|This article needs additional citations for verification. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Temporal range: 53.5–0 Ma Early Eocene – Present
|Around 88 species|
Cetacea (//), (from Latin cetus "whale" and Greek ketos "huge-fish") are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, finned, aquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant parvorders Odontoceti (toothed whales including dolphins and porpoises), Mysticeti (the baleen whales), and Archaeoceti (the ancestors of modern whales, and now extinct). There are around 89 species of cetaceans, and more than 70 belonging to Odontoceti. While cetaceans were historically thought to have descended from mesonychids, molecular evidence supports them as a relative of Artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates). Cetaceans belong to the order Cetartiodactyla (formed by combining Cetacea + Artiodactyla) and their closest living relatives are hippopotamuses and other hoofed mammals (camels, pigs, and ruminants), having diverged about 50 million years ago.
Cetaceans range in size from the 1 m (3 ft 3 in) and 50 kg (110 lb) Maui's dolphin to the 29.9 m (98 ft) and 190,000 kg (420,000 lb) blue whale, which is also the largest animal ever known to have existed. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism. They have streamlined bodies and two (external) limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not as flexible or agile as seals, cetaceans can swim very fast, with the killer whale able to travel at 56 kilometres per hour (35 mph) in short bursts and the fin whale able to cruise at 48 kilometres per hour (30 mph). The hindlimbs of cetaceans are internal, and are thought to be vestigial. Dolphins are able to make very tight turns while swimming at high speeds. Baleen whales have short hairs on their mouth, unlike the toothed whales. Cetaceans have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, and baleen whales have a tactile system in their vibrissae. Some species are well adapted for diving to great depths. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water.
Although cetaceans are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. They spend their lives in the water, having to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, like killer whales, underwater. This has drastically affected their anatomy to be able to do so. They feed largely on fish and marine invertebrates; but a few, like the killer whale, feed on large mammals and birds, such as penguins and seals. Some baleen whales (mainly gray whales and right whales) are specialised for feeding on benthic creatures. Male cetaceans typically mate with more than one female (polygyny), although the degree of polygyny varies with the species. Cetaceans are not shown to have pair bonds. Male cetacean strategies for reproductive success vary between herding females, defending potential mates from other males, or whale song which attracts mates. Calves are typically born in the fall and winter months, and females bear almost all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a relatively short period of time, which is more typical of baleen whales as their main food source (invertebrates) aren't found in their breeding and calving grounds (tropics). Cetaceans produce a number of vocalizations, notably the clicks and whistles of dolphins, the moaning songs of the humpback whale.
The meat, blubber and oil of cetaceans have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Cetaceans have been depicted in various cultures worldwide. Dolphins are commonly kept in captivity and are even sometimes trained to perform tricks and tasks, other cetaceans aren't as often kept in captivity (with usually unsuccessful attempts). Once relentlessly hunted by commercial industries for their products, cetaceans are now protected by international law. The baiji (Chinese river dolphin) has become "Possibly Extinct" in the past century, while the vaquita and Yangtze finless porpoise are ranked Critically Endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Besides hunting, cetaceans also face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, and ongoing climate change.
- 1 Baleen whales and toothed whales
- 2 Anatomy
- 3 Physiology
- 4 Ecology
- 5 Life history
- 6 Evolution
- 7 Taxonomy
- 8 Status
- 9 Relationship to humans
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Baleen whales and toothed whales
|This section does not cite any sources. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Baleen whales have bristles made of keratin instead of teeth. The bristles filter krill and other small invertebrates from seawater. Grey whales feed on bottom-dwelling mollusks. Rorqual family (balaenopterids) use throat pleats to expand their mouths to take in food and sieve out the water. Balaenids (right whales and bowhead whales) have massive heads that can make up 40% of their body mass. Most mysticetes prefer the food-rich colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, migrating to the Equator to give birth. During this process, they are capable of fasting for several months, relying on their fat reserves.
The parvorder of Odontocetes - the toothed whales - include sperm whales, beaked whales, killer whales, dolphins and porpoises. They have conical teeth designed for catching fish or squid. A few, such as the killer whale, feed on mammals, such as pinnipeds and other whales. They have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, and they have advanced sonar capabilities using their melon. Their hearing is so well-adapted for both air and water that some blind specimens can survive. Some species, such as sperm whales, are well adapted for diving to great depths. Several species of odontocetes show sexual dimorphism, in which the males differ from the females, usually for purposes of sexual display or aggression. Toothed whales feed largely on fish and marine invertebrates.
Cetacean bodies are generally similar to that of fish, which can be attributed to their lifestyle and the habitat conditions. Their body is well-adapted to their habitat, although they share essential characteristics with other higher mammals (Eutheria):
They have a streamlined shape, and their forelimbs are flippers. Almost all have a dorsal fin on their backs that can take on many forms depending on the species. A few species, such as the beluga whale, lack them. Both the flipper and the fin are for stabilization and steering in the water.
The body is wrapped in a thick layer of fat, known as blubber, used for thermal insulation and gives cetaceans their smooth, streamlined body shape. In larger species, it can reach a thickness up to half a meter (1.6 ft).
Sexual dimorphism evolved in many toothed whales. Sperm whales, narwhals, many members of the beaked whale family, several species of the porpoise family, killer whales, pilot whales, eastern spinner dolphins and northern right whale dolphins show this characteristic. Males in these species developed external features absent in females that are advantageous in combat or display. For example, male sperm whales are up to 63% percent larger than females, and many beaked whales possess tusks used in competition among males.
Whales have an elongated head, especially baleen whales, due to the wide overhanging jaw. Bowhead whale plates can be 4 metres (13 ft) long. Their nostril(s) make up the blowhole, with one in toothed whales and two in baleen whales.
The nostrils are located on top of the head above the eyes so that the rest of the body can remain submerged while surfacing for air. The back of the skull is significantly shortened and deformed. By shifting the nostrils to the top of the head, the nasal passages extend perpendicularly through the skull. The teeth or baleen in the upper jaw sit exclusively on the maxilla. The braincase is concentrated through the nasal passage to the front and is correspondingly higher, with individual cranial bones that overlap. The bony otic capsule, the petrosal, is connected to the skull with cartilage, so that it can swing independently.
In toothed whales, connective tissue exists in the melon as a head buckle. This is filled with air sacs and fat that aid in buoyancy and biosonar. The sperm whale has a particularly pronounced melon; this is called the spermaceti organ and contains the eponymous spermaceti, hence the name "sperm whale". Even the long tusk of the narwhal is a vice-formed tooth. In many toothed whales, the depression in their skull is due to the formation of a large melon and multiple, asymmetric air bags.
River dolphins, unlike most other cetaceans, can turn their head 90°. Other cetaceans have fused neck vertebrae and are unable to turn their head at all.
The neocortex of many cetaceans is home to elongated spindle neurons that, prior to 2007, were known only in hominids. In humans, these cells are involved in social conduct, emotions, judgment and theory of mind. Cetacean spindle neurons are found in areas of the brain homologous to where they are found in humans, suggesting they perform a similar function.
Brain size was previously considered a major indicator of intelligence. Since most of the brain is used for maintaining bodily functions, greater ratios of brain to body mass may increase the amount of brain mass available for cognitive tasks. Allometric analysis indicates that mammalian brain size scales at approximately two-thirds or three-quarter exponent of the body mass. Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such an analysis provides an encephalization quotient that can be used as an indication of animal intelligence. Sperm whales have the largest brain mass of any animal on earth, averaging 8,000 cm3 (490 in3) and 7.8 kg (17 lb) in mature males. The brain to body mass ratio in some odontocetes, such as belugas and narwhals, is second only to humans. In some whales, however, it is less than half that of humans: 0.9% versus 2.1%. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is the largest of all toothed predatory animals and possesses the largest brain.
The cetacean skeleton is largely made up of cortical bone, which stabilizes the animal in the water. For this reason, the usual terrestrial compact bones, which are finely woven cancellous bone, are replaced with lighter and more elastic material. In many places, bone elements are replaced by cartilage and even fat, thereby improving their hydrostatic qualities. The ear and the muzzle contain a bone shape that is exclusive to cetaceans with a high density, resembling porcelain. This conducts sound better than other bones, thus aiding biosonar.
The number of vertebrae that make up the spine varies by species, ranging from forty to ninety-three. The cervical spine, found in all mammals, consists of seven vertebrae which, however, are reduced or fused. This gives stability during swimming at the expense of mobility. The fins are carried by the thoracic vertebrae, ranging from nine to seventeen individual vertebrae. The sternum is cartilaginous. The last two to three pairs of ribs are not connected and hang freely in the body wall. The stable lumbar and tail include the other vertebrae. Below the caudal vertebrae is the chevron bone; the vortex developed provides additional attachment points for the tail musculature.
The front limbs are paddle-shaped with shortened arms and elongated finger bones, to support movement. They are connected by cartilage. The second and third fingers display a proliferation of the finger members, a so-called hyperphalangy. The shoulder joint is the only functional joint in all cetaceans except for the Amazon river dolphin. The collarbone is completely absent. The rear limbs are vestigial, without connections to the spine.
Cetaceans have powerful hearts. Blood oxygen is distributed effectively throughout the body. They are warm-blooded, i.e., they hold a nearly constant body temperature.
Cetaceans have lungs, meaning they breathe air. An individual can last without a breath from a few minutes to over two hours depending on the species. Cetacea are deliberate breathers who must be awake to inhale and exhale. When stale air, warmed from the lungs, is exhaled, it condenses as it meets colder external air. As with a terrestrial mammal breathing out on a cold day, a small cloud of 'steam' appears. This is called the 'spout' and varies across species in shape, angle and height. Species can be identified at a distance using this characteristic.
The structure of the respiratory and circulatory systems is of particular importance for the life of marine mammals. The oxygen balance is effective. Each breath can replace up to 90% of the total lung volume. For land mammals, in comparison, this value is usually about 15%. During inhalation, about twice as much oxygen is absorbed by the lung tissue as in a land mammal. As with all mammals, the oxygen is stored in the blood and the lungs, but in cetaceans, it is also stored in various tissues, mainly in the muscles. The muscle pigment, myoglobin, provides an effective bond. This additional oxygen storage is vital for deep diving, since beyond a depth around 100 m (330 ft), the lung tissue is almost completely compressed by the water pressure.
The stomach consists of three chambers. The first region is formed by a loose gland and a muscular forestomach (missing in beaked whales), which is then followed by the main stomach and the pylorus. Both are equipped with glands to help digestion. A bowel adjoins the stomachs, whose individual sections can only be distinguished histologically. The liver is large and separate from the gall bladder.
Cetacean eyes are set on the sides rather than the front of the head. This means only species with pointed 'beaks' (such as dolphins) have good binocular vision forward and downward. Tear glands secrete greasy tears, which protect the eyes from the salt in the water. The lens is almost spherical, which is most efficient at focusing the minimal light that reaches deep water. Cetaceans make up for their generally poor vision (except dolphins) with excellent hearing.
While the teeth are divided into incisors, canines and molars among terrestrial archaeocetes, the teeth of modern cetaceans are brought into line with each other, which can be seen among the fish-eating odontocetes (transition from heterodont to homodont).
The external ear has lost the pinna (visible ear), but still retains a narrow external auditory meatus. To register sounds, instead, the posterior part of the mandible has a thin lateral wall (the pan bone) fronting a concavity that houses a fat pad. The pad passes anteriorly into the greatly enlarged mandibular foramen to reach in under the teeth and posteriorly to reach the thin lateral wall of the ectotympanic. The ectotympanic offers a reduced attachment area for the tympanic membrane. The connection between this auditory complex and the rest of the skull is reduced—to a single, small cartilage in oceanic dolphins.
In odontocetes, the complex is surrounded by spongy tissue filled with air spaces, while in mysticetes, it is integrated into the skull as with land mammals. In odontocetes, the tympanic membrane (or ligament) has the shape of a folded-in umbrella that stretches from the ectotympanic ring and narrows off to the malleus (quite unlike the flat, circular membrane found in land mammals.) In mysticetes, it also forms a large protrusion (known as the "glove finger"), which stretches into the external meatus and the stapes are larger than in odontocetes. In some small sperm whales, the malleus is fused with the ectotympanic.
The ear ossicles are pachyosteosclerotic (dense and compact) and differently shaped from land mammals (other aquatic mammals, such as sirenians and earless seals, have also lost their pinnae). T semicircular canals are much smaller relative to body size than in other mammals.
The auditory bulla is separated from the skull and composed of two compact and dense bones (the periotic and tympanic) referred to as the tympanoperiotic complex. This complex is located in a cavity in the middle ear, which, in the Mysticeti, is divided by a bony projection and compressed between the exoccipital and squamosal, but in the odontoceti, is large and completely surrounds the bulla (hence called "peribullar"), which is, therefore, not connected to the skull except in physeterids. In the Odontoceti, the cavity is filled with a dense foam in which the bulla hangs suspended in five or more sets of ligaments. The pterygoid and peribullar sinuses that form the cavity tend to be more developed in shallow water and riverine species than in pelagic Mysticeti. In Odontoceti, the composite auditory structure is thought to serve as an acoustic isolator, analogous to the lamellar construction found in the temporal bone in bats.
Odontoceti are generally capable of echolocation. They can discern the size, shape, surface characteristics, distance and movement of an object. They can search for, chase and catch fast-swimming prey in total darkness. Most Odontoceti can distinguish between prey and nonprey (such as humans or boats); captive Odontoceti can be trained to distinguish between, for example, balls of different sizes or shapes.
Mysticeti have exceptionally thin, wide basilar membranes in their cochleae without stiffening agents, making their ears adapted for processing low to infrasonic frequencies. Echolocation clicks also contain characteristic details unique to each animal, which may suggest that toothed whales can discern between their own click and that of others.
The initial karyotype includes a set of chromosomes from 2n = 44. They have four pairs of telocentric chromosomes (whose centromeres sit at one of the telomeres), two to four pairs of subtelocentric and one or two large pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. The remaining chromosomes are metacentric—the centromere is approximately in the middle—and are rather small. Sperm whales, beaked whales and right whales converge to a reduction in the number of chromosomes to 2n = 42.
Range and habitat
Cetaceans are found in all oceans. River dolphin species live exclusively in fresh water. While many marine species, such as the blue whale, the humpback whale and the killer whale, have a distribution area that includes nearly the entire ocean, some species occur only locally or in broken populations. These include the vacquita, which inhabits a small part of the Gulf of California and Hector's dolphin, which lives in some coastal waters in New Zealand. Both species prefer deeper marine areas and species that live frequently or exclusively in coastal and shallow water areas.[clarification needed]
Many species inhabit specific latitudes, often in tropical or subtropical waters, such as Bryde's whale or Risso's dolphin. Others are found only in a specific body of water. The southern right whale dolphin and the hourglass dolphin live only in the Southern Ocean. The narwhal and the beluga live only in the Arctic Ocean. Sowerby's beaked whale and the Clymene dolphin exist only in the Atlantic and the Pacific white-sided dolphin and the northern straight dolphin live only in the North Pacific.
Cosmopolitan species may be found in the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, northern and southern populations become genetically separated over time. In some species, this separation leads eventually to a divergence of the species, such as produced the southern right whale, North Pacific right whale and North Atlantic right whale. Migratory species' reproductive sites often lie in the tropics and their feeding grounds in polar regions.
Thirty-two species are found in European waters, including twenty-five toothed and seven baleen species.
Conscious breathing cetaceans sleep but cannot afford to be unconscious for long, because they may drown. While knowledge of sleep in wild cetaceans is limited, toothed cetaceans in captivity have been recorded to exhibit unihemispheric slow-wave sleep (USWS), which means they sleep with one side of their brain at a time, so that they may swim, breathe consciously and avoid both predators and social contact during their period of rest.
A 2008 study found that sperm whales sleep in vertical postures just under the surface in passive shallow 'drift-dives', generally during the day, during which whales do not respond to passing vessels unless they are in contact, leading to the suggestion that whales possibly sleep during such dives.
While diving, the animals reduce their oxygen consumption by lowering the heart activity and blood circulation; individual organs receive no oxygen during this time. Some rorquals can dive for up to 40 minutes, sperm whales between 60 and 90 minutes and bottlenose whales for two hours. Diving depths average about 100 m (330 ft). Species such as sperm whales can dive to 3,000 m (9,800 ft), although more commonly 1,200 metres (3,900 ft).
Most whales are social animals, although a few species live in pairs or are solitary. A group, known as a pod, usually consists of ten to fifty animals, but on occasion, such as mass availability of food or during mating season, groups may encompass more than one thousand individuals. Inter-species socialization can occur.
Pods have a fixed hierarchy, with the priority positions determined by biting, pushing or ramming. The behavior in the group is aggressive only in situations of stress such as lack of food, but usually it is peaceful. Contact swimming, mutual fondling and nudging are common. The playful behavior of the animals, which is manifested in air jumps, somersaults, surfing, or fin hitting, occurs more often than not in smaller cetaceans, such as dolphins and porpoises.
Males in some baleen species communicate via whale song, sequences of high pitched sounds. These "songs" can be heard for hundreds of kilometers. Each population generally shares a distinct song, which evolves over time. Sometimes, an individual can be identified by its distinctive vocals, such as the 52-hertz whale that sings at a higher frequency than other whales. Some individuals are capable of generating over 600 distinct sounds. In baleen species such as humpbacks, blues and fins, male-specific song is believed to be used to attract and display fitness to females.
Pod groups also hunt, often with other species. Many species of dolphins hunt accompany large tunas on hunting expeditions, following large schools of fish. The killer whale hunts in pods and targets belugas and even larger whales. Humpback whales, among others, form in collaboration bubble carpets to herd krill or plankton into bait balls before lunging at them.
Cetacea are known to teach, learn, cooperate, scheme and grieve.
Smaller cetaceans, such as dolphins and porpoises, engage in complex play behavior, including such things as producing stable underwater toroidal air-core vortex rings or "bubble rings". The two main methods of bubble ring production are rapid puffing of air into the water and allowing it to rise to the surface, forming a ring, or swimming repeatedly in a circle and then stopping to inject air into the helical vortex currents thus formed. They also appear to enjoy biting the vortex rings, so that they burst into many separate bubbles and then rise quickly to the surface. Whales produce bubble nets to aid in herding prey.
Larger whales are also thought to engage in play. The southern right whale elevates its tail fluke above the water, remaining in the same position for a considerable time. This is known as "sailing". It appears to be a form of play and is most commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa. Humpback whales also display this behaviour.
Self-awareness appears to be a sign of abstract thinking. Self-awareness, although not well-defined, is believed to be a precursor to more advanced processes such as metacognitive reasoning (thinking about thinking) that humans exploit. Cetaceans appear to possess self-awareness. The most widely used test for self-awareness in animals is the mirror test, in which a temporary dye is placed on an animal's body and the animal is then presented with a mirror. Researchers then explore whether the animal shows signs of self-recognition.
Critics claim that the results of these tests are susceptible to the Clever Hans effect. This test is much less definitive than when used for primates. Primates can touch the mark or the mirror, while cetaceans cannot, making their alleged self-recognition behavior less certain. Skeptics argue that behaviors said to identify self-awareness resemble existing social behaviors, so researchers could be misinterpreting self-awareness for social responses. Advocates counter that the behaviors are different from normal responses to another individual. Cetaceans show less definitive behavior of self-awareness, because they have no pointing ability.
In 1995, Marten and Psarakos used video to test dolphin self-awareness. They showed dolphins real-time footage of themselves, recorded footage and another dolphin. They concluded that their evidence suggested self-awareness rather than social behavior. While this particular study has not been replicated, dolphins later "passed" the mirror test.
Reproduction and brooding
Most cetaceans sexually mature at seven to 10 years. An exception to this is the La Plata dolphin, which is sexually mature at two years, but lives only to about 20. The sperm whale reaches sexual maturity within about 20 years and a lifespan between 50 and 100 years.
For most species, reproduction is seasonal. Ovulation coincides with male fertility. This cycle is usually coupled with seasonal movements that can be observed in many species. Most toothed whales have no fixed bonds. In many species, females choose several partners during a season. Baleen whales are largely monogamous within each reproductive period.
Gestation ranges from 9 to 16 months. Duration is not necessarily a function of size. Porpoises and blue whales gestate for about 11 months. During gestation, the embryo is fed by a special nutritive tissue, the placenta.
Cetaceans usually bear one calf. In the case of twins, one usually dies, because the mother cannot produce sufficient milk for both. The fetus is positioned for a tail-first delivery, so that the risk of drowning during delivery is minimal. After birth, the mother carries the infant to the surface for its first breath. At birth they are about one-third of their adult length and tend to be independently active, comparable to terrestrial mammals.
Like other placental mammals, cetaceans give birth to well-developed calves and nurse them with milk from their mammary glands. When suckling, the mother actively splashes milk into the mouth of the calf, using the muscles of her mammary glands, as the calf has no lips. This milk usually has a high fat content, ranging from 16 to 46%, causing the calf to increase rapidly in size and weight.
In many small cetaceans, suckling lasts for about four months. In large species, it lasts for over a year and involves a strong bond between mother and offspring.
The mother is solely responsible for brooding. In some species, so-called "aunts" occasionally suckle the young.
This reproductive strategy provides a few offspring that have a high survival rate.
Among cetaceans, whales are distinguished by an unusual longevity compared to other higher mammals. Some species, such as the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), can reach over 200 years. Based on the annual rings of the bony otic capsule, the age of the oldest known specimen is a male determined to be 211 years at the time of death.
Upon death, whale carcasses fall to the deep ocean and provide a substantial habitat for marine life. Evidence of whale falls in present-day and fossil records shows that deep-sea whale falls support a rich assemblage of creatures, with a global diversity of 407 species, comparable to other neritic biodiversity hotspots, such as cold seeps and hydrothermal vents.
Deterioration of whale carcasses happens through three stages. Initially, organisms such as sharks and hagfish scavenge the soft tissues at a rapid rate over a period of months and as long as two years. This is followed by the colonization of bones and surrounding sediments (which contain organic matter) by enrichment opportunists, such as crustaceans and polychaetes, throughout a period of years. Finally, sulfophilic bacteria reduce the bones releasing hydrogen sulfide enabling the growth of chemoautotrophic organisms, which in turn, support organisms such as mussels, clams, limpets and sea snails. This stage may last for decades and supports a rich assemblage of species, averaging 185 per site.
Brucellosis affects almost all mammals. It is distributed worldwide, while fishing and pollution have caused porpoise population density pockets, which risks further infection and disease spreading. Brucella ceti, most prevalent in dolphins, has been shown to cause chronic disease, increasing the chance of failed birth and miscarriages, male infertility, neurobrucellosis, cardiopathies, bone and skin lesions, strandings and death. Until 2008, no case had ever been reported in porpoises, but isolated populations have an increased risk and consequentially a high mortality rate.
Molecular biology and immunology show that cetaceans are phylogenetically closely related with the even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla). Whales direct lineage began in the early Eocene, more than 50 million years ago, with early artiodactyls. Fossil discoveries at the beginning of the 21st century confirmed this.
Most molecular biological evidence suggests that hippos are the closest living relatives. Common anatomical features include similarities in the morphology of the posterior molars, and the bony ring on the temporal bone (bulla) and the involucre, a skull feature that was previously associated only with cetaceans. The fossil record, however, does not support this relationship, because the hippo lineage dates back only about 15 million years. The most striking common feature is the talus, a bone in the upper ankle. Early cetaceans, archaeocetes, show double castors, which only occur in even-toed ungulates. Corresponding findings are from Tethys Sea deposits in northern India and Pakistan. The Tethys Sea was a shallow sea between the Asian continent and northward-bound Indian plate.
Mysticetes evolved baleen around 25 million years ago and lost their teeth.
The direct ancestors of today's cetaceans are probably found within the Dorudontidae whose most famous member, Dorudon atrox, lived at the same time as Basilosaurus. Both groups had already developed the typical anatomical features of today's whales, such as hearing. Life in the water for a formerly terrestrial creature required significant adjustments such as the fixed bulla, which replaces the mammalian eardrum, as well as sound-conducting elements for submerged directional hearing. Their wrists were stiffened and probably contributed to the typical build of flippers. The hind legs existed, however, but were significantly reduced in size and with a vestigial pelvis connection.
Transition from land to sea
The fossil record traces the gradual transition from terrestrial to aquatic life. The regression of the hind limbs allowed greater flexibility of the spine. This made it possible for whales to move around with the vertical tail hitting the water. The front legs transformed into flippers, costing them their mobility on land.
One of the oldest members of ancient cetaceans (Archaeoceti) is Pakicetus from the Middle Eocene. This is an animal the size of a wolf, whose skeleton is known only partially. It had functioning legs and lived near the shore. This suggests the animal could still move on land. The long snout had carnivorous dentition.
The transition from land to sea dates to about 49 million years ago, with the Ambulocetus ("running whale"), discovered in Pakistan. It was up to 3 m (9.8 ft) long. The limbs of this archaeocete were adapted to swimming, but terrestrial locomotion was still possible. It probably crawled like a seal or crocodile. The snout was elongated with overhead nostrils and eyes. The tail was strong and supported movement through water. Ambulocetus probably lived in mangroves in brackish water and fed in the riparian zone as a predator of fish and other vertebrates.
Dating from about 45 million years ago are species such as Indocetus, Kutchicetus, Rodhocetus and Andrewsiphius, all of which were adapted to life in water. The hind limbs of these species were regressed and their body shapes resemble modern whales. Protocetidae family member Rodhocetus is considered the first to be fully aquatic. The body was streamlined and delicate with extended hand and foot bones. The merged pelvic lumbar spine was present, making it possible to support the floating movement of the tail. It was likely a good swimmer, but could probably move only clumsily on land, much like a modern seal.
Since the late Eocene, about 40 million years ago, cetaceans populated the subtropical oceans and no longer emerged on land. An example is the 18-m-long Basilosaurus, sometimes referred to as Zeuglodon. The transition from land to water was completed in about 10 million years. The Wadi Al-Hitan ("Whale Valley") in Egypt contains numerous skeletons of Basilosaurus, as well as other marine vertebrates.
Baleen whales (Mysticeti) owe their name to their baleen. Toothed whales (Odontoceti), which include the dolphins and porpoises, have conical teeth or spade-shaped teeth and can perceive their environment through biosonar.
The infraorder comprises the families Balaenidae (right and bowhead whales), Balaenoptera (rorquals), Eschrichtiidae (the gray whale), Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins), Monodontidae (Arctic whales), Phocoenidae (porpoises), Physeteridae (sperm whales), Kogiidae (lesser sperm whales), Platanistidae (Old World river dolphins), Iniidae (New World river dolphins), Pontoporiidae (the La plata dolphin) and Ziphidae (beaked whales).
|Relationship of extinct and extant cetaceans:|
- INFRAORDER CETACEA
- Parvoder Mysticeti: Baleen whales
- Superfamily Balaenoidea: Right whales
- Superfamily Balaenopteroidea
- Family Balaenopteridae: Rorquals
- Subfamily Balaenopterinae
- Genus Balaenoptera: slender rorquals
- Subfamily Megapterinae
- Subfamily Balaenopterinae
- Family Eschrichtiidae: Gray whales
- Family Balaenopteridae: Rorquals
- Parvorder Odontoceti: Toothed whales
- Superfamily Delphinoidea: Oceanic dolphins
- Family Delphinidae
- Genus Cephalorhynchus: blunt-nosed dolphins
- Genus Delphinus: common dolphins
- Genus Feresa
- Pygmy killer whale, Feresa attenuata
- Genus Globicephala: pilot whales
- Genus Grampus
- Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus
- Genus Lagenodelphis
- Fraser's dolphin, Lagenodelphis hosei
- Genus Lagenorhynchus: false bottlenose dolphins
- Genus Lissodelphis: right whale dolphin
- Genus Orcaella: Irrawaddy dolphins
- Genus Orcinus
- Killer whale, Orcinus orca
- Genus Peponocephala
- Melon-headed whale, Peponocephala electra
- Genus Pseudorca
- False killer whale, Pseudorca crassidens
- Genus Sotalia: northern South American dolphins
- Genus Sousa: humpback dolphins
- Genus Stenella: spotted dolphins
- Genus Steno
- Rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis
- Genus Tursiops: true bottlenose dolphins
- Family Monodontidae: Arctic whales
- Family Phocoenidae: Porpoises
- Family Delphinidae
- Superfamily Physeteroidea: Sperm whales
- Superfamily Platanistoidea: Indian river dolphins
- Superfamily Inioidea: South American river dolphins
- Superfamily Ziphioidea: Beaked whales
- Family Ziphidae
- Genus Berardius: giant beaked whales
- Subfamily Hyperoodontidae
- Genus Hyperoodon: bottlenose whales
- Genus Indopacetus
- Indo-Pacific beaked whale (Longman's beaked whale), Indopacetus pacificus
- Genus Mesoplodon, Mesoplodont whale
- Sowerby's beaked whale, Mesoplodon bidens
- Andrews' beaked whale, Mesoplodon bowdoini
- Hubbs' beaked whale, Mesoplodon carlhubbsi
- Blainville's beaked whale, Mesoplodon densirostris
- Gervais' beaked whale, Mesoplodon europaeus
- Ginkgo-toothed beaked whale, Mesoplodon ginkgodens
- Gray's beaked whale, Mesoplodon grayi
- Hector's beaked whale, Mesoplodon hectori
- Strap-toothed whale, Mesoplodon layardii
- True's beaked whale, Mesoplodon mirus
- Perrin's beaked whale, Mesoplodon perrini
- Pygmy beaked whale, Mesoplodon peruvianus
- Stejneger's beaked whale, Mesoplodon stejnegeri
- Spade-toothed whale, Mesoplodon traversii
- Deraniyagala's beaked whale, Mesoplodon hotaula
- Genus Tasmacetus
- Shepherd's beaked whale, Tasmacetus shepherdi
- Genus Ziphius
- Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris
- Family Ziphidae
- Superfamily Delphinoidea: Oceanic dolphins
- Parvoder Mysticeti: Baleen whales
|This section does not cite any sources. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Whaling is the practice of hunting whales, mainly baleen and sperm whales. This activity has gone on since the Stone Age.
In the Middle Ages, reasons for whaling included their meat, oil usable as fuel and the jawbone, which was used in house construction. At the end of the Middle Ages, early whaling fleets aimed at baleen whales, such as bowheads. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch fleet had about 300 whaling ships with 18,000 crewmen.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, baleen whales especially were hunted for their baleen, which was used as a replacement for wood, or in products requiring strength and flexibility such as corsets and crinoline skirts. In addition, the spermaceti found in the sperm whale was used as a machine lubricant and the ambergris as a material for pharmaceutical and perfume industries. In the second half of the 19th century, the explosive harpoon was invented, leading to a massive increase in the catch size.
Large ships were used as "mother" ships for the whale handlers. In the first half of the 20th century, whales were of great importance as a supplier of raw materials. Whales were intensively hunted during this time; in the 1930s, 30,000 whales were killed. This increased to over 40,000 animals per year up to the 1960s, when stocks of large baleen whales collapsed.
Most hunted whales are now threatened, with some great whale populations exploited to the brink of extinction. Atlantic and Korean gray whale populations were completely eradicated and the North Atlantic right whale population fell to some 300-600. The blue whale population is estimated to be around 14,000.
The first efforts to protect whales came in 1931. Some particularly endangered species, such as the humpback whale (which then numbered about 100 animals), were placed under international protection and the first protected areas were established. In 1946, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) was established, to monitor and secure whale stocks. Whaling for commercial purposes was prohibited worldwide by this organization from 1985 to 2005.
The stocks of species such as humpback and blue whales have recovered, though they are still threatened. The United States Congress passed the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 sustain the marine mammal population. It prohibits the taking of marine mammals. Japanese whaling ships are allowed to hunt whales of different species for ostensibly scientific purposes. Aboriginal whaling is still permitted, but under limited circumstances as defined by IWC. Iceland and Norway do not recognize the ban and operate commercial whaling. Norway and Japan are committed to ending the ban.
Dolphins and other smaller cetaceans are hunted in an activity known as dolphin drive hunting. This is accomplished by driving a pod together with boats, usually into a bay or onto a beach. Their escape is prevented by closing off the route to the ocean with other boats or nets. Dolphins are hunted this way in several places around the world, including the Solomon Islands, the Faroe Islands, Peru and Japan (the most well-known practitioner). Dolphins are mostly hunted for their meat, though some end up in dolphinaria. Despite the controversy thousands of dolphins are caught in drive hunts each year.
Dolphin pods often reside near large tuna shoals. This is known to fishermen, who look for dolphins to catch tuna. Dolphins are much easier to spot from a distance than tuna, since they regularly breathe. The fishermen pull their nets hundreds of meters wide in a circle around the dolphin groups, in the expectation that they will net a tuna shoal. When the nets are pulled together, the dolphins become entangled under water and drown. Line fisheries in larger rivers are threats to river dolphins.
A greater threat than by-catch for small cetaceans is targeted hunting. In Southeast Asia, they are sold as fish-replacement to locals, since the region's edible fish promise higher revenues from exports. In the Mediterranean, small cetaceans are targeted to ease pressure on edible fish.
A stranding is when a cetacean leaves the water to lie on a beach. In some cases, groups of whales strand together. The best known are mass strandings of pilot whales and sperm whales. Stranded cetaceans usually die, because their as much as 90 metric tons (99 short tons) body weight compresses their lungs or breaks their ribs. Smaller whales can die of heatstroke because of their thermal insulation.
The causes are not clear. Possible reasons for mass beachings are:
- toxic contaminants
- debilitating parasites (in the respiratory tract, brain or middle ear)
- infections (bacterial or viral)
- flight from predators (including humans)
- social bonds within a group, so that the pod follows a stranded animal
- disturbance of their magnetic senses by natural anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field
- noise pollution by shipping traffic, seismic surveys and military sonar experiments
Since 2000, whale strandings frequently occurred following military sonar testing. In December 2001, the US Navy admitted partial responsibility for the beaching and the deaths of several marine mammals in March 2000. The coauthor of the interim report stated that animals killed by active sonar of some Navy ships were injured. Generally, underwater noise, which is still on the increase, is increasingly tied to strandings; because it impairs communication and sense of direction.
Climate change influences the major wind systems and ocean currents, which also lead to cetacean strandings. Researchers studying strandings on the Tasmanian coast from 1920-2002 found that greater strandings occurred at certain time intervals. Years with increased strandings were associated with severe storms, which initiated cold water flows close to the coast. In nutrient-rich, cold water, cetaceans expect large prey animals, so they follow the cold water currents into shallower waters, where the risk is higher for strandings. Whales and dolphins who live in pods may accompany sick or debilitated pod members into shallow water, stranding them at low tide. Once stranded, large whales are crushed by their own body weight, if they cannot quickly return to the water. In addition, body temperature regulation is compromised.
Heavy metals, residues of many plant and insect venoms and plastic waste flotsam are not biodegradable. Sometimes, cetaceans consume these hazardous materials, mistaking them for food items. As a result, the animals are more susceptible to disease and have fewer offspring.
Damage to the ozone layer reduces plankton reproduction because of its resulting radiation. This shrinks the food supply for many marine animals, but the filter-feeding baleen whales are most impacted. Even the Nekton is, in addition to intensive exploitation, damaged by the radiation.
Food supplies are also reduced long-term by ocean acidification due to increased absorption of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide. The CO2 reacts with water to form carbonic acid, which reduces the construction of the calcium carbonate skeletons of food supplies for zooplankton that baleen whales depend on.
The military and resource extraction industries operate strong sonar and blasting operations. Marine seismic surveys use loud, low-frequency sound that show what is lying underneath the Earth's surface. Vessel traffic also increases noise in the oceans. Such noise can disrupt cetacean behavior such as their use of biosonar for orientation and communication. Severe instances can panic them, driving them to the surface. This leads to bubbles in blood gases and can cause decompression sickness. Naval exercises with sonar regularly results in fallen cetaceans that wash up with fatal decompression. Sounds can be disruptive at distances of more than 100 kilometres (62 mi). Damage varies across frequency and species.
Relationship to humans
In Aristotle's time, the 4th century BCE, whales were regarded as fish due to their superficial similarity. Aristotle, however, observed many physiological and anatomical similarities with the terrestrial vertebrates, such as blood (circulation), lungs, uterus and fin anatomy. His detailed descriptions were assimilated by the Romans, but mixed with a more accurate knowledge of the dolphins, as mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Natural history. In the art of this and subsequent periods, dolphins are portrayed with a high-arched head (typical of porpoises) and a long snout. The harbour porpoise was one of the most accessible species for early cetologists; because it could be seen close to land, inhabiting shallow coastal areas of Europe. Much of the findings that apply to all cetaceans were first discovered in porpoises. One of the first anatomical descriptions of the airways of a harbor porpoise dates from 1671 by John Ray. It nevertheless referred to the porpoise as a fish.
The tube in the head, through which this kind fish takes its breath and spitting water, located in front of the brain and ends outwardly in a simple hole, but inside it is divided by a downward bony septum, as if it were two nostrils; but underneath it opens up again in the mouth in a void.— John Ray, 1671, the earliest description of cetacean airways
In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae (1758), Swedish biologist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus asserted that cetaceans were mammals and not fish. His groundbreaking binomial system formed the basis of modern whale classification.
Cetaceans play a role in human culture.
Stone Age petroglyphs , such as those in Roddoy and Reppa (Norway), depict them. Whale bones were used for many purposes. In the Neolithic settlement of Skara Brae on Orkney sauce pans were made from whale vertebrae.
|This section does not cite any sources. (September 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The whale was first mentioned in ancient Greece by Homer. There, it is called Ketos, a term that initially included all large marine animals. From this was derived the Roman word for whale, Cetus. Other names were phálaina (Aristotle, Latin form of ballaena) for the female and, with an ironic characteristic style, musculus (Mouse) for the male. North Sea whales were called Physeter, which was meant for the sperm whale Physter macrocephalus. Whales are described in particular by Aristotle, Pliny and Ambrose. All mention both live birth and suckling. Pliny describes the problems associated with the lungs with spray tubes and Ambrose claimed that large whales would take their young into their mouth to protect them.
In the Bible especially, the leviathan plays a role as a sea monster. The essence, which features a giant crocodile or a dragon and a whale, was created according to the Bible by God (Psalms 104:26) and should again be destroyed by him (Psalms 74:14 and Isaiah 27:1). In the Book of Job, the leviathan is described in more detail (Job 40:25 to Job 41:26).
Dolphins are mentioned far more often than whales. Aristotle discusses the sacred animals of the Greeks in his Historia Animalium and gives details of their role as aquatic animals. The Greeks admired the dolphin as a "king of the aquatic animals" and referred to them erroneously as fish. Its intelligence was apparent both in its ability to escape from fishnets and in its collaboration with fishermen.
Dolphins appear in Greek mythology. Because of their intelligence, they rescued multiple people from drowning. They were said to love music - probably not least because of their own song - they saved, in the legends, famous musicians such as Arion of Lesbos from Methymna or Kairanos from Miletus. Because of their mental faculties, dolphins were considered for the god Dionysus.
Dolphins belong to the domain of Poseidon and led him to his wife Amphitrite. Dolphins are associated with other gods, such as Apollo, Dionysus and Aphrodite. The Greeks paid tribute to both whales and dolphins with their own constellation. The constellation of the Whale (Ketos, lat. Cetus) is located south of the Dolphin (Delphi, lat. Delphinus) north of the zodiac.
Ancient art often included dolphin representations, including the Cretan Minoans. Later they appeared on reliefs, gems, lamps, coins, mosaics and gravestones. A particularly popular representation is that of Arion or the Taras (mythology) riding on a dolphin. In early Christian art, the dolphin is a popular motif, at times used as a symbol of Christ.
Middle Ages to the 19th century
St. Brendan described in his travel story Navigatio Sancti Brendani an encounter with a whale, between the years 565–573. He described how he and his companions entered a treeless island, which turned out to be a giant whale, which he called Jasconicus. He met this whale seven years later and rested on his back.
Most descriptions of large whales from this time until the whaling era, beginning in the 17th century, were of beached whales, which resembled no other animal. This was particularly true for the sperm whale, the most frequently stranded in larger groups. Raymond Gilmore documented seventeen sperm whales in the estuary of the Elbe from 1723 to 1959 and thirty-one animals on the coast of Great Britain in 1784. In 1827, a blue whale beached itself off the coast of Ostend. Whales were used as attractions in museums and traveling exhibitions.
Whalers in the 17–19th centuries depicted whales in drawings and recounted tales of their occupation. Although they knew that whales were harmless giants, they described battles with harpooned animals. These included descriptions of sea monsters, including huge whales, sharks, sea snakes, giant squid and octopuses.
Among the first whalers who described their experiences on whaling trips was Captain William Scoresby from Great Britain, who published the book Northern Whale Fishery, describing the hunt for northern baleen whales. This was followed by Thomas Beale, a British surgeon, in his book Some observations on the natural history of the sperm whale in 1835; and Frederick Debell Bennett's The tale of a whale hunt in 1840. Whales were described in narrative literature and paintings, most famously in the novels Moby Dick by Herman Melville and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea by Jules Verne. In the 1882 children's book Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi, the wooden figures Pinocchio and Geppettos' creators were swallowed by a whale.
In the Canadian Arctic (east coast) in Punuk and Thule culture (1000-1600 C.E.), I baleen was used to construct houses in place of wood as roof support for winter houses, with half of the building buried under the ground. The actual roof was probably made of animal skins that were covered with soil and moss.
In the 20th century perceptions of cetaceans changed. They transformed from monsters into objects of wonder. As science revealed them to be intelligent and peaceful animals. Hunting was replaced by whale and dolphin tourism. This change is reflected in films and novels. For example, the protagonist of the series Flipper was a bottle-nose dolphin. The TV series SeaQuest DSV (1993-1996), the movies Free Willy, Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home and the book series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams are examples.
Whales and dolphins have been kept in captivity for use in education, research and entertainment since the 19th century.
Beluga whales were the first whales to be kept in captivity. Other species were too rare, too shy or too big. The first was shown at Barnum's Museum in New York City in 1861. For most of the 20th century, Canada was the predominant source. They were taken from the St. Lawrence River estuary until the late 1960s, after which they were predominantly taken from the Churchill River estuary until capture was banned in 1992. Russia then became the largest provider. Belugas are caught in the Amur Darya delta and their eastern coast and are transported domestically to aquaria or dolphinaria in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Sochi, or exported to countries such as Canada. They have not been domesticated.
As of 2006, 30 belugas lived in Canada and 28 in the United States. 42 deaths in captivity had been reported. A single specimen can reportedly fetch up to US$100,000 (UK£64,160). The beluga's popularity is due to its unique color and its facial expressions. The latter is possible because while most cetacean "smiles" are fixed, the extra movement afforded by the beluga's unfused cervical vertebrae allows a greater range of apparent expression.
The killer whale's intelligence, trainability, striking appearance, playfulness in captivity and sheer size have made it a popular exhibit at aquaria and aquatic theme parks. From 1976 to 1997, fifty-five whales were taken from the wild in Iceland, nineteen from Japan and three from Argentina. These figures exclude animals that died during capture. Live captures fell dramatically in the 1990s and by 1999, about 40% of the forty-eight animals on display in the world were captive-born.
In captivity, they often develop pathologies, such as the dorsal fin collapse seen in 60–90% of captive males. Captives have reduced life expectancy, on average only living into their 20s, although some live longer, including several over 30 years old and two, Corky II and Lolita, in their mid-40s. In the wild, females who survive infancy live 46 years on average and up to 70–80 years. Wild males who survive infancy live 31 years on average and can reach 50–60 years.
Captivity usually bears little resemblance to wild habitat and captive whales' social groups are foreign to those found in the wild. Critics claim captive life is stressful due to these factors and the requirement to perform circus tricks that are not part of wild killer whale behavior. Wild killer whales may travel up to 160 kilometres (100 mi) in a day and critics say the animals are too big and intelligent to be suitable for captivity. Captives occasionally act aggressively towards themselves, their tankmates, or humans, which critics say is a result of stress. Killer whales are well known for their performances in shows, but the number of orcas kept in captivity is small, especially when compared to the number of bottlenose dolphins, with only forty-four captive orcas being held in aquaria as of 2012.
Each country has its own tank requirements; in the US, the minimum enclosure size is set by the Code of Federal Regulations, 9 CFR E § 3.104, under the Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Marine Mammals.
Aggression among captive killer whales is common. They attack each other and their trainers as well. In 2013, SeaWorld's treatment of killer whales in captivity was the basis of the movie Blackfish, which documents the history of Tilikum, a killer whale at SeaWorld Orlando, who had been involved in the deaths of three people. The film was a sensation, leading the company to announce in 2016 that it would phase out its killer whale program after various unsuccessful attempts to restore its reputation and stock price.
Dolphins and porpoises are kept in captivity. Bottlenose dolphins are the most common, as they are relatively easy to train, have a long lifespan in captivity and have a friendly appearance. Bottlenose dolphins live in captivity across the world, though exact numbers are hard to determine. Other species kept in captivity are spotted dolphins, false killer whales and common dolphins, Commerson's dolphins, as well as rough-toothed dolphins, but all in much lower numbers. There are also fewer than ten pilot whales, Amazon river dolphins, Risso's dolphins, spinner dolphins, or tucuxi in captivity. Two unusual and rare hybrid dolphins, known as wolphins, are kept at Sea Life Park in Hawaii, which is a cross between a bottlenose dolphin and a false killer whale. Also, two xommon/bottlenose hybrids reside in captivity at Discovery Cove and SeaWorld San Diego.
In repeated attempts in the 1960s and 1970s, narwhals kept in captivity died within months. A breeding pair of pygmy right whales were retained in a netted area. They were eventually released in South Africa. In 1971, SeaWorld captured a California gray whale calf in Mexico at Scammon's Lagoon. The calf, later named Gigi, was separated from her mother using a form of lasso attached to her flukes. Gigi was displayed at SeaWorld San Diego for a year. She was then released with a radio beacon affixed to her back; however, contact was lost after three weeks. Gigi was the first captive baleen whale. JJ, another gray whale calf, was kept at SeaWorld San Diego. JJ was an orphaned calf that beached itself in April 1997 and was transported two miles to SeaWorld. The 680 kilograms (1,500 lb) calf was a popular attraction and behaved normally, despite separation from his mother. A year later, the then 8,164.7 kilograms (18,000 lb) whale though smaller than average, was too big to keep in captivity, and was released on April 1, 1998. A captive Amazon river dolphin housed at Acuario de Valencia is the only trained river dolphin in captivity.
- Mead, J.G.; Brownell, R.L., Jr. (2005). "Order Cetacea". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3 ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press: 723–743. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- M. Ranneft, D.; Eaker, H.; W. Davis, R. (2001). "A guide to the pronunciation and meaning of cetacean taxonomic names" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. 27 (2): 185.
- E. Fish, Frank (2002). "Balancing Requirements for Stability and Maneuverability in Cetaceans". Integrative Comparative Biology. 42 (1): 85–93. doi:10.1093/icb/42.1.85.
- Groves; Colin; Grubb, Peter (2011). "Ungulate taxonomy". JHU Press.
- J.G.M. Thewissen (11 November 2013). The Emergence of Whales: Evolutionary Patterns in the Origin of Cetacea. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 383–. ISBN 978-1-4899-0159-0.
- Debra Lee Miller (6 January 2007). Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Cetacea: Whales, Porpoises and Dolphins. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4398-4257-7.
- Dines, James; Mesnick, Sarah; Ralls, Katherine; May-Collado, Laura; Agnarsson, Ingi; Dean, Matthew (2015). "A trade-off between precopulatory and postcopulatory trait investment in male cetaceans". Evolution. 69 (6): 1560–1572. doi:10.1111/evo.12676.
- Dalebout, Merel; Steel, Debbie; Baker, Scott (2008). "Phylogeny of the Beaked Whale Genus Mesoplodon (Ziphiidae: Cetacea) Revealed by Nuclear Introns: Implications for the Evolution of Male Tusks". Systematic Biology. 57 (6): 857–875. doi:10.1080/10635150802559257. PMID 19085329.
- "How ancient whales lost their legs, got sleek and conquered the oceans". EurekAlert. University of Florida. 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2016-03-20.
- Bruno Cozzi; Sandro Mazzariol; Michela Podestà; Alessandro Zott (2009). "Diving Adaptations of the Cetacean Skeleton" (PDF). The Open Zoology Journal. 2: 24–32. doi:10.2174/1874336600902010024. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Watson, K.K.; Jones, T. K.; Allman, J. M. (2006). "Dendritic architecture of the Von Economo neurons". Neuroscience. 141 (3): 1107–1112. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.04.084. PMID 16797136.
- Allman, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y. (2005). "Intuition and autism: a possible role for Von Economo neurons". Trends Cogn Sci. 9 (8): 367–373. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2005.06.008. PMID 16002323.
- Hof, Patrick R.; Van Der Gucht, Estel (2007). "Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae)". The Anatomical Record. 290 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1002/ar.20407. PMID 17441195.
- Moore, Jim. "Allometry". University of California San Diego. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- "Sperm Whales brain size". NOAA Fisheries – Office of Protected Resources. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- Fields, R. Douglas. "Are whales smarter than we are?". Scientific American. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
- C. Edward Stevens; Ian D. Hume (1995). Comparative Physiology of the Vertebrate Digestive System. University of Cambridge. p. 51. ISBN 0-521-44418-7. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Clifford A. Hui (1981). "Seawater Consumption and Water Flux in the Common Dolphin Delphinus delphis". Chicago Journals. San Diego. 54: 430.
- Morell, Virginia (July 2011). "Guiana Dolphins Can Use Electric Signals to Locate Prey". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Retrieved December 2013. Check date values in:
- Thewissen, J. g. m. (2002). "Hearing". In Perrin, William R.; Wiirsig, Bernd; Thewissen, J. G. M. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals. Academic Press. pp. 570–2. ISBN 0-12-551340-2.
- Ketten, Darlene R. (1992). "The Marine Mammal Ear: Specializations for Aquatic Audition and Echolocation". In Webster, Douglas B.; Fay, Richard R.; Popper, Arthur N. The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing (PDF). Springer Verlag. pp. 717–50. Retrieved March 2013. Check date values in:
|access-date=(help) Pages 725–7 used here.
- Hooker, Sascha K. (2009). Perrin, William F.; Wursig, Bernd; Thewissen, J. G. M., eds. Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2 ed.). 30 Corporate Drive, Burlington Ma. 01803: Academic Press. p. 1176. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9.
- Sayigh, L.S. (2014). Cetacean Acoustic Communication. In: Witzany G (ed). Biocommunication of Animals. Springer. 275-297. ISBN 978-94-007-7413-1
- Ketten, Darlene R. (1997). "Structure and function in whale ears" (PDF). The International Journal of Animal Sound and its Recording. 8 (1–2): 103–135. doi:10.1080/09524622.1997.9753356. Retrieved December 2013. Check date values in:
- de Obaldia, C., Simkus, G. & and Zölzer, U. (2015). "Estimating the number of sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) individuals based on grouping of corresponding clicks". 41. Jahrestagung für Akustik (DAGA 2015), Nürnberg. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.3764.9765.
- Ulfur Anarson (1974). "Comparative chromosome studies in Cetacea". Institute of Genetics. Sweden: University of Lund. 77 (1): 1–36. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5223.1974.tb01351.x. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- AR Hoelzel (1998). "Genetic structure of cetacean populations in sympatry, parapatry, and mixed assemblages: implications for conservation policy". Journal of Heredity. Oxford. 89: 451–458. doi:10.1093/jhered/89.5.451. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Sekiguchi, Yuske; Arai, Kazutoshi; Kohshima, Shiro (21 June 2006). "Sleep behaviour". Nature. 441: E9–E10. Bibcode:2006Natur.441E...9S. doi:10.1038/nature04898.
- Miller, P. J. O.; Aoki, K.; Rendell, L. E.; Amano, M. (2008). "Stereotypical resting behavior of the sperm whale". Current Biology. 18 (1): R21–R23. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.003. PMID 18177706.
- Scholander, Per Fredrik (1940). "Experimental investigations on the respiratory function in diving mammals and birds". Hvalraadets Skrifter. Oslo: Norske Videnskaps-Akademi. 22.
- Bruno Cozzi; Paola Bagnoli; Fabio Acocella; Maria Laura Costantino (2005). "Structure and biomechanical properties of the trachea of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba: Evidence for evolutionary adaptations to diving". The Anatomical Record. 284 (1): 500–510. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20182. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Janet Mann; Richard C. Connor; Peter L. Tyack; et al. (eds.). Cetacean Societies: Field Study of Dolphins and Whales. University of Chicago.
- Laela, Sayigh (2014). Cetacean Acoustic Communication. In: Witzany G.(ed). Biocommunication of Animals. Netherlands: Springer. pp. 275–297.
- Janik, Vincent (2014). "Cetacean vocal learning and communication". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 28: 60–65. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2014.06.010.
- Siebert, Charles (8 July 2009). "Watching Whales Watching Us". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Wiley, David; et al. (2011). "Underwater components of humpback whale bubble-net feeding behaviour". Behaviour. 148 (5): 575–602. doi:10.1163/000579511X570893.
- Carwardine, M. H.; Hoyt, E. (1998). "Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises". NSW: Reader's Digest. ISBN 0-86449-096-8.
- "Elephant Self-Awareness Mirrors Humans". Live Science. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- Derr, Mark. "Mirror test". New York Times. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
- Marten, Ken; Psarakos, Suchi (June 1995). "Using Self-View Television to Distinguish between Self-Examination and Social Behavior in the Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)". Consciousness and Cognition. 4 (2): 205–224. doi:10.1006/ccog.1995.1026.
- John C George; Jeffrey Bada; Judith Zeh; Laura Scott; Stephen E Brown; Todd O'Hara; Robert Suydam (1999). "Age and growth estimates of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) via aspartic acid racemization". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 77: 571–580. doi:10.1139/z99-015.
- Smith, Craig R.; Baco, Amy R. (2003). "Ecology of Whale Falls at the Deep-Sea Floor" (PDF). Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. 41: 311–354. doi:10.1201/9780203180594.ch6. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
- Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; et al. (16 February 2007). "Three-year investigations into sperm whale-fall ecosystems in Japan". Marine Ecology. 28 (1): 219–230. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0485.2007.00150.x.
- Caterina, Guzmán-Verri; González-Barrientos, Rocío; Hernández-Mora, Gabriela; Morales, Juan-Alberto; Baquero-Calvo, Elías; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Moreno, Edgardo (2012). "Brucella ceti and Brucellosis in Cetaceans". Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2. doi:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00003.
- Gingerich PD; ul-Haq M; von Koenigswald W; WJ Sanders; Smith BH (2009). "New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and sexual dimorphism". PLoS ONE. 4: e4366. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.4366G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004366. PMC . PMID 19194487.
- Thewissen, J. G. M.; Cooper, L. N.; Clementz, M. T.; Bajpai, S.; Tiwari, B. N. (2007). "Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India" (PDF). Nature. 450 (7173): 1190–4. Bibcode:2007Natur.450.1190T. doi:10.1038/nature06343. PMID 18097400. Retrieved February 2013. Check date values in:
- JGM Thewissen; Lisa Noelle Cooper; Mark T. Clementz; Sunil Bajpai; BN Tiwari (2007). "Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India". Nature. 450: 1190–1194. Bibcode:2007Natur.450.1190T. doi:10.1038/nature06343. PMID 18097400.
- Michael Benton (2007). Vertebrate paleontology. p. 360.
- Gatesy, J. (1 May 1997). "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular Biology and Evolution. 14 (5): 537–543. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a025790. PMID 9159931.
- Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Brunet, Michel (2005). "The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (5): 1537–1541. Bibcode:2005PNAS..102.1537B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0409518102. PMC . PMID 15677331.
- "Scientists find missing link between the dolphin, whale and its closest relative, the hippo". Science News Daily. 2005-01-25. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
- J.G.M. Thewissen (1994). "Phylogenetic aspects of Cetacean origins: A morphological perspective". Journal of Mammalian Evolution. 2: 157–184. doi:10.1007/bf01473527.
- John Gatesy; Jonathan H. Geisler; Joseph Chang; Carl Buell; Annalisa Berta; Robert W. Meredith; Mark S. Springer; Michael R. McGowen (2012). "A phylogenetic blueprint for a modern whale" (PDF). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 66 (2): 479–506. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.10.012. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- R. Ewan Fordyce; Felix G. Marx (February 2013). "The pygmy right whale Caperea marginata: The Last of the cetotheres". Proc. R. Soc. B. 280: 20122645. doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.2645.
- Cara E. Miller (2007). Current State of Knowledge of Cetacean Threats, Diversity, and Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (PDF). Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society. ISBN 978-0-646-47224-9. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Schrope, Mark. (2003). "Whale deaths caused by US Navy's sonar". Nature. 415 (106). Bibcode:2002Natur.415..106S. doi:10.1038/415106a.
- Nowacek, Douglas; Donovan, Greg; Gailey, Glenn; Racca, Roberto; Reeves, Randall; Vedenev, Alexander; Weller, David; Southall, Brandon (2013). "Responsible Practices for Minimizing and Monitoring Environmental Impacts of Marine Seismic Surveys with an Emphasis on Marine Mammal". Aquatic Mammals. 39 (4): 356–377. doi:10.1578/am.39.4.2013.356.
- M. Andre; T. Johansson; E. Delory; M. van der Schaar (2005). "Cetacean biosonar and noise pollution". 2. Oceans 2005–Europe. doi:10.1109/OCEANSE.2005.1513199. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Aldemaro Romero (2012). "When whales Became mammals: The Scientific Journey of Cetaceans from fish to mammals in the history of science" (PDF). New Approaches to the Study of Marine Mammals. INTECH Open Access Publisher. doi:10.5772/50811.
- Conrad Gesner. Historiae animalium. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- J. Ray (1671). "An account of the dissection of a porpess". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 6: 2274–2279. Bibcode:1671RSPT....6.2274R. doi:10.1098/rstl.1671.0048.
- Susanne Prahl (2007). "Studies for the construction of epicranialen airway when porpoise (Phocoena phocoena Linnaeus, 1758)". Dissertation for the Doctoral Degree of the Department of Biology of the Faculty of mathematics, computer science and natural sciences at the University of Hamburg. Hamburg: 6.
- Cunliffe, B.; Gosden, C.; Joyce, R. "The circumpolar zone". The Oxford Handbook of Archaeology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- J. Savelle (1997). "The Role of Architectural utility in the formation of archaeological Whale Bone Assemblages". Journal of Archaeological Science. 24: 869–885. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0167.
- unknown. "Movie Retriever: Whales". movieretriever.com.
- "The Whales, New York Tribune, August 9, 1861". New York Tribune. 9 August 1861. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- "Beluga Whales in Captivity: Hunted, Poisoned, Unprotected" (PDF). Special Report on Captivity 2006. Canadian Marine Environment Protection Society. 2006. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
- "Beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) Facts – Distribution – In the Zoo". World Association of Zoos and Aquariums. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Bonner, Nigel. Whales. Facts on File. pp. 17, 23–24. ISBN 0713708875.
- NMFS 2005, pp. 43–44.
- Rose, N. A. (2011). "Killer Controversy: Why Orcas Should No Longer Be Kept in Captivity" (PDF). Humane Society International and the Humane Society of the United States. Retrieved December 21, 2014.
- "Whale Attack Renews Captive Animal Debate". CBS News. March 1, 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Susan Jean Armstrong. Animal Ethics Reader. ISBN 9780415275897.
- "Orcas in Captivity - A look at killer whales in aquariums and parks". 23 November 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Chapter I: Space requirements". Electronic Code of Federal Regulation. 1. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Whiting, Candace Calloway. In the Wake of Blackfish -- Is it Time to Retire the Last Killer Whale Whose Capture Was Shown in the Film?", TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc., October 29, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Buss, Dale (2016-03-24). "Shamu Goes Out With the Tide: SeaWorld CEO On Its Abrupt Change -- And What Comes Next". Forbes. Retrieved 2016-03-26.
- Klinowska, Margaret; Cooke, Justin (1991). Dolphins, Porpoises, and Whales of the World: the IUCN Red Data Book (PDF). Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- J. L. Sumich; T. Goff; W. L. Perryman (2001). "Growth of two gray whale calves" (PDF). Aquatic Mammals. Grossmont College: 231–233. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
|Look up Cetacea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Cetacea|
- Media related to Cetacea at Wikimedia Commons
- Cetacea at Wikibooks
- "Cetacea". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). 1911.
- "Cetaceans". Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved February 2011. Check date values in:
- Scottish Cetacean Research & Rescue – see page on Taxonomy
- "Dolphin and Whale News". Science Daily. Retrieved March 2010. Check date values in:
- Futuyma, Douglas J. (1998). "Cetacea Evolution". Retrieved 2010. Check date values in:
- EIA Cetacean campaign: Reports and latest info.
- EIA in USA: reports etc.