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Certified information systems security professional

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CISSP (Certified Information Systems Security Professional) is an independent information security certification granted by the International Information System Security Certification Consortium, also known as ISC2.

As of July, 2022, there were 156,054 ISC2 members holding the CISSP certification worldwide.[1]

In June 2004, the CISSP designation was accredited under the ANSI ISO/IEC Standard 17024:2003.[2][3] It is also formally approved by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in their Information Assurance Technical (IAT), Managerial (IAM), and System Architect and Engineer (IASAE) categories for their DoDD 8570 certification requirement.[4]

In May 2020, The UK National Academic Recognition Information Centre assessed the CISSP qualification as a Level 7 award, the same level as a Masters degree.[5][6] The change enables cyber security professionals to use the CISSP certification towards further higher education course credits and also opens up opportunities for roles that require or recognize master's degrees.[5]


In the mid-1980s, a need arose for a standardized, vendor-neutral certification program that provided structure and demonstrated competence. In November 1988, the Special Interest Group for Computer Security (SIG-CS), a member of the Data Processing Management Association (DPMA), brought together several organizations interested in this goal. The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium or "ISC2" formed in mid-1989 as a non-profit organization.[7]

By 1990, the first working committee to establish a Common Body of Knowledge (CBK) had been formed. The first version of the CBK was finalized by 1992, and the CISSP credential was launched by 1994.[8]

In 2003 the CISSP was adopted as a baseline for the U.S. National Security Agency's ISSEP program.[9]

Certification subject matter[edit]

The CISSP curriculum breaks the subject matter down into a variety of Information Security topics referred to as domains.[10] The CISSP examination is based on what ISC2 terms the Common Body of Knowledge (or CBK). According to ISC2, "the CISSP CBK is a taxonomy – a collection of topics relevant to information security professionals around the world. The CISSP CBK establishes a common framework of information security terms and principles that allow information security professionals worldwide to discuss, debate and resolve matters pertaining to the profession with a common understanding."[11]

On April 15, 2024, a refreshed exam outline applies. The updates are the result of the Job Task Analysis (JTA), which is an analysis of the current content of the credential evaluated by ISC2 members on a triennial cycle.[12] The impact of the change is limited to the weighting of the domains; the domains themselves did not change.[13]

On 1st May 2021 there was a domain refresh that impacted the weighting of the domains; the domains themselves did not change.[14]

From 15 April 2018, the eight domains covered are :[15]

  1. Security and risk management
  2. Asset security
  3. Security architecture and engineering
  4. Communication and network security
  5. Identity and access management (IAM)
  6. Security assessment and testing
  7. Security operations
  8. Software development security

From 2015 to early 2018, the CISSP curriculum was divided into eight domains similar to the latest curriculum above. The only domain to have changed its name was "Security Engineering," which in the 2018 revision was expanded to "Security Architecture and Engineering."[16]

Before 2015, it covered ten domains:[17]

  1. Operations security
  2. Telecommunications and network security
  3. Information security governance and risk management
  4. Software development security
  5. Cryptography
  6. Security architecture and design
  7. Access control
  8. Business continuity and disaster recovery planning
  9. Legal, regulations, investigations and compliance
  10. Physical (environmental) security


  • Possess a minimum of five years of direct full-time security work experience in two or more of the ISC2 information security domains (CBK). One year may be waived for having either a four-year college degree, a master's degree in Information Security, or for possessing one of a number of other certifications.[18] A candidate without the five years of experience may earn the Associate of ISC2 designation by passing the required CISSP examination, valid for a maximum of six years. During those six years a candidate will need to obtain the required experience and submit the required endorsement form for certification as a CISSP. Upon completion of the professional experience requirements the certification will be converted to CISSP status.[19]
  • Attest to the truth of their assertions regarding professional experience and accept the CISSP Code of Ethics.[20]
  • Answer questions regarding criminal history and related background.[21]
  • Pass the multiple choice CISSP exam (four hours, up to 175 questions, in an adaptive exam) with a scaled score of 700 points or greater out of 1000 possible points, you must achieve a pass in all eight domains.[21]
  • Have their qualifications endorsed by another ISC2 certification holder in good standing.[22]

Member counts[edit]

Number of CISSP members as of July, 2022 is 156,054.[1]

Top 15 countries by CISSP Member Counts as at July 2022
# Country (Top 15) Count
1 United States 95,243
2 United Kingdom 8,486
3 Canada 6,842
4 China 4,136
5 Japan 3,699
6 India 3,364
7 Australia 3,305
8 The Netherlands 2,983
9 Singapore 2,963
10 Germany 2,856
11 Korea 2,090
12 Hong Kong 1,968
13 France 1,277
14 Switzerland 1,127
15 Spain 847


Holders of CISSP certifications can earn additional certifications in areas of speciality. There are three possibilities of the concentrations as listed below.[23]

Information Systems Security Architecture Professional (CISSP-ISSAP)[edit]

It is an advanced information security certification issued by (ISC)² that focuses on the architecture aspects of information security. The certification exam consists of 125 questions covering six domain areas:

  1. Identity and Access Management Architecture
  2. Security Operations Architecture
  3. Infrastructure Security
  4. Architect for Governance, Compliance, and Risk Management
  5. Security Architecture Modeling
  6. Architect for Application Security

As of July, 2022, there were 2,307 ISC2 members holding the CISSP-ISSAP certification worldwide.[1]

Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (CISSP-ISSEP)[edit]

It is an advanced information security certification issued by (ISC)² that focuses on the engineering aspects of information security across the systems development life cycle.[24] In October 2014 it was announced that some of its curricula would be made available to the public by the United States Department of Homeland Security through its National Initiative for Cybersecurity Careers and Studies program.[25] Both ZDNet and Network World have named ISSEP one of tech’s most valuable certifications.[26][27] The certification exam consists of 125 questions covering 5 domain area:

  1. Security Engineering Principles
  2. Risk Management
  3. Security Planning, Design, and Implementation
  4. Secure Operations, Maintenance, and Disposal
  5. Secure Engineering Technical Management

As of July, 2022, there were 1,382 ISC2 members holding the CISSP-ISSEP certification worldwide. [1]

Information Systems Security Management Professional (CISSP-ISSMP)[edit]

It is an advanced information security certification issued by (ISC)²[28] that focuses on the management aspects of information security.[24] In September 2014, Computerworld rated ISSMP one of the top ten most valuable certifications in all of tech.[29] The certification exam consists of 125 questions covering 6 domain areas:

  1. Leadership and Business Management
  2. Systems Lifecycle Management
  3. Risk Management
  4. Threat Intelligence and Incident Management
  5. Contingency Management
  6. Law, Ethics, and Security Compliance Management

As of July, 2022, there were 1,458 ISC2 members holding the CISSP-ISSMP certification worldwide. [1]

Fees and ongoing certification[edit]

The standard exam costs $749 US as of 2021.[30] On completion of the exam, to gain certification you need to complete an endorsement process to evidence at least five years experience within a mix of the domains. A dispensation can be claimed for one year with the relevant academic qualification. The final step is payment of the annual maintenance fee of $135 (as of 2024).

The CISSP credential is valid for three years; holders renew either by submitting 40 Continuing Professional Education (CPE) credits per year over three years or re-taking the exam.

CPE credits are gained by completing relevant professional education.


In 2005, Certification Magazine surveyed 35,167 IT professionals in 170 countries on compensation and found that CISSPs led their list of certificates ranked by salary. A 2006 Certification Magazine salary survey also ranked the CISSP credential highly, and ranked CISSP concentration certifications as the top best-paid credentials in IT.[31][32]

In 2008, another study came to the conclusion that IT professionals in the Americas holding the CISSP (or other major security certifications) and at least 5 years of experience had salaries of up to 26% higher than IT professionals with similar experience levels who did not have such certificates.[33] Note that any actual cause-and-effect relationship between the certificate and salaries remains unproven.[citation needed]

As of 2017, a study by CyberSecurityDegrees.com surveyed some 10,000 current and historical cyber security job listings that preferred candidates holding CISSP certifications. CyberSecurityDegrees found that these job openings offered an average salary of more than the average cyber security salary.[34]

ANSI certifies that CISSP meets the requirements of ANSI/ISO/IEC Standard 17024, a personnel certification accreditation program.[2]

See also[edit]

  • CISM (Certified Information Security Manager)


  1. ^ a b c d e "Member Counts | How Many (ISC)² Members Are There Per Certification | (ISC)²". www.isc2.org. Archived from the original on 2023-03-16. Retrieved 2023-03-16.
  2. ^ a b ANSI Accreditation Services - International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, Inc. (ISC)2 Archived July 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ANSI
  3. ^ "(ISC)² CISSP Security Credential Earns ISO/IEC 17024 Re-accreditation from ANSI" (Press release). Palm Harbor, FL: (ISC)². September 26, 2005. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved November 23, 2009.
  4. ^ "DoD 8570.01-M Information Assurance Workforce Improvement Program" (PDF). United States Department of Defense. January 24, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 10, 2007. Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  5. ^ a b Coker, James (2020-05-12). "CISSP Qualification Given Cert Status Equivalent to Master's Degree Level". Infosecurity Magazine. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  6. ^ GmbH, finanzen net. "(ISC)2 CISSP Certification Now Comparable to Masters Degree Standard | Markets Insider". markets.businessinsider.com. Retrieved 2020-07-15.
  7. ^ Harris, Shon (2010). All-In-One CISSP Exam Guide (5 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-07-160217-4.
  8. ^ History of (ISC)² Archived 2017-02-04 at the Wayback Machine. (ISC)²
  9. ^ "NSA Partners With (ISC)² To Create New InfoSec Certification". February 27, 2003. Archived from the original on September 29, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  10. ^ Conrad; Misenar; Feldman (7 November 2013). 11th Hour CISSP. Syngress. ISBN 978-0-12-417142-8.
  11. ^ Tipton; Henry (2006-11-14). Official (ISC)² Guide to the CISSP CBK. Auerbach Publications. ISBN 0-8493-8231-9.
  12. ^ "CISSP Exam Refresh FAQ". www.isc2.org. Retrieved 2024-01-31.
  13. ^ "Changes to the CISSP Exam Weighting – What You Need to Know". www.isc2.org. Retrieved 2024-01-31.
  14. ^ "Cybersecurity Certification| CISSP - Domain Refresh FAQ| (ISC)²". www.isc2.org. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
  15. ^ "CISSP Certification Exam Outline". Retrieved 6 Mar 2023.
  16. ^ "(ISC)² CISSP and SSCP Domain Refresh FAQ". (ISC)². Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  17. ^ "CISSP Training (On-Demand)". 2014-10-15. Archived from the original on 2014-10-15. Retrieved 2020-12-30.
  18. ^ "CISSP Professional Experience Requirement". (ISC)². 2009. Archived from the original on March 21, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  19. ^ "How to Become an Associate". (ISC)². 2009. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved November 23, 2009.
  20. ^ "(ISC)² Code of Ethics". (ISC)². 2009. Archived from the original on June 6, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  21. ^ a b "How To Certify". (ISC)². 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2008.
  22. ^ "Endorsement". (ISC)². 2009. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  23. ^ "CISSP® Concentrations". (ISC)². Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  24. ^ a b "Finding your way: An overview of information security industry qualifications and associations". Infosecurity Magazine. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  25. ^ Seals, Tara (10 October 2014). "(ISC)² Offers Certification Via DHS". Infosecurity Magazine. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  26. ^ "20 technology certifications that are paying off". ZDNET. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  27. ^ "Network World (Dec 2013): 18 Hot IT Certifications for 2014". Archived from the original on 19 September 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  28. ^ "GCN: DOD approves new credentials for security professionals". Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  29. ^ Thibodeau, Patrick (29 September 2014). "IT skills that are in demand, and those that will be". Computerworld. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  30. ^ "exam prices". (ISP)^2. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
  31. ^ Certification Magazine (2007-04-11). "Top Certifications by Salary in 2007". Certification Magazine. Archived from the original on 2007-03-29. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  32. ^ Sosbe, Tim; Hollis, Emily; Summerfield, Brian; McLean, Cari (December 2005). "CertMag's 2005 Salary Survey: Monitoring Your Net Worth". Certification Magazine. CertMag. Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. Retrieved 2007-04-27.
  33. ^ Brodkin, Jon (2008-06-11). Salary boost for getting CISSP, related certs. Network World, IDG, 11 June 2008. Retrieved from https://www.networkworld.com/article/807166/lan-wan-salary-boost-for-getting-cissp-related-certs.html.
  34. ^ CyberSecurityDegrees.com's Study of the Most Lucrative Cyber Security Certifications. Cyber Security Degrees. Retrieved from https://cybersecuritydegrees.com/faq/most-popular-cyber-security-professional-certifications/.

External links[edit]