Cessna 208 Caravan
|Cessna 208 Caravan|
|Role||Light transport turboprop|
|First flight||August 8, 1982|
|Primary user||FedEx Feeder|
|Number built||nearly 2,500|
US$2,022,450 (Base price, Caravan 675, 2011 price)
|Variants||Soloy Pathfinder 21|
The Cessna 208 Caravan is a single-engined turboprop, fixed-tricycle landing gear, short-haul regional airliner and utility aircraft that is built in the United States by Cessna. The airplane typically seats nine passengers with a single pilot, although with a FAR Part 23 waiver it can seat up to fourteen passengers. The aircraft is also used for cargo feederliner operations.
Design and development
The prototype first flew in December 1982. The production model was certified by the FAA in October 1984. Since then, the Caravan has undergone a number of design evolutions. Working with FedEx, Cessna produced first the Cargomaster and followed that with the stretched and upgraded Super Cargomaster. The passenger model, the Grand Caravan, was derived from the Super Cargomaster. In January 2013 a higher-powered (867 shp from P&WC PT6A-140) version, the Grand Caravan EX, received FAA certification. This higher-powered version will be produced by a Cessna-AVIC joint venture in China.
Cessna offers the 208B in many configurations. The basic 208 airframe can be outfitted with various types of landing gear, allowing it to operate in a wide variety of environments. Some common adaptations include skis, enlarged tires for unprepared runways and floats on the Caravan Amphibian model.
The Caravan interior can be outfitted with seats or cargo holds. The standard high-density airline configuration features four rows of 1-2 seating behind the two seats in the cockpit. This variant is capable of holding up to thirteen passengers, although it is marketed as being able to make a profit carrying just four. The cabin can be configured in a low density passenger configuration, with 1-1 seating, as a combination of passengers and cargo, or as a strictly cargo aircraft. Many variants include an underbelly cargo pod, which can be used for additional freight capacity, or for passenger baggage. A number of Caravans are operated as skydiving aircraft with the left-side cargo hatch converted to a roll-up door.
In May 2012 Cessna announced that an assembly line for the 208 would be established in the People's Republic of China. The government-owned China Aviation Industry General Aircraft (CAIGA) will conduct final assembly of Caravans at its plant in Shijiazhuang for the Chinese market.
- 208A Caravan I
- The basic introductory model, outfitted for passenger operation.
- 208A Caravan 675
- The current production model of the basic Caravan, with higher-powered PT6A-114A engine.
- 208A Cargomaster
- Developed with FedEx, a pure-cargo version of the Caravan. Fedex purchased 40 of this model.
- 208B Grand Caravan
- A 4 feet (1.2 m) stretch of the Caravan I. The 208B features a more powerful PT6A-114A engine.
- 208B Grand Caravan EX
- Model certified in January 2013 powered by a 867 hp (647 kW) Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-140 that improves climb by 38%. The model is aimed at float operators and will compete with aftermarket conversions.
- 208B Super Cargomaster
- The cargo variant of the 208B series. FedEx purchased 260 of this model.
- Caravan Amphibian
- A 208A Caravan with Wipaire 8000 floats in place of the landing gear, for water landings or land operations.
- Soloy Pathfinder 21
- A twin-engined stretch of the 208 that was developed by the Soloy Corporation. This aircraft features two PT6D-114A engines driving a single propeller and a 70-inch (1,800 mm) fuselage stretch behind the wing.
- 850 Caravan
- 208A with an 850 hp (634 kW) Honeywell TPE331-12JR-701S engine, installed by Aero Twin Inc.
- 950 Grand Caravan
- 208B with a 1,000 hp (746 kW) Honeywell TPE331-12JR-704AT engine, installed by Aero Twin Inc.
- Blackhawk Caravan
- 208A and 208B conversion to 850 hp (634 kW) PT-6A-42A.
- Supervan 900
- 208B with a 850 hp (634 kW) (900 hp (671 kW) flat-rated) Honeywell TPE331-12JR engine, installed by Texas Turbine
- XP42A Upgrade
- 208B with an 850 hp (634 kW) Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-42A engine, installed by Blackhawk
- A military offering of the 208A.
- The Brazilian Air Force designation for the standard U-27.
- The proposed United States Army designation.
- AC-208 "Combat Caravan"
- An ISTAR version built by ATK armed with Hellfire missiles is used by the Iraqi air force. The AC-208 received its combat debut in January 2014 when the Iraqi Air Force began employing it against insurgents in Anbar province.
- The Lebanese Air Force requested a new AC-208 and the conversion of the C-208 it already operates.
- Other AC-208's will be delivered to countries in the Middle East and Africa through the Foreign Military Sales program. Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Burkina Faso are possible recipients of these AC-208 Combat Caravans.
The Cessna 208 is used by governmental organisations and by a large number of companies for police, air ambulance, passenger transport, air charter, freight and parachuting operations. Fedex Feeder is the largest operator of the Cessna 208, with over 250 aircraft.
- Colombian Air Force - Operates 16 as of December 2013.
- Colombian Army
- Colombian Navy - two in operation, one awaiting delivery.
- Force Aerienne Islamique de Mauritanie received two reconnaissance-equipped Caravans on June 25, 2014.
- Uganda People's Defence Force - In March 2015, the UPDF received two military Cessna B208 Caravan from the United States Air Force for use in AMISOM duties.
Specifications (208B Grand Caravan EX)
Data from Cessna Textron
- Crew: one or two
- Capacity: nine passengers or 13 with FAR Part 23 waiver
- Length: 41 ft 7 in (12.67 m)
- Wingspan: 52 ft 1 in (15.88 m)
- Height: 15 ft 1 in (4.60 m)
- Wing area: 279 sq ft (25.9 m2)
- Aspect ratio: 9.555
- Airfoil: NACA 23000 Series
- Empty weight: 4,558 lb (2,067 kg) (weight of typically equipped unit is 2127 kg/4690 lb)
- Gross weight: 8,807 lb (3,995 kg) (maximum landing weight is 3856 kg/8500 lb.)
- Fuel capacity: 335.6 gallon/2246 lb
- Powerplant: 1 × Pratt & Whitney PT6A-140 turboprop, 868 hp (647 kW)
- Propellers: 3-bladed Hartzell Constant speed, full feathering, reversible pitch, 8.8 ft 106 in (5.37 m) diameter
- Maximum speed: 213 mph (343 km/h; 185 kn) True air speed
- Cruise speed: 213 mph (185 kn; 343 km/h) True air speed
- Stall speed: 70 mph (61 kn; 113 km/h) Calibrated air speed
- Never exceed speed: 201 mph (175 kn; 323 km/h) Indicated air speed
- Range: 1,240 mi (1,078 nmi; 1,996 km) with max fuel and reserves
- Service ceiling: 25,000 ft (7,620 m)
- Rate of climb: 1,275 ft/min (6.48 m/s)
- Wing loading: 31.49 lb/sq ft (153.7 kg/m2)
- Garmin G1000 with GFC700 integrated digital automatic flight control system
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- "Cessna marks Caravan's 30th anniversary with new standard interior". Cessna. February 2015. Retrieved April 21, 2015.
- Pia Bergqvist, Cessna Grand Caravan EX Certified, Flying Magazine, March 2013 issue, p. 14
- "Cessna Caravan. Sure Thing - Airline". Cessna Inc. Archived from the original on June 29, 2006. Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- "Skydiving aircraft in use at Netheravon, a UK dropzone". Retrieved April 5, 2010.
- "Cessna Certified to Build Caravans with Garmin G1000, TKS Ice Protection". Cessna Inc. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
- Pew, Glenn (May 7, 2012). "Cessna Caravans Final Assembly In China". AVweb. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
- Niles, Russ (January 13, 2013). "Cessna Certifies New Caravan, Starts M2 Production". AVweb. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- Caravan Amphibian
- "The Soloy Pathfinder 21". Soloy Corporation. 2000 . Retrieved July 19, 2006.
- 850 Caravan Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Thomas Horne. "Blackhawk Boost". AOPA Pilot: T-11.
- Supervan 900 Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- XP42A Upgrade Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Cenciotti, David (2014-01-10). "AC-208 Combat Caravan". The Aviationist. Retrieved 2014-03-17.
- US to deliver armed aircraft to Lebanon
- AC-208 Combat Caravan's For Africa And The Middle East
- Federal Aviation Administration (July 2010). "FAA Registry - Name Inquiry Results". Retrieved July 17, 2010.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 30.
- "La Aviación de Ejército incorporó una nueva aeronave a su flota". June 2015. Retrieved June 15, 2015.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 31.
- "Cessna 208 Caravan I - History of the Brazilian Air Force". August 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 32.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 34.
- "En guerra electrónica" (in Spanish). El Espectador. August 15, 2009.
- "Armada Nacional adquiere nuevo Cessna Grand Caravan C208 EX". Webinfomil.com. Retrieved 2013-12-11.
- Aviación Naval colombiana recibirá tercer Cessna Caravan. "Aviación Naval colombiana recibirá tercer Cessna Caravan | Avances | Noticias del Aire | El portal de la Aviación Colombiana". Aviacol.net. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 35.
- Strategy Page (February 2008). "Iraq Seeks Cessna Solution". Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 40.
- "تسلم القوات الجوية طائرة نوع Cessna caravan 208 B" (in Arabic). Lebanese Armed Forces. April 16, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2009.
- Flight International 3 December 1988, p. 60.
- Isby, David C. (August 2014). "ISR Caravans Received by Mauritania". Air International 87 (2): p. 23. ISSN 0306-5634.
- "Niger Armed Forces receive new aircraft, vehicles". DefenceWeb. Retrieved 2013-09-03.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 44.
- (12) Department of Defence (October 2007). "Republic of South Africa Air Force Aircraft". Retrieved February 13, 2008.
- Musisi, Frederic (11 March 2015). "United States To Replace Crashed UPDF Choppers". Daily Monitor (Kampala). Retrieved 16 March 2015.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 49.
- Hoyle Flight International 10–16 December 2013, p. 50.
- Yemen; AF incepts C208 Caravan reconnaissance aircraft - Dmilt.com, 26 September 2013
- Cessna Caravan website
- Hatch, Paul F (December 3, 1988). "World's Air Forces 1988". Flight International: pp. 22–87.
- "Directory: World Air Forces". Flight International: pp. 33–53. December 15–21, 2009.
- Hoyle, Craig (13–19 December 2011). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International 180 (5321): pp. 26–52.
- Hoyle, Craig (11–17 December 2012). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International 182 (5370): pp. 40–64.
- Hoyle, Craig (10–16 December 2013). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International 184 (5419): pp. 24–51.
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