|Born||Ezechia Marco Lombroso
6 November 1835
|Died||19 October 1909
Turin, Kingdom of Italy
|Known for||Italian school of positivist criminology|
Cesare Lombroso (Italian pronunciation: [ˈtʃeːzare lomˈbroːzo; -oːso]; born Ezechia Marco Lombroso; 6 November 1835 –19 October 1909), was an Italian criminologist and physician, founder of the Italian School of Positivist Criminology, often referred to as the father of criminology. Lombroso rejected the established classical school, which held that crime was a characteristic trait of human nature. Instead, using concepts drawn from physiognomy, degeneration theory, psychiatry and Social Darwinism, Lombroso's theory of anthropological criminology essentially stated that criminality was inherited, and that someone "born criminal" could be identified by physical (congenital) defects, which confirmed a criminal as savage or atavistic.
Lombroso was born in Verona, Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia, on 6 November 1835 to a wealthy Jewish family. His father was Aronne Lombroso, a tradesman from Verona, and his mother was Zeffora (or Zefira) Levi from Chieri near Turin. He studied literature, linguistics, and archæology at the universities of Padua, Vienna, and Paris, but changed his plans and became an army surgeon in 1859. In 1866 he was appointed visiting lecturer at Pavia, and later took charge of the insane asylum at Pesaro in 1871. He became professor of forensic medicine and hygiene at Turin in 1878. That year he wrote his most important and influential work, L'uomo delinquente, which went through five editions in Italian and was published in various European languages. However, it was not until 1900 that his work was published in English. Lombroso later became professor of psychiatry (1896) and criminal anthropology (1906) at the same university. He died in Turin in 1909.
Concept of criminal atavism
Lombroso's general theory suggested that criminals are distinguished from noncriminals by multiple physical anomalies. He postulated that criminals represented a reversion to a primitive or subhuman type of man characterized by physical features reminiscent of apes, lower primates, and early man and to some extent preserved, he said, in modern "savages". The behavior of these biological "throwbacks" will inevitably be contrary to the rules and expectations of modern civilized society.
Through years of postmortem examinations and anthropometric studies of criminals, the insane, and normal individuals, Lombroso became convinced that the "born criminal" (reo nato, a term given by Ferri) could be anatomically identified by such items as a sloping forehead, ears of unusual size, asymmetry of the face, prognathism, excessive length of arms, asymmetry of the cranium, and other "physical stigmata". Specific criminals, such as thieves, rapists, and murderers, could be distinguished by specific characteristics, he believed. Lombroso also maintained that criminals had less sensibility to pain and touch; more acute sight; a lack of moral sense, including an absence of remorse; more vanity, impulsiveness, vindictiveness, and cruelty; and other manifestations, such as a special criminal argot and the excessive use of tattooing.
Besides the "born criminal", Lombroso also described "criminaloids", or occasional criminals, criminals by passion, moral imbeciles, and criminal epileptics. He recognized the diminished role of organic factors in many habitual offenders and referred to the delicate balance between predisposing factors (organic, genetic) and precipitating factors such as one's environment, opportunity, or poverty.
In Criminal Woman, as introduced in an English translation by Nicole Hahn Rafter and Mary Gibson, Lombroso used his theory of atavism to explain women's criminal offending. In the text, Lombroso outlines a comparative analysis of "normal women" opposed to "criminal women" such as "the prostitute." However, Lombroso's "obdurate beliefs" about women presented an "intractable problem" for this theory: "Because he was convinced that women are inferior to men Lombroso was unable to argue, based on his theory of the born criminal, that women’s lesser involvement in crime reflected their comparatively lower levels of atavism."
Lombroso's research methods were clinical and descriptive, with precise details of skull dimension and other measurements. He did not engage in rigorous statistical comparisons of criminals and non-criminals. Although he gave some recognition in his later years to psychological and sociological factors in the etiology of crime, he remained convinced of, and identified with, criminal anthropometry.
Lombroso's theories were disapproved throughout Europe, especially in schools of medicine, but not in the United States, where sociological studies of crime and the criminal predominated. His notions of physical differentiation between criminals and non-criminals were seriously challenged by Charles Goring (The English Convict, 1913), who made elaborate comparisons and found insignificant statistical differences.
Lombroso published The Man of Genius in 1889, a book which argued that artistic genius was a form of hereditary insanity. In order to support this assertion, he began assembling a large collection of "psychiatric art". He published an article on the subject in 1880 in which he isolated thirteen typical features of the "art of the insane." Although his criteria are generally regarded as outdated today, his work inspired later writers on the subject, particularly Hans Prinzhorn.
Later in his life Lombroso began investigating mediumship. Although originally skeptical, he later became a believer in spiritualism. As an atheist Lombroso discusses his views on the paranormal and spiritualism in his book After Death – What? (1909) which he believed the existence of spirits and claimed the medium Eusapia Palladino was genuine. In the British Medical Journal on November 9, 1895 an article was published titled Exit Eusapia!. The article questioned the scientific legitimacy of the Society for Psychical Research for investigating Palladino a medium who had a reputation of being a fraud and imposture and was surprised that Lombroso had been deceived by Palladino.
The anthropologist Edward Clodd wrote "[Lombroso] swallowed the lot at a gulp, from table raps to materialisation of the departed, spirit photographs and spirit voices; every story, old or new, alike from savage and civilised sources, confirming his will to believe." Lombroso's daughter Gina Ferrero wrote that during the later years of his life Lombroso suffered from arteriosclerosis and his mental and physical health was wrecked. The skeptic Joseph McCabe wrote that because of this it was not surprising that Palladino managed to fool Lombroso into believing spiritualism by her tricks.
Historian Daniel Pick argues that Lombroso serves "as a curious footnote to late-nineteenth-century literary studies," due to his referencing in famous books of the time. Jacques in Émile Zola's The Beast Within is described as having a jaw that juts forward on the bottom. It is emphasized especially at the end of the book when he is overwhelmed by the desire to kill. The anarchist Karl Yundt in Joseph Conrad's The Secret Agent, delivers a speech denouncing Lombroso. The assistant prosecutor in Leo Tolstoy's Resurrection uses Lombroso's theories to accuse Maslova of being a congenital criminal. In Bram Stoker's Dracula, Count Dracula is described as having a physical appearance Lombroso would describe as criminal.
- 1859 Ricerche sul cretinismo in Lombardia
- 1864 Genio e follia
- 1865 Studi clinici sulle mallatie mentali
- 1871 L'uomo bianco e l'uomo di colore
- 1873 Sulla microcefala e sul cretinismo con applicazione alla medicina legale
- 1876 L'uomo delinquente
- 1879 Considerazioni al processo Passannante
- 1881 L'amore nel suicidio e nel delitto
- 1888 L'uomo di genio in rapporto alla psichiatria (English translation: Man of Genius, London, 1891; see below)
- 1890 Sulla medicina legale del cadavere (second edition)
- 1891 Palimsesti del carcere
- 1892 Trattato della pellagra
- 1894 Le più recenti scoperte ed applicazioni della psichiatria ed antropologia criminale
- 1894 Gli anarchici
- 1894 L'antisemitismo e le scienze moderne
- 1897 Genio e degenerazione
- 1898 Les Conquêtes récentes de la psychiatrie
- 1899 Le crime; causes et remédes (English translation: Crime, its Causes and Remedies, Boston, 1911; see below)
- 1900 Lezioni de medicina legale
- 1902 Delitti vecchi e delitti nuovi
- 1909 Ricerche sui fenomeni ipnotici e spiritici
In 1906, a collection of papers on Lombroso was published in Turin under the title L'opera di Cesare Lombroso nella scienza e nelle sue applicazioni.
in English translation
- 1888/1891 The Man of Genius, Walter Scott.
- 1895/1980 (with William Ferrero) The Female Offender, D. Appleton & Company. Littleton, Colorado: Fred Rothman.
- 2004. ''Criminal Woman, the Prostitute, and the Normal Woman. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. (Introduction by Nicole Hahn Rafter and Mary Gibson).
- 1899/1911 Crime: Its Causes and Remedies, Little, Brown, and Company.
- ?1909/? After Death - What?, Small, Maynard & Company.
- 1911/1972 (with Gina Lombroso-Ferrero) Criminal Man, According to the Classification of Cesare Lombroso. New York: Putnam; Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith.
- 2004 The Criminal Anthropological Writings of Cesare Lombroso, Edwin Mellen Press.
- "Illustrative Studies in Criminal Anthropology," The Monist, Vol. I, No. 2, 1890.
- "The Physiognomy of the Anarchists," The Monist, Vol. I, No. 3, 1890.
- "Innovation and Inertia in the World of Psychology," The Monist, Vol. I, No. 3, 1890.
- "The Modern Literature of Italy Since the Year 1870," The Monist, Vol. I, No. 3, 1890.
- "Criminal Anthropology Applied to Pedagogy," The Monist, Vol. VI, No. 1, October 1895.
- "The Heredity of Acquired Characteristics," The Forum, Vol. XXIV, 1898.
- "Was Columbus Morally Irresponsible?," The Forum, Vol. XXVII, 1899.
- "Why Criminals of Genius Have No Type," The International Quarterly, Vol. VI, 1902.
- Arthur MacDonald, Criminology, with an Introduction by Cesare Lombroso, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1893.
- August Drahms, The Criminal, with an Introduction by Cesare Lombroso, The Macmillan Company, 1900.
- Alexandre Lacassagne
- Anthropological criminology
- Family studies in eugenics
- Heart of a Dog, a Soviet film based on Lombroso's concepts.
- "Lombroso, Cesare" in the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (1968).
- "Cesare Lombroso, A Brief Biography", Brain and Mind (1997).
- "Cesare Lombroso, the Inventor of Criminal Anthropology", Museo Criminologico, Italian Ministry of Justice, Department of Penitentiary Administration
- "The Cesare Lombroso Museum", Museo Criminologico, Italian Ministry of Justice, Department of Penitentiary Administration
- Courtney Kenny, "The Death of Lombroso," Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1910).
- Rafter, Nicole Hahn (2004). Criminal Woman. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
- Gartner, Rosemary (September–October 2004). "Book Review". Canadian Journal of Sociology Online. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Cristina Mazzoni. (1996). Saint hysteria: neurosis, mysticism, and gender in European culture. Cornell University Press. p. 34
- Andrea Rondini. (2001). Cosa da pazzi: Cesare Lombroso e la letteratura. Istituti Editoriali e Poligrafici Internazionali. p. 33
- The British Medical Journal. (Nov. 9, 1895). Exit Eusapia!. Volume. 2, No. 1819. p. 1182.
- Edward Clodd. (1917). The Question: A Brief History and Examination of Modern Spiritualism. Grant Richards, London. p. 236
- Joseph McCabe. (1920). Scientific Men and Spiritualism: A Skeptic's Analysis. The Living Age. June 12. pp. 652-657.
- Pick, Daniel (1993). Faces of degeneration : a Europeam disorder, c. 1848-c. 1918 (1st pbk. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0521457538.
- Gould, Stephen Jay (2008). The mismeasure of man (Rev. and expanded, with a new introduction. ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 122–3. ISBN 0393314251.
- Philip Kerr, A Philosophical Investigation, Chatto & Windus, 1992.
- Michael Schwab, "A Convicted Anarchist's Reply to Professor Lombroso," The Monist, Vol. I, 1890.
- Albrecht, Adalbert (1910). "Cesare Lombroso". Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology I (2): 71. doi:10.2307/1133036.
- Bianchi, A. G. (11 Feb 1922). Cesare Lombroso — A Life of Service. The Living Age.
- Bradley, Kate (2009). "Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909)". Fifty Key Thinkers in Criminology (Routledge).
- Chiò, A.; et al. (2004). "Cesare Lombroso, Cortical Dysplasia, and Epilepsy: Keen Findings and Odd Theories". Neurology 63 (1): 194. doi:10.1212/wnl.63.1.194-a.
- Fleming, Rebecca B. (2000). "Scanty Goatees and Palmar Tatoos: Cesare Lombroso's Influence on Science and Popular Opinion" (PDF). The Concord Review.
- Gaakeer, Jeanne (2005). "The Art to Find the Mind's Construction in the Face, Lombroso's Criminal Anthropology and Literature: The Example of Zola, Dostoevsky and Tolstoy". Cardozo Law Review 26 (6).
- Gatti, Uberto; Verde, Alfredo (2012). "Cesare Lombroso: Methodological Ambiguities and Brilliant Intuitions". International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1016/j.ijlp.2011.11.004.
- Gibson, Mary (2002). Born to Crime: Cesare Lombroso and the Origins of Biological Criminology. Praeger.
- Gould, Stephen J. (1996). The Mismeasure of Man. W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-31425-1.
- Hill, John S. (1970). "The Influence of Cesare Lombroso on Frank Norris's Early Fiction". American Literature 42 (1): 89. doi:10.2307/2924383.
- Horn, David G. (2003). The Criminal Body: Lombroso and the Anatomy of Deviance. Routledge.
- Jacobs, Robert G. (1968). "Comrade Ossipon's Favorite Saint: Lombroso and Conrad". Nineteenth-Century Fiction 23 (1): 74–84. doi:10.2307/2932318.
- Kenny, Courtney Stanhope (1910). "The Death of Lombroso". Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation (New Series) 10 (2).
- Knepper, Paul; Ystehede, P. J. (2012). The Cesare Lombroso Handbook. Routledge.
- Kurella, Hans (1911). "Cesare Lombroso: A Modern Man of Science". Rebman Company.
- Kushner, Howard I (2011). "Cesare Lombroso and the Pathology of Left-handedness". The Lancet.
- Kushner, Howard I. (2012). "Deficit or Creativity: Cesare Lombroso, Robert Hertz, and the Meanings of Left-handedness". Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition 18: 416–436. doi:10.1080/1357650x.2012.697171.
- Mannheim, Hermann (1960). Pioneers in Criminology. Stevens & Sons.
- Rafter, Nicole Hahn and Mary Gibson. (2004). Introduction to Criminal Woman (English translation). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
- Past, Elena (2012). Methods of Murder: Beccarian Introspection and Lombrosian Vivisection in Italian Crime Fiction. University of Toronto Press.
- Quirós, Constancio Bernaldo de (1912). "Cesare Lombroso, 1836-1909". Modern Theories of Criminality (Little, Brown & Company).
- Wolfgang, Marvin E. (1961). "Pioneers in Criminology: Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909)". The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science 52 (4): 361. doi:10.2307/1141263.
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- Works by Cesare Lombroso at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Cesare Lombroso at Internet Archive
- Works by Cesare Lombroso at JSTOR
- Works by Cesare Lombroso at Unz.org
- Works by Cesare Lombroso at Hathi Trust
- Anthropological Criminology North Carolina Wesleyan College
- History of profiling North Carolina Wesleyan College
- Lombroso, Cesare: Jewish Encyclopedia
- References to Cesare Lombroso in European newspapers at The European Library
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lombroso, Cesare". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.