-842-2.
- Micheal Clodfelter (2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015 (4th ed.). McFarland. p. 575. ISBN 978-1-4766-2585-0.
- Dunstan, Simon (2009). Centurion vs T-55 : Yom Kippur War, 1973. Oxford New York: Osprey. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-84603-369-8.
- Hammel, Eric (1992). Six Days in June: How Israel Won the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Pacifica Military History. ISBN 978-0-935553-54-3.
- Foss, Christopher F. (2002). Jane's Armour and Artillery. 23. Jane's Publishing Company Limited. p. 57.
- Dunstan, Simon (2013). The Yom Kippur War 1973 (1): The Golan Heights. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0210-1.|page=59
- Chapter 5./Intelligence Success and Failure: The Human Factor. Uri Bar-Joseph, Rose McDermott. Oxford University Press. 2017
- "Britain Mum on Centurions to Israel". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 16 September 1974. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Ware, Pat; Delf, Brian (2013). The Centurion Tank. Casemate Publishers. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-78159-011-9.
- No Victor, No Vanquished: the Yom Kippur War. Edgar O'Ballance. 1991. P.107
- Razoux, Pierre (1999). La Guerre israélo-arabe d'octobre 1973 : une nouvelle donne militaire au Proche-Orient (in French). Paris: Economica. ISBN 978-2717838138.
- November 29, 1973. Anderson Daily Bulletin from Anderson, Indiana, P.14
- Bowman, Martin (2016). Cold War Jet Combat: Air-to-Air Jet Fighter Operations 1950–1972. Pen and Sword. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-4738-7462-6.
- שריון [Armor] (in Hebrew), December 2007
- The House of Commons Defence Committee, 10th Report 1990–91 Session; Preliminary Lessons of Operation Granby (HMSO, 17 July 1991).
- Foreign Relations, 1969–1976, Volume XXIV. P.912
- Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948-1991. Kenneth Michael Pollack. U of Nebraska Press. 2002. P.337-345
- Terror in Black September: The First Eyewitness Account of the Infamous 1970 Hijackings. David Raab. St. Martin's Press. 2007. P.168
- Black September: How Palestinian Terrorism Was Born. Ivan Siiak. Bird in Flight. October 2, 2015
- "Trade Registers". Armstrade.sipri.org. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Berridge, G.R. (1992). South Africa, the Colonial Powers and African Defence: The Rise and Fall of the White Entente, 1948–60. Basingstoke: Palgrave Books. pp. 1–16, 163–164. ISBN 978-0-333-56351-9.
- Harmse, Kyle; Dunstan, Simon (23 February 2017). South African Armour of the Border War 1975–89. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. pp. 4, 32–46. ISBN 978-1-4728-1743-3.
- "Lesakeng". South African Armour Museum. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
- Ogorkiewicz, Richard (2015). Tanks: 100 Years of Evolution. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1-4728-0670-3.
- Scholtz, Leopold (2012). "The Lessons of the Border War". Stellenbosch: Military Science Department, Stellenbosch University. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- Hamann, Hilton (2007) . Days of the Generals. Cape Town: Struik Publishers. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-86872-340-9.
- Holt, Clive (2008) . At Thy Call We Did Not Falter. Cape Town: Zebra Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-1-77007-117-9.
- Shubin, Gennadiĭ Vladimirovich; Tokarev, Andreĭ Aleksandrovich (2011) . Bush War: The Road to Cuito Cuanavale – Soviet Soldiers' Accounts of the Angolan War. Auckland Park: Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-909982-39-0.
- Mitchell, Thomas G. (2013). Israel/Palestine and the Politics of a Two-State Solution. London: Futura Publications Limited. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-7864-7597-1.
- Polack, Peter (2013). The Last Hot Battle of the Cold War: South Africa vs. Cuba in the Angolan Civil War (illustrated ed.). Oxford: Casemate Publishers. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-61200-195-1.
- "EMIL". Archived from the original on 18 February 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Historien bakom Strv 103 "S"". Archived from the original on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "SPHF". Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Cecil, M: Classic Military Vehicle October 2004 Issue 41, pages 43–46. Kelsey Publishing Group, 2004.
- "Atomic Tank: The Unique History of Centurion 169041". Archived from the original on 14 April 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Australian Centurions in preservation, many photographs". Steel Thunder Original Two. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009.
- "بالصور والفيديو.. ماذا قدم العرب لمصر في حرب أكتوبر | المصري اليوم". Almasryalyoum.com. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Falklands War – Centurion BARV". centurionbarv.weebly.com. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- Norman p9
- "FV4004, 120 mm Conway and FV4005, 183 mm gun tank". Archived from the original on 13 December 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Tank Profile". Preserved Tanks .Com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Centurion Family – Danish Army Vehicles Homepage". Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Centurion Mk V, 2- Danish Army Vehicles Homepage". Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- "Centurion Mk V, 2 DK – Danish Army Vehicles Homepage". Archived from the original on 28 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
- Ruys, Sander (2002). "De Centuriontank in Nederlandse Dienst" (PDF). Armamentaria (in Dutch). 37.
- Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armoured Fighting Vehicles. 96: Dempsey-Parr. ISBN 978-1-84084-328-6.
- Heitman, Helmoed-Romer (1988). South African Arms & Armour. Struik. ISBN 978-0-86977-637-7.
- "Temsah" (photo). military-today.com. Archived from the original on 19 March 2009.
- ARG. "Olifant Mk.1B Main Battle Tank". Military-Today.com. Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
- ARG. "Olifant Mk.2 Main Battle Tank". Military-Today.com. Archived from the original on 17 September 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2009.
- Huxley, Tim (2000). Defending the Lion City: The Armed Forces of Singapore. Allen & Unwin. p. 131. ISBN 978-1-86508-118-2.
- Foss, Christopher (1986). Jane's main battle tanks. London New York, N.Y: Jane's. p. 186. ISBN 0-7106-0372-X.
- Cecil, Michael K. (2009). Mud & Dust: Australian Army Vehicles & Artillery in Vietnam. New Holland Publishers (Australia). ISBN 978-1-74110-767-8.
- Dunstan, Simon (1982). Vietnam Tracks-Armor in Battle 1945–75. Osprey Publications. ISBN 978-0-89141-171-0.
- Dunstan, Simon (2003). Centurion Universal Tank 1943–2003. New Vanguard 68). illustrated by Badrocke M. and Sarson P. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-387-3.
- Fletcher, David (1989). Universal Tank: British Armour in the Second World War – Part 2. HMSO. ISBN 978-0-11-290534-9.
- Hunnicutt, R. P. (1984). Patton: A History of the American Main Battle tank. 1. Presidio Press. ISBN 978-0-89141-230-4.
- McAulay, Lex (1988). The Battle of Coral: Vietnam Fire Support Bases Coral and Balmoral, May 1968. An Arrow Book (Random House Australia Pty Ltd). ISBN 978-0-09-169091-5.
- Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of Tanks of the World. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7603-0892-9.
- Munro, Bill (2005). The Centurion Tank. Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-86126-701-6.
- Royal Armoured Corps Tank Museum (1973). British Tanks 1946–1970. Wareham, Dorset: The Museum. OCLC 221053350.
- Starry, Donn A. General (1978). Mounted Combat in Vietnam. Vietnam Studies. Department of the Army. CMH Pub 90-17.
- Varble, Derek (2003). The Suez Crisis 1956. London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84176-418-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Centurion tanks.|
- Centurion armour/technical data
- Centurion Tank Chat by tank historian David Fletcher
- Australian Centurions
- Redoubt Fortress Museum Home of an example of a Mark III Centurion Tank
- Dutch Cavalry Museum has 2 Centurion tanks in its collection.
- Olifant Mk1B details on Army-technology.com.
- Centurion Mk 5 and 5/1 details on Australian Mk. 5 and 5/1