The in post-Meiji Restoration cadastral reform of April 1, 1889, Chōfu Town and neighboring Jindai Village were established within Kanagawa Prefecture. The entire district was transferred to the control of Tokyo Metropolis on April 1, 1893. Jindai was elevated to town status on November 3, 1952, and merged with Chōfu Town on April 1, 1955, to form the present city of Chōfu.
Every July, Chōfu hosts the Chōfu City Fireworks Festival, attended by as many as 300,000 people along the banks of the Tamagawa River. The tiny Fuda Station on the Keio Line is inundated on this one day with tens of thousands of visitors.
Chōfu has a large cultural centre that supports many groups encouraging the integration of foreigners into Japanese society, providing free Japanese, Shodo, Ikebana, Karate (and many other) lessons.
There is a park and memorial hall commemorating the life of novelist Mushanokōji Saneatsu, a former resident of Chōfu.