Flower chafer

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Flower chafers
Cetoinedoree.jpg
Cetonia aurata, the green rose chafer
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Family: Scarabaeidae
Subfamily: Cetoniinae
Leach, 1815

Flower chafers are a group of scarab beetles, comprising the subfamily Cetoniinae. Many species are diurnal and visit flowers for pollen and nectar, or to browse on the petals. Some species also feed on fruit. The group is also called fruit and flower chafers, flower beetles and flower scarabs. There are around 4,000 species, many of them still undescribed.

Overview[edit]

By morphological characters, the adults can be separated from the other scarabs by the combination of the following characters: epipleuron easily recognizable, border lateral of elytra sinuate and antennal insertion visible from above. Twelve tribes are presently recognized: Cetoniini, Cremastocheilini, Diplognathini, Goliathini, Gymnetini, Phaedimini, Schizorhinini, Stenotarsiini, Taenioderini, Trichiini, Valgini, and Xiphoscelidini.[1] The tribe Gymnetini is the biggest of the American tribes, and Goliathini contains the largest species, and is mainly found in the rainforest regions of Africa.

Biology[edit]

Many species in the tribe Cremastocheilini are known to be predaceous, feeding on hymenopteran larvae or soft-bodied nymphs of Auchenorrhyncha. Spilophorus spp. have been noted feeding on the nesting material and excrement of South African passerine birds,[2] while Spilophorus maculatus has been recorded feeding on Oxyrhachis sp. nymphs[3] and Hoplostomus fuligineus is known to feed on the brood of honey bees in South Africa and the pupae of the wasp Belonogaster petiolata. Campsiura javanica feeds on the larvae of Ropalidia montana in southern India.[4] Cremastocheilus stathamae feeds on ants of the genus Myrmecocystus.[5]

Systematics and taxonomy[edit]

The tribes of subfamily Cetoniinae, with some notable genera also listed, are:[6]

Tribus Cetoniini[edit]

Subtribus Cetoniina

Subtribus Euphoriina

Subtribus Leucocelina

Incertae sedis

Tribus Cremastocheilini[edit]

Subtribus Aspilina

Subtribus Coenochilina

Subtribus Cremastocheilina

Subtribus Cymophorina

Subtribus Genuchina

Subtribus Goliathopsidina

Subtribus Heterogeniina

Subtribus Lissogeniina

Subtribus Macromina

Subtribus Nyassinina

Subtribus Oplostomatina

Subtribus Pilinurgina

Subtribus Spilophorina

Subtribus Telochilina

Subtribus Trichoplina

Subtribus Trogodina

Tribus Diplognathini[edit]

Tribus Goliathini[edit]

Subtribus Coryphocerina

Subtribus Dicronocephalina

Subtribus Goliathina

Subtribus Ichnestomatina

Unplaced to Subtribe

Tribus Gymnetini[edit]

Subtribus Blaesiina

Subtribus Gymnetina

Tribus Phaedimini[edit]

Tribus Schizorhinini[edit]

Subtribus Lomapterina

Subtribus Schizorhinina

Tribus Stenotarsiini[edit]

Subtribus Anochiliina

Subtribus Chromoptiliina

Subtribus Coptomiina

Subtribus Doryscelina

Subtribus Euchroeina

Subtribus Heterophanina

Subtribus Heterosomatina

Subtribus Pantoliina

Subtribus Parachilina

Subtribus Stenotarsiina

Tribus Taenioderini[edit]

Tribus Trichiini[edit]

Subtribus Cryptodontina

Subtribus Incaina

Subtribus Osmodermatina

Subtribus Platygeniina

Subtribus Trichiina

Tribus Valgini[edit]

Subtribe Microvalgina

Subtribe Valgina

Tribus Xiphoscelidini[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bouchard, P.; Bousquet, Y.; Davies, A.; Alonso-Zarazaga, M.; Lawrence, J.; Lyal, C.; Newton, A.; Reid, C.; Schmitt, M.; Ślipiński, A.; Smith, A. (2011). "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys. 88: 1–972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. PMC 3088472free to read. PMID 21594053. 
  2. ^ Shipley, A. E.; Marshall, Guy A. K., eds. (1910). The Fauna of British India. London, Calcutta and Bombay: Taylor and Francis. p. 201. 
  3. ^ Ghorpade, K.D. (1975). "A remarkable predacious cetoniid, Spilophorus maculatus (Gory & Percheron), from southern India (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)". The Coleopterists Bulletin. 29 (4): 226–230. 
  4. ^ Jeanne, Robert L. & J. H. Hunt (1992). "Beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) in a social wasp nest (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in India" (PDF). Entomologist's monthly magazine. 128: 139–141. 
  5. ^ Cazier, M.A. & Marjorie Statham (1962). "The behaviour and habits of the myrmecophilous scarab, Cremastocheilus stathamae Cazier, with notes on other species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).". J. New York Ent. Soc. 70: 125–149. 
  6. ^ "Subfamily Cetoniinae Leach, 1815". Retrieved 2010-12-29. 

External links[edit]