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Temporal range: 227–55 Ma
Late Triassic-Eocene
Illustration of Ceratodus by Heinrich Harder
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sarcopterygii
Order: Ceratodontiformes
Family: Ceratodontidae
Genus: Ceratodus
Agassiz, 1837

C. latissimus (type)
Agassiz, 1837 Many more, see text

Ceratodus (Greek for "horned tooth") was a wide-ranging genus of extinct lungfish. Fossil evidence dates back to the Late Triassic 227 million years ago. A wide range of fossil species from different time periods have been found around the world in places such as the United States, Argentina, England, Germany, Egypt, Madagascar, China, and Australia. Ceratodus is believed to have become extinct sometime around the beginning of the Eocene Epoch. The closest living relative of Ceratodus is thought to be the Queensland lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which means "new Ceratodus" in Greek.


  • C. latissimus (type)
    Agassiz, 1837
  • C. elegans Vollrath, 1923[1][2]
  • C. eruciferus
    Cope, 1876 (nomen dubium)[3]
  • C. hieroglyphus
    Cope, 1876 (nomen dubium)
  • C. guentheri
    Marsh, 1878 (moved to Potamoceratodus in 2010 by Pardo et al.)
  • C. robustus
    Knight, 1898[4]
  • C. africanus
    Haug, 1905
  • C. humei
    Priem, 1914
  • C. szechuanensis
    Young, 1942
  • C. frazieri
    Ostrom, 1970[5]
  • C. gustasoni
    Kirkland, 1987[6]
  • C. felchi
    Kirkland, 1987 (moved to C. guentheri by Kirkland 1998)
  • C. fossanovum
    Kirkland, 1998[7]
  • C. stewarti
    Milner and Kirkland, 2006[8]
  • C. texanus
    Parris et al., 2014[9]
  • C. carteri
    Main et al., 2014[10]
  • C. kranzi
    Frederickson et al., 2016[11]
  • C. kirklandi
    Frederickson & Cifelli, 2016[12]
  • C. molossus
    Frederickson & Cifelli, 2016
  • C. kempae
    Frederickson & Cifelli, 2016
  • C. nirumbee
    Frederickson & Cifelli, 2016



  1. ^ Ceratodus elegans n. sp. aus dem Stubensandstein. P Vollrath, Jahresberichte und Mitteilungen des Oberrheinischen …, 1923
  2. ^ elegans Vollrath 1923 (lungfish) at fossilworks.org
  3. ^ Cope E.D. (1876) Descriptions of some vertebrate remains from the Fort Union beds of Montana. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, v. 1876, p. 248–261.
  4. ^ Knight W.C. (1898) Some new Jurassic vertebrates from Wyoming: American. Journal of Science, ser. 4, v. 5, p. 186.
  5. ^ Ostrom J.H. (1970) Stratigraphy and paleontology of the Cloverly Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of the Bighorn Basin area, Montana and Wyoming: Peabody Museum of Natural History Bulletin, v. 35, 234 p.
  6. ^ Kirkland J.I. (1987) Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous lungfish tooth plates from the Western Interior, the last dipnoan faunas of North America. Hunteria, v. 2, p. 1–16.
  7. ^ Kirkland J.I. (1998) Morrison fishes. Modern Geology, v. 22, p. 503–533.
  8. ^ Milner A.C., and Kirkland J.I. (2006). Preliminary review of the Early Jurassic (Hettangian) freshwater Lake Dixie fish fauna in the Whitmore Point Member, Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin, v. 37, p. 510–521.
  9. ^ Parris D.C., Grandstaff B.S., and Banks N.T. (2011). Lungfishes from the Trinity Grop (Cretaceous) of North Texas. Texas Journal of Science, 63.
  10. ^ Main D.J., Parris D.C., Grandstaff B.S., and Carter B. (2014). A new lungfish (Dipnoi: Ceratodontidae) from the Cretaceous Woodbine Formation, Arlington Archosaur Site, north Texas. Texas Journal of Science, v. 63, p. 283–298.
  11. ^ Frederickson J.A., Lipka T. R., and Cifelli R.L. (2016). A new species of the lungfish Ceratodus (Dipnoi) from the Early Cretaceous of the eastern U.S.A. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Online edition: e1136316. doi:10.1080/02724634.2016.1136316.
  12. ^ Frederickson J.A. and Cifelli R.L. (2016) New Cretaceous lungfishes (Dipnoi, Ceratodontidae) from western North America. Journal of Paleontology.