Ceuta

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Ceuta
Berber: Sebta
Arabic: سبتة (Sabtah)
Autonomous city
Flag of Ceuta
Flag
Coat of arms of Ceuta
Coat of arms
Map of Ceuta
Location of Ceuta within Spain
Coordinates: 35°53′18″N 5°18′56″W / 35.88833°N 5.31556°W / 35.88833; -5.31556Coordinates: 35°53′18″N 5°18′56″W / 35.88833°N 5.31556°W / 35.88833; -5.31556
Country Spain
Autonomous cityCeuta
First settled1st millennium BC
End of Muslim rule14 August 1415
Ceded to Spain1 January 1668
Autonomy status14 March 1995
Founded byCarthaginians
Government
 • TypeAutonomous city
 • BodyCouncil of Government
 • Mayor-PresidentJuan Jesús Vivas (PP)
Area
 • Total18.5 km2 (7.1 sq mi)
 • Land18.5 km2 (7.1 sq mi)
Elevation10 m (30 ft)
Highest elevation349 m (1,145 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total82,376
 • Density4,500/km2 (12,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Ceutan
ceutí (es)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166-2ES-CE
Postal code51001–51005
Official languageSpanish
ParliamentCortes Generales
Congress1 deputy (out of 350)
Senate2 senators (out of 264)
WebsiteCeuta.es

Ceuta (/ˈsjtə/ or /ˈsʊtə/)[2] is an 18.5 km2 (7 sq mi) Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 km (9 mi) from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 km (4 mi) land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco. It lies along the boundary between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean and is one of nine populated Spanish territories in Africa and, along with Melilla, one of two populated territories on mainland Africa. It was part of Cádiz province until 14 March 1995 when both Ceuta and Melilla's Statutes of Autonomy were passed, the latter having been part of Málaga province.

Ceuta, like Melilla and the Canary Islands, was a free port before Spain joined the European Union.[3] As of 2011, it has a population of 82,376.[1] Its population consists of Christians, Muslims and small minorities of Sephardic Jews and ethnic Sindhi Hindus.

Spanish is the official language, while Darija Arabic is also spoken by 40–50% of the population, which is of Moroccan origin.[4][5]

Names[edit]

The name Abyla is said to have been a Punic name ("Lofty Mountain"[6] or "Mountain of God") for Jebel Musa,[7] the southern Pillar of Hercules.[8] It appears in Greek variously as Abýla (Ἀβύλα), Abýlē (Ἀβύλη), Ablýx (Ἀβλύξ), and Abílē Stḗlē (Ἀβίλη Στήλη, "Pillar of Abyla")[8] and in Latin as Mount Abyla (Abyla Mons) or the Pillar of Abyla (Abyla Columna).

The settlement below Jebel Musa was later renamed for the seven hills around the site, collectively referred to as the "Seven Brothers"[9] (Greek: Ἑπτάδελφοι, Heptádelphoi;[10] Latin: Septem Fratres).[11] In particular, the Roman stronghold at the site took the name "Fort at the Seven Brothers" (Castellum ad Septem Fratres).[8] This was gradually shortened to Septem[12] (Σέπτον, Sépton) or, occasionally, Septum[13] or Septa.[14] These clipped forms continued as Berber Sebta and Arabic Sebtan[9] or Sabtah (Arabic: سبتة‎‎), which themselves became Ceuta in Portuguese (pronounced [ˈsew.tɐ]) and Spanish (pronounced [ˈθeuta]).

History[edit]

Ancient[edit]

Phoenician archeological site, dated to the 7th century BC, next to the Cathedral of Ceuta

Controlling access between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar is an important military and commercial chokepoint. The Phoenicians realized the extremely narrow isthmus joining the Peninsula of Almina to the African mainland makes Ceuta imminently defensible and established an outpost there in the early 1st millennium BC. The Greek geographers record it by variations of "Abyla", the ancient name of nearby Jebel Musa. Beside Calpe, the other Pillar of Hercules now known as the Rock of Gibraltar, the Phoenicians established Kart at what is now San Roque, Spain. Other good anchorages nearby became Phoenician and then Carthaginian ports at what are now Tangiers and Cadiz.

After Carthage's destruction in the Punic Wars, most of northwest Africa was left to the Roman client states of Numidia and—around Abyla—Mauretania. Punic culture continued to thrive in what the Romans knew as "Septem". After Thapsus, Caesar and his heirs began annexing north Africa directly as Roman provinces but, as late as Augustus, most of Septem's Berber residents continued to speak and write in Punic.

Caligula assassinated the Mauretanian king Ptolemy in AD 40 and seized his kingdom, which Claudius organized in 42, placing Septem in the province of Tingitana and raising it to the level of a colony. It subsequently romanized and thrived into the late 3rd century, trading heavily with Roman Spain and becoming well known for its salted fish. Roads connected it overland with Tingis (Tangiers) and Volubilis. Under Theodosius I in the late 4th century, Septem still had 10,000 inhabitants, nearly all Christian citizens speaking Latin and African Romance.[15]

Medieval[edit]

The Arab Baths of Ceuta, built between the 11th and 13th centuries.
The Marinid Walls, built by Abu Sa'id Uthman II in 1328.

Vandals, probably invited by Count Boniface as protection against the empress dowager, crossed the strait near Tingis around 425 and swiftly overran Roman North Africa. Their king Gaiseric focused his attention on the rich lands around Carthage; although the Romans eventually accepted his conquests and he continued to raid them anyway, he soon lost control of Tingis and Septem in a series of Berber revolts. When Justinian decided to reconquer the Vandal lands, his victorious general Belisarius continued along the coast, making Septem an outpost of the Byzantine Empire around 533. Unlike the Roman administration, however, the Byzantines did not push far into hinterland and made the more defensible Septem their regional capital in place of Tingis.

Epidemics, less capable successors, and overstretched supply lines forced a retrenchment and left Septem isolated. It is likely that its count (comes) was obliged to pay homage to the Visigoth Kingdom in Spain in the early 7th century. There are no reliable contemporary accounts of the end of the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb around 710. Instead, the rapid Muslim conquest of Spain produced romances concerning Count Julian of Septem and his betrayal of Christendom in revenge for the dishonor that befell his daughter at King Roderick's court. Allegedly with Julian's encouragement and instructions, the Berber convert and freedman Tariq ibn Ziyad took his garrison from Tangiers across the strait and overran the Spanish so swiftly that both he and his Persian master Musa bin Nusayr fell afoul of a jealous caliph, who stripped them of their wealth and titles.

After the death of Julian, sometimes also described as a king of the Ghomara Berbers, Berber converts to Islam took direct control of what they called Sebta. It was then destroyed during their great revolt against the Umayyad Caliphate around 740. Sebta subsequently remained a small village of Muslims and Christians surrounded by ruins until its resettlement in the 9th century by Mâjakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived Banu Isam dynasty.[16] His great-grandson briefly allied his tribe with the Idrisids, but Banu Isam rule ended in 931 when he abdicated in favor of Abd ar-Rahman III, the Umayyad caliph of Cordoba. Ceuta reverted to Moorish Andalusian rule in 927 along with Melilla, and later Tangier, in 951.

Chaos ensued with the fall of the Spanish Umayyads in 1031. Following this, Ceuta and Muslim Iberia were controlled by successive North African dynasties. Starting in 1084, the Almoravid Berbers ruled the region until 1147, when the Almohads conquered the land. Apart from Ibn Hud's rebellion in 1232, they ruled until the Tunisian Hafsids established control. The Hafsids' influence in the west rapidly waned, and Ceuta's inhabitants eventually expelled them in 1249. After this, a period of political instability persisted, under competing interests from the kingdoms of Fez and Granada. The Fez finally conquered the region in 1387, with assistance from Aragon.

Portuguese[edit]

Prince Henry the Navigator Statue in Ceuta Port
1572 depiction of Ceuta
The Royal Walls of Ceuta, built from 962 to the 18th century, and navigable moats.

On the morning of 21 August 1415, king John I of Portugal led his sons and their assembled forces in a surprise assault that would come to be known as the Conquest of Ceuta. The battle was almost anti-climactic, because the 45,000 men who traveled on 200 Portuguese ships caught the defenders of Ceuta off guard and only suffered eight casualties. By nightfall the town was captured. On the morning of August 22, Ceuta was in Portuguese hands. Álvaro Vaz de Almada, 1st Count of Avranches was asked to hoist what was to become the flag of Ceuta, which is identical to the flag of Lisbon, but in which the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Portugal was added to the center; the original Portuguese flag and coat of arms of Ceuta remained unchanged, and the modern-day Ceuta flag features the configuration of the Portuguese shield.

John's son Henry the Navigator distinguished himself in the battle, being wounded during the conquest. The looting of the city proved to be less profitable than expected for John I; he decided to keep the city to pursue further enterprises in the area.[17]

From 1415 to 1437, Pedro de Meneses became the first governor of Ceuta.

The Benemerine sultan started the 1418 siege but was defeated by the first governor of Ceuta before reinforcements arrived in the form of John, Constable of Portugal and his brother Henry the Navigator who were sent with troops to defend Ceuta.

Under King John I's son, Duarte, the colony at Ceuta rapidly became a drain on the Portuguese treasury. Trans-Saharan trade journeyed instead to Tangier. It was soon realized that without the city of Tangier, possession of Ceuta was worthless. In 1437, Duarte's brothers Henry the Navigator and Fernando, the Saint Prince persuaded him to launch an attack on the Marinid sultanate. The resulting Battle of Tangier (1437), led by Henry, was a debacle. In the resulting treaty, Henry promised to deliver Ceuta back to the Marinids in return for allowing the Portuguese army to depart unmolested, which he reneged on.

Possession of Ceuta would indirectly lead to further Portuguese expansion. The main area of Portuguese expansion, at this time, was the coast of Magreb, where there was grain, cattle, sugar, and textiles, as well as fish, hides, wax, and honey.[18]

Ceuta had to endure alone for 43 years, until the position of the city was consolidated with the taking of Ksar es-Seghir (1458), Arzila and Tangier (1471) by the Portuguese.

The city was recognized as a Portuguese possession by the Treaty of Alcáçovas (1479) and by the Treaty of Tordesilhas (1494).

In the 1540s the Portuguese began building the Royal Walls of Ceuta as they are today including bastions, a navigable moat and a drawbridge. Some of these bastions are still standing, like the bastions of Coraza Alta, Bandera and Mallorquines.[19]

Luís de Camões lived in Ceuta between 1549 and 1551, losing his right eye in battle, which influenced his work of poetry Os Lusíadas.

Iberian Union[edit]

In 1578 King Sebastian of Portugal died at the Battle of Alcácer Quibir (known as the Battle of Three Kings) in what is today northern Morocco, without descendants, triggering the 1580 Portuguese succession crisis. His granduncle, the elderly Cardinal Henry, succeeded him as King, but Henry also had no descendants, having taken holy orders. When the cardinal-king died two years after Sebastian's disappearance, three grandchildren of King Manuel I of Portugal claimed the throne: Infanta Catarina, Duchess of Braganza, António, Prior of Crato, and Philip II of Spain (Uncle of former King Sebastian of Portugal), who would go on to be crowned King Philip I of Portugal in 1581, uniting the two crowns and overseas empires known as the Iberian Union,[20] which allowed the two kingdoms to continue without being merged.

During the Iberian Union 1580 to 1640, Ceuta attracted many residents of Spanish origin.[21] Ceuta became the only city of the Portuguese Empire that sided with Spain when Portugal regained its independence in the Portuguese Restoration War of 1640.

Spanish[edit]

Fort of the Desnarigado, built in the 19th century. It houses a museum.

Disagreements regarding the border of Ceuta resulted in the Hispano-Moroccan War (1859–60), which ended at the Battle of Tetuán.

A street in Ceuta, c. 1905–1910
Bastion of la Coraza Alta on the shore of the Playa del Chorrillo beach.

On 1 January 1668, King Afonso VI of Portugal recognized the formal allegiance of Ceuta to Spain and formally ceded Ceuta to King Carlos II of Spain by the Treaty of Lisbon.

The city was attacked by Moroccan forces under Moulay Ismail during the Siege of Ceuta (1694-1727). During the longest siege in history, the city underwent changes leading to the loss of its Portuguese character. While most of the military operations took place around the Royal Walls of Ceuta, there were also small-scale penetrations by Spanish forces at various points on the Moroccan coast, and seizure of shipping in the Strait of Gibraltar.

In July 1936, General Francisco Franco took command of the Spanish Army of Africa and rebelled against the Spanish republican government; his military uprising led to the Spanish Civil War of 1936–1939. Franco transported troops to mainland Spain in an airlift using transport aircraft supplied by Germany and Italy. Ceuta became one of the first casualties of the uprising: General Franco's rebel nationalist forces seized Ceuta, while at the same time the city came under fire from the air and sea forces of the official republican government.[22]

The Llano Amarillo monument was erected to honor Francisco Franco, it was inaugurated on 13 July 1940. The tall obelisk has since been abandoned, but the shield symbols of the Falange and Imperial Eagle remain visible.[23]

When Spain recognized the independence of Spanish Morocco in 1956, Ceuta and the other plazas de soberanía remained under Spanish rule. Spain considered them integral parts of the Spanish state, but Morocco has disputed this point.

Culturally, modern Ceuta is part of the Spanish region of Andalusia. It was attached to the province of Cádiz until 1925, the Spanish coast being only 20 km (12.5 miles) away. It is a cosmopolitan city, with a large ethnic Arab Muslim minority as well as Sephardic Jewish and Hindu minorities.[24]

On 5 November 2007, King Juan Carlos I visited the city, sparking great enthusiasm from the local population and protests from the Moroccan government.[25] It was the first time a Spanish head of state had visited Ceuta in 80 years.

Since 2010, Ceuta (and Melilla) have declared the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha or Feast of the Sacrifice, as an official public holiday. It is the first time a non-Christian religious festival has been officially celebrated in Spain since the Reconquista.[26][27]

Geography[edit]

Map of Ceuta (Perejil islet is just off the coast, in the upper left of this map)
Perspective view of the Strait of Gibraltar facing eastwards; Spain and Gibraltar on the left; Morocco and Ceuta on the right

Ceuta is dominated by Monte Anyera, a hill along its western frontier with Morocco. The mountain is guarded by a military fort.

Monte Hacho on the Peninsula of Almina overlooking the port is one of the possible locations for the southern pillar of the Pillars of Hercules of Greek legend (the other possibility being Jebel Musa).[28]

Climate[edit]

Ceuta has a maritime-influenced Subtropical/Mediterranean climate, similar to nearby Spanish and Moroccan cities such as Tarifa, Algeciras or Tangiers.[29] The average diurnal temperature variation is relatively low; the average annual temperature is 18.8 °C (65.8 °F) with average yearly highs of 21.4 °C (70.5 °F) and lows of 15.7 °C (60.3 °F) though the Ceuta weather station has only been in operation since 2003.[30] Ceuta has relatively mild winters for the latitude, while summers are warm yet milder than in the interior of Southern Spain, due to the moderating effect of the Straits of Gibraltar. Summers are very dry, but yearly precipitation is still at 849 mm (33.4 in),[30] which could be considered a humid climate if the summers were not so arid.

Climate data for Ceuta city (1m altitude)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.7
(71.1)
25.5
(77.9)
27.9
(82.2)
28.4
(83.1)
33.7
(92.7)
35.3
(95.5)
40.2
(104.4)
38.9
(102)
34.8
(94.6)
33.1
(91.6)
27.2
(81)
25.6
(78.1)
40.2
(104.4)
Average high °C (°F) 16.1
(61)
16.7
(62.1)
17.8
(64)
19.4
(66.9)
22.5
(72.5)
25.8
(78.4)
28.9
(84)
28.5
(83.3)
26.1
(79)
22.9
(73.2)
18.9
(66)
16.7
(62.1)
21.7
(71.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
14.2
(57.6)
15.0
(59)
16.5
(61.7)
19.2
(66.6)
22.3
(72.1)
25.0
(77)
25.1
(77.2)
23.0
(73.4)
20.2
(68.4)
16.5
(61.7)
14.4
(57.9)
18.8
(65.8)
Average low °C (°F) 11.1
(52)
11.6
(52.9)
12.2
(54)
13.6
(56.5)
15.9
(60.6)
18.8
(65.8)
21.1
(70)
21.7
(71.1)
19.9
(67.8)
17.5
(63.5)
14.0
(57.2)
12.2
(54)
15.8
(60.4)
Record low °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
4.4
(39.9)
7.2
(45)
9.0
(48.2)
10.5
(50.9)
13.2
(55.8)
16.3
(61.3)
18.0
(64.4)
15.3
(59.5)
12.2
(54)
7.4
(45.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.3
(34.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 122
(4.8)
145
(5.71)
90
(3.54)
57
(2.24)
21
(0.83)
3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
3
(0.12)
37
(1.46)
82
(3.23)
127
(5)
161
(6.34)
849
(33.43)
Average precipitation days 7 8 6 5 3 1 0 1 2 5 7 9 54
Average relative humidity (%) 72 75 68 71 66 67 61 70 72 75 73 73 70
Source: Weather.com,[31] WorldWeatherOnline,[32][30] and Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[33]

Politics[edit]

The Palacio de la Asamblea de Ceuta is the seat of the Assembly of Ceuta.

Since 1995, Ceuta is, along with Melilla, one of the two autonomous cities of Spain.[34]

Ceuta is known officially in Spanish as Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (English: Autonomous City of Ceuta), with a rank between a standard Spanish city and an autonomous community. Ceuta is part of the territory of the European Union. The city was a free port before Spain joined the European Union in 1986. Now it has a low-tax system within the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. As of 2006, its population was 75,861.

Ceuta has held elections every four years since 1979, for its 25-seat assembly. The leader of its government was the Mayor until the Autonomy Statute had the title changed to the Mayor-President. As of 2011, the People's Party (PP) won 18 seats, keeping Juan Jesús Vivas as Mayor-President, which he has been since 2001. The remaining seats are held by the regionalist Caballas Coalition (4) and the Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE, 3).[35]

Due to its small population, Ceuta elects only one member of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house of the Spanish legislature. As of 2011 election, this post is held by Francisco Márquez de la Rubia of the PP.[36]

Subdivisions[edit]

Ceuta is subdivided into 63 barriadas ("neighborhoods"), such as Barriada de Berizu, Barriada de P. Alfonso, Barriada del Sarchal, and El Hacho.[37][38][39]

Dispute with Morocco[edit]

The government of Morocco has repeatedly called for Spain to transfer the sovereignty of Ceuta and Melilla, together with the rest of the Spanish plazas de soberanía on the North African coast, on the grounds of asserting its territorial integrity. Morocco has claimed the territories are colonies.[40]

Economy[edit]

The Moroccan mountain of Jebel Musa, as viewed from Benzú
A sign welcoming visitors to Ceuta, showing the flags of Ceuta, Spain and the European Union

The official currency of Ceuta is the euro. It is part of a special low tax zone in Spain.[41] Ceuta is one of two Spanish port cities on the northern shore of Africa, along with Melilla. They are historically military strongholds, free ports, oil ports, and also fishing ports.[42] Today the economy of the city depends heavily on its port (now in expansion) and its industrial and retail centers.[41] Ceuta Heliport is now used to connect the city to mainland Spain by air. Lidl, Decathlon Group and El Corte Inglés (hardware) have branches in Ceuta. There is also a casino. Border trade between Ceuta and Morocco is active because of advantage of tax-free status. Thousands of Moroccan women are involved in porter trade daily. Moroccan dirham is actually used in such trade, despite the fact that prices are marked in euro.[43] [44][45]

Transport[edit]

The city receives high numbers of ferries each day from Algeciras in Andalusia in the south of Spain, along with Melilla and the Canary Islands. The closest airport is Sania Ramel Airport in Morocco. There is a bus service throughout the city which does not pass into neighboring Morocco.

A single road border checkpoint allows for cars to travel between Morocco and Ceuta. The rest of the border is closed and inaccessible.

Demographics[edit]

Due to its location, Ceuta is home to a mixed ethnic and religious population. The two main religious groups are Christians and Muslims. As of 2006 approximately 50% of the population was Christian and approximately 49% Muslim.[46] However, by 2012, the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Roman Catholic was 68.0%, while the portion of Ceuta's population that identify as Muslim was 28.3%.[47]

Spanish is the primary and official language of the enclave.[48] Moroccan Arabic is widely spoken,[49] as are Berber and French.[50]

Religion[edit]

Remains of the Late Roman Christian Basilica and Necropolis of Ceuta dated to the mid-4th century CE or the beginning of the 5th century CE.
Muley El Mehdi mosque (built in 1940)

Christianity has been present in Ceuta continuously from late antiquity, as evidenced by the ruins of a basilica in downtown Ceuta[51] and accounts of the martyrdom of St Daniel Fasanella and his Franciscans in 1227.

The town's Grand Mosque had been built over a Byzantine-era church. In 1415, the year of the city's conquest, the Portuguese converted the Grand Mosque into Ceuta Cathedral. The present form of the cathedral dates to refurbishments undertaken in the late 17th century, combining baroque and neoclassical elements. It was dedicated to St Mary of the Assumption in 1726.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Ceuta was established in 1417. It incorporated the suppressed Diocese of Tanger in 1570.[52] The Diocese of Ceuta was a suffragan of Lisbon until 1675, when it became a suffragan of Seville.[53] In 1851, Ceuta's administration was notionally merged into the Diocese of Cadiz and Ceuta as part of a concordat between Spain and the Holy See;[54] the union was not actually accomplished, however, until 1879.

Education[edit]

The University of Granada offers undergraduate programs at their campus in Ceuta. Like all areas of Spain, Ceuta is also served by the National University of Distance Education (UNED).

Primary and secondary education is possible only in Spanish however a growing number of schools are entering the Bilingual Education Program.

Migrants[edit]

As in Melilla, Ceuta is attractive to migrants who try to use it as an entry to Europe. As a result the enclave is surrounded by double fences that are 6 m (20 ft) high and hundreds of migrants congregate near the fences waiting for a chance to cross them. The fences are regularly stormed by migrants trying to claim asylum once they enter Ceuta.[55]

Notable people from Ceuta[edit]

Eclectic House of the Dragons, built in 1905.

1083 to 1700[edit]

1700 to 1800[edit]

1800 to 1950[edit]

  • General Francisco Llano de la Encomienda (1879 in Ceuta – 1963 in Mexico City) was a Spanish soldier. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) he remained loyal to the Second Spanish Republic
  • General Antonio Escobar Huertas (1879 in Ceuta – executed 1940 in Barcelona) was a Spanish military officer
  • África de las Heras Gavilán (Ceuta, 1909 – Moscow, 1988) was a Spanish Communist, naturalized Soviet citizen, and KGB spy who went by the code name Patria
  • Eugenio Martín (born 1925 in Ceuta) is a Spanish film director and screenwriter
  • Jacob Hassan, PhD (1936 in Ceuta – 2006 in Madrid) was a Spanish-Jewish philologist
  • José Martínez Sánchez (born 1945 in Ceuta), nicknamed Pirri, is a retired Spanish footballer, mainly played for Real Madrid, appearing in 561 competitive games and scoring 172 goals
  • Manuel Chaves González (born 1945 in Ceuta) is a Spanish politician of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party. He served as the Third Vice President of the Spanish Government from 2009 to 2011
  • Ramón Castellano de Torres (born 1947 in Ceuta) is a Spanish artist, thought by some to be an expressionist painter
  • José Ramón López (1950) was a sprint canoer. He won the silver medal in the 1976 Summer Olympics.

1950 to date[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Ceuta is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Decision Spain >> Resources >> Municipalities without testimony >> Ceuta + Melilla". Decision Espana. Retrieved 16 August 2016.
  2. ^ Ceuta. Oxford Dictionaries.
  3. ^ Ferrer-Gallardo, Xavier. "The Spanish–Moroccan border complex: Processes of geopolitical, functional and symbolic rebordering". Political Geography. 27 (3): 301–321. doi:10.1016/j.polgeo.2007.12.004.
  4. ^ Verónica Rivera (December 2006). "IMPORTANCIA Y VALORACIÓN SOCIOLINGÜÍSTICA DEL DARIJA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA PÚBLICA EN CEUTA" [Importance and Socio-Linguistic Valuation of Darija in the Context of Public Secondary Education in Ceuta]. REVISTA ELECTRÓNICA DE ESTUDIOS FILOLÓGICOS (in Spanish) (12). ISSN 1577-6921.
  5. ^ Fernández García, Alicia (2016). "Nacionalismo y representaciones lingüísticas en Ceuta y en Melilla". Revista de Filología Románica. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. 33 (1): 23–46. doi:10.5209/RFRM.55230. ISSN 0212-999X.
  6. ^ Cauvin & al. (1843).
  7. ^ Bonney & al. (1907), p. 26.
  8. ^ a b c Smith (1854).
  9. ^ a b Smedley & al. (1845), p. 49.
  10. ^ Ptolemy, Geography, IV.i.5.
  11. ^ In, e.g., Pomponius Mela.
  12. ^ Walter E. Kaegi (4 November 2010). Muslim Expansion and Byzantine Collapse in North Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-521-19677-2.
  13. ^ A Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature. 2. John Kitto, William Lindsay Alexander. 1864. p. 350.
  14. ^ Dyer (1873).
  15. ^ Mommsen, Theodore, The Provinces of the Roman Empire, s.v. "Africa".
  16. ^ Gibb, Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen; Johannes Hendrik Kramers; Bernard Lewis; Charles Pellat; Joseph Schacht (1994), The Encyclopaedia of Islam, E.J. Brill, p. 690.
  17. ^ López de Coca Castañer, José Enrique (1998). "Granada y la expansión portuguesa en el Magreb extremo". Historia. Instituciones. Documentos. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla (25): 351. ISSN 0210-7716.
  18. ^ Payne, Stanley G., A History of Spain and Portugal, Vol.1, Chap.10 "The Expansion"
  19. ^ "Ceuta". fortified-places.com. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  20. ^ *Kamen, Henry (1999). Philip of Spain. Yale University Press. p. 177. ISBN 9780300078008.
  21. ^ Griffin, H (2010). Ceuta Mini Guide. Mirage. ISBN 978-0-9543335-3-9.
  22. ^ "History of Ceuta". Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
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