Temporal range: Late Carboniferous, 307.1–305 Ma
Cephalerpeton is an extinct genus of Late Carboniferous (late Westphalian stage) protorothyridid known from Illinois. It is known from the holotype YPM 796, a partial skeleton. It was collected in the Mazon Creek site, from the Francis Creek Shale Member of the Carbondale Formation. It was first named by R. L. Moodie in 1912 as an amphibamid amphibian and the type species is Cephalerpeton ventriarmatum. It was first assigned to Protorothyrididae by Robert L. Carroll and Donald Baird in 1972 and this placement has been widely accepted.
- R. L. Moodie (1912). "The Pennsylvanic Amphibia of the Mazon Creek, Illinois, Shales". Kansas University Science Bulletin. 6 (2): 232–259.
- Robert L. Carroll and Donald Baird (1972). "Carboniferous Stem-Reptiles of the Family Romeriidae". Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 143 (5): 321–363.
- Müller, J.; Reisz, R. R. (2006). "The phylogeny of early eureptiles: comparing parsimony and Bayesian approaches in the investigation of a basal fossil clade". Systematic Biology. 55 (3): 503–511. doi:10.1080/10635150600755396. PMID 16861212.
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