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The Château d'If (French pronunciation: [ʃɑto dif]) is a fortress and former prison located on the Île d'If, the smallest island in the Frioul archipelago, situated about 1.5 kilometres (7⁄8 mile) offshore from Marseille in southeastern France. It is famous for being one of the settings of Alexandre Dumas's adventure novel The Count of Monte Cristo.
The Île d'If measures 3 hectares (0.03 km2) and is located 3.5 km (2+1⁄8 mi) west of the Old Port of Marseille. The entire island is heavily fortified; high ramparts with gun platforms surmount the cliffs, which rise steeply from the surrounding ocean. Apart from the fortress, the island is uninhabited.
The "château" is a square, three-story building 28 m (92 ft) long on each side, flanked by three towers with large gun embrasures. It was built in 1524–31 on the orders of King Francis I, who, during a visit in 1516, saw the island as a strategically important location for defending the coastline from sea-based attacks.
The castle's principal military value was as a deterrent; it never had to fight off an actual attack. The closest that it came to a genuine test of strength was in July 1531, when Holy Roman Emperor Charles V made preparations to attack Marseille. However, he abandoned the invasion plan.
In 1701, the military engineer Vauban questioned its suitability to defend against an actual attack: "The fortifications look like the rock, they are fully rendered, but very roughly and carelessly, with many imperfections. The whole having been very badly built and with little care... All the buildings, very crudely done, are ill made."
The embalmed body of general Jean Baptiste Kléber was repatriated to France after his assassination in Cairo in 1800. Napoleon, fearing that his tomb would become a symbol to Republicanism, ordered that the body stay at the château. It remained there for 18 years until Louis XVIII granted Kléber a proper burial in his native Strasbourg.
The isolated location and dangerous offshore currents of the Château d'If made it an ideal escape-proof prison, very much like the island of Alcatraz in California in more recent times. Its use as a dumping ground for political and religious detainees soon made it one of the most feared and notorious jails in France. Over 3,500 Huguenots (French Calvinists/identifying Christians) were sent to Château d'If, as was Gaston Crémieux, a leader of the Paris Commune, who was shot there in 1871.
The island became internationally famous in the 19th century when Alexandre Dumas used it as a setting for The Count of Monte Cristo, published to widespread acclaim in 1844. In the novel, the main character Edmond Dantès (a commoner who later purchases the noble title of Count) and his mentor, Abbé Faria, were both imprisoned in it. After fourteen years, Dantès makes a daring escape from the castle, becoming the first person ever to do so and survive. In reality, no one is known to have done this. The modern Château d'If maintains a roughly hewn dungeon in honour of Dantès as a tourist attraction.
As was common practice in those days, prisoners were treated differently according to their class and wealth. The poorest were placed at the bottom, being confined perhaps twenty or more to a cell in windowless dungeons under the castle. However, the wealthiest inmates were able to pay for their own private cells (or pistoles) higher up, with windows, a garderobe and a fireplace.
The château today
The château's use as a prison ceased at the end of the 19th century. It was demilitarized and opened to the public on 23 September 1890. It can be reached by boat from Marseille's old port. Its fame comes from the setting for Dumas' novel, The Count of Monte Cristo. This fame has made the prison a popular tourist destination.
Mark Twain visited the château in July 1867 during a months-long pleasure excursion. He recounts his visit in his book, The Innocents Abroad. He says a guide took his party into the prison, which was not yet open to the public, and inside the cells, one of which he says housed the "Iron Mask". There is a sign at the château that says "Prison dite de l'Homme au Masque de Fer" ("Said to be the prison of the Man in the Iron Mask"), but this is likely only legend since the famed Man in the Iron Mask was never held at the Château d'If.
In fictional works
- The Château d'If is famous for being one of the settings of Alexandre Dumas' adventure novel The Count of Monte Cristo. However, other locations have been used to represent Château d'If in film adaptations of the work. In the 2002 adaptation starring Jim Caviezel, the château was represented by Saint Mary's Tower on Comino, the smallest inhabited Maltese island. The cliff-top watchtower can be seen from the ferry crossing between Malta and Gozo.
- Chateau d'If is the title of a 1949 short story written by Jack Vance (previously published as New Bodies For Old).
- The fortress was used as the location where Alain Charnier a.k.a. Frog One (Fernando Rey) meets Devereaux (Frédéric de Pasquale) to finalize the drugs shipment to the United States in the 1971 crime film The French Connection.
- In the 1956 "Tales of Old Dartmoor" episode of The Goon Show radio comedy series, Grytpype-Thynne has Dartmoor Prison put to sea to visit the Château d'If, as part of a plan to find the treasure of the Count of Monte Cristo.
- In the Clive Cussler novel Spartan Gold, the main characters visit the Château d'If as part of their quest for hidden treasure.
- In the collection of short stories Carolina Grau by Mexican author Carlos Fuentes.
- Élie Neau, Huguenot
- Philippe, Chevalier de Lorraine, lover of Philippe de France
- Jean-Baptiste Chataud, accused of bringing the plague to Marseille (c. 1720 – c. 1723)
- Honoré Mirabeau, writer, popular orator and statesman (1774–1775)
- Abbé Faria (1797–?); his stay at the château is disputed
- Michel Mathieu Lecointe-Puyraveau, politician (1815)
- Gaston Crémieux, a leader of the Paris Commune (1871)
- "Lonely Planet Guide to Marseille". Lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- "Marseille Office of Tourism". Marseille-tourisme.com. Archived from the original on 2014-04-18. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- Cimetières de France et d’ailleurs (in French).
- Jean Paul Baillard. Kléber après Kléber (1800–2000)—Les pérégrinations posthumes des restes du général Kléber (in French). ISBN 2-913302-08-4.
- "Centre Des Monuments Nationaux". If.monuments-nationaux.fr. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- Base Mérimée: PA00081333, Ministère français de la Culture. (in French)
- Vance, Jack (August 1, 1990). Chateau d'If and Other Stories. Underwood Books. ISBN 9780887330988.
- Château d'If – Between Myth and Reality Archived 2016-04-12 at the Wayback Machine"
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Château d'If.|
- Château d'If Tour—Sign about Man in the Iron Mask is at 1:30 into video