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Edo, Fukagawa (Fukagawa Edo Museum)
The house of the merchant (Fukagawa Edo Museum)

Chōnin (町人, "townsman") was a social class that emerged in Japan during the early years of the Tokugawa period.

The majority of chōnin were merchants, but some were craftsmen. Nōmin (農民, "farmers") were not considered chōnin.

While chōnin are not as well known to non Japanese as other social classes in Japan, they played a key role in the development of Japanese cultural products such as ukiyo-e, rakugo, and handicrafts. Aesthetic ideals such as iki, tsū, and inase were also developed among the chōnin.

The socioeconomic ascendance of chōnin has certain similarities to the roughly contemporary rise of the middle class in the West.


By the late 17th century the prosperity and growth of Edo had begun to produce unforeseen changes in the Tokugawa social order. The chōnin, who were theoretically at the bottom of the Edo hierarchy (shinōkōshō, samurai-farmers-craftsmen-merchants, with chōnin encompassing the two latter groups), flourished socially and economically at the expense of the daimyōs and samurai, who were eager to trade rice (the principal source of domainal income) for cash and consumer goods. Mass-market innovations further challenged social hierarchies. For example, vast Edo department stores had cash-only policies, which favored the chōnin with their ready cash supply.

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