Cerulenin

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Cerulenin
Cerulenin.svg
Names
IUPAC name
(2R,​3S)-​3-​[(4E,​7E)-​nona-​4,​7-​dienoyl]​oxirane-​2-​carboxamide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.037.643
KEGG
Properties
C12H17NO3
Molar mass 223.2695
Density 1.135 g/mL
Boiling point 456.14 °C (853.05 °F; 729.29 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Cerulenin is an antifungal antibiotic that inhibits fatty acid and steroid biosynthesis. In fatty acid synthesis, it has been reported to bind in equimolar ratio to b-keto-acyl-ACP synthase, one of the seven moieties of fatty acid synthase, blocking the interaction of malonyl-CoA. It also has the related activity of stimulating fatty acid oxidation through the activation of CPT1, another enzyme normally inhibited by malonyl-CoA. Inhibition involves covalent thioacylation that permanently inactivates the enzymes.[1] These two behaviors may increase the availability of energy in the form of ATP, perhaps sensed by AMPK, in the hypothalamus.[2]

In sterol synthesis, cerulenin inhibits HMG-CoA synthetase activity.[3] It was also reported that cerulenin specifically inhibited fatty acid biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae without having an effect on sterol formation.[3] But in general conclusion, cerulenin has inhibitory effects on sterol synthesis.

Cerulenin causes a dose-dependent decrease in HER2/neu protein levels in breast cancer cells, from 14% at 1.25 to 78% at 10 milligrams per liter, and targeting of fatty acid synthase by related drugs has been suggested as a possible treatment.[4] Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects have been shown in colon cells as well.[5] At an intraperitoneal dose of 30 milligrams per kilogram, it has been shown to inhibit feeding and induce dramatic weight loss in mice by a mechanism similar to, but independent or downstream of, leptin signaling.[6] It is found naturally in the industrial strain Cephalosporium caerulens (Sarocladium oryzae, the sheath rot pathogen of rice).

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Straub SG, Yajima H, Komatsu M, Aizawa T, Sharp GW (February 2002). "The effects of cerulenin, an inhibitor of protein acylation, on the two phases of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion". Diabetes. 51 Suppl 1 (90001): S91–5. PMID 11815464. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.2007.S91. 
  2. ^ Reviewed in Ronnett GV, Kleman AM, Kim EK, Landree LE, Tu Y (August 2006). "Fatty acid metabolism, the central nervous system, and feeding". Obesity (Silver Spring). 14 Suppl 5: 201S–207S. PMID 17021367. doi:10.1038/oby.2006.309. 
  3. ^ a b Ohno T, Awaya J, Kesado T, Nomura S, Omura S (October 1974). "Mechanism of Action of CM-55, a Synthetic Analogue of the Antilipogenic Antibiotic Cerulenin". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 6 (4): 387–92. PMC 444657Freely accessible. PMID 4157441. doi:10.1128/aac.6.4.387. 
  4. ^ Menendez JA, Vellon L, Mehmi I, et al. (July 2004). "Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) suppresses HER2/neu (erbB-2) oncogene overexpression in cancer cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (29): 10715–20. PMC 490000Freely accessible. PMID 15235125. doi:10.1073/pnas.0403390101. 
  5. ^ Huang P, Zhu S, Lu S, Dai Z, Jin Y (April 2000). "[An experimental study on cerulenin induced apoptosis of human colonic cancer cells]". Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi (in Chinese). 29 (2): 115–8. PMID 11866903. 
  6. ^ Ghosh MK, Amudha R, Jayachandran S, Sakthivel N (2002). "Detection and quantification of phytotoxic metabolites of Sarocladium oryzae in sheath rot-infected grains of rice". Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34 (6): 398–401. PMID 12028418. doi:10.1046/j.1472-765X.2002.01111.x.