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Temporal range: Late Oligocene–Early Miocene
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Suborder: Hystricomorpha
Infraorder: Hystricognathi
Parvorder: Caviomorpha
Family: Cephalomyidae
Ameghino, 1897

Cephalomyidae is an extinct family of caviomorph rodents from South America. The specific relationships of the family are uncertain, and affinities to both chinchilloid and cavioid rodents have been supported (McKenna and Bell, 1997; Vucetich et al., 1999; Kramarz, 2001, 2005). Most recently, Kramarz (2005) performed a phylogenetic analysis supporting a relationship to the Cavioidea, as represented by Eocardiidae. McKenna and Bell (1997) questioned the validity of the family, placing the cephalomyid genera then known in Dasyproctidae, but Kramarz (2001) subsequently reasserted the distinctiveness of cephalomyids.


  • Kramarz, A.G. 2001. Revision of the family Cephalomyidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha) and new cephalomyids from the early Miocene of Patagonia. Palaeovertebrata 30(1-2):51-88.
  • Kramarz, A.G. 2005. A primitive cephalomyid hystricognath rodent from the early Miocene of northern Patagonia, Argentina. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 50(2):249-258. PDF fulltext
  • McKenna, Malcolm C., and Bell, Susan K. 1997. Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. Columbia University Press, New York, 631 pp. ISBN 0-231-11013-8
  • Vucetich, M.G., Verzi, D.H., and Hartenberger, J.-L. 2001. Review and analysis of the South American Hystricognathi (Mammalia, Rodentia). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science 329(10):763-769.