Chabi

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Empress Chabi
YuanEmpressAlbumChabi.jpg
Portrait by Araniko
Khatun of Mongols
Tenure1260 - 1281
PredecessorKhutughtai khatun
SuccessorEmpress Nambui
Empress of China
Tenure1271 - 1281
PredecessorEmpress Quan
SuccessorEmpress Nambui
Born1216
Died20 March 1281(1281-03-20) (aged 65)
SpouseKublai Khan
IssueZhenjin, Crown Prince
Manggala, Prince of Anxi
Posthumous name
Empress Zhaorui Shunsheng 昭睿順聖皇后
ClanKhongirad
FatherAnchen of the Onggirat tribe
ReligionBuddhism

Empress Chabi (Mongolian: Чаби хатан, ᠴᠠᠪᠦᠢ ᠬᠠᠲᠤᠨ; Chinese: 察必皇后, c. 1216 [1]–1281) was a Khongirad empress consort of the Yuan dynasty of China, married to Kublai Khan (Emperor Shizu). As such, she was the first empress of China of Mongol ethnicity.

Life[edit]

She was born around 1216 to Alchi Noyan's son Anchen Noyan . Nephew of Börte from Khongirad tribe and his otherwise unnamed, posthumously called wife Princess Jining. She married to Kublai in 1234 as his second wife and bore him four sons and 6 daughters later.[2] She was an important political and diplomatic influence, especially in pleasing the Chinese masses through reconciliation with Confucianism. She was compared to Börte through for her reputation.[3] She was described as extremely beautiful and charming by Rashid al-Din.[4]

Möngke Khagan died in 1259 while Kublai was campaigning against the Song Dynasty. She warned her husband of advancements of Ariq Böke beforehand.[5] After conquest of China, she suggested a better treatment of the north Chinese imperial family, namely Empress Quan in 1276. She also introduced new court fashion in form of hats. Chabi also promoted Buddhism in the high levels of government fiercely. She also named her child under influence of Buddhism.[2] She mediated religious disputes between Kublai and Phagpa, and supported the latter both economically and politically.[5] She was also patron of Zangpo Pal.

She died on 1281, probably arranging her niece Nambui to marry Kublai afterwards. She was posthumously renamed Empress Zhaorui Shunsheng (昭睿順聖皇后) by her grandson Temür Khan.

Family[edit]

She had 4sons and 6 daughters with Kublai khan:

  1. Crown Prince Zhenjin (1243 – 1285) — Prince of Yan (燕王)
  2. Manggala (c. 1249-1280) — Prince of Anxi (安西王)
  3. Nomugan (d. 1301) — Prince of Beiping (北平王)
  4. Kokechi (d.1271) - Prince of Liang
  5. Grand Princess of Zhao, Yuelie (赵国大長公主) — married to Ay Buqa, Prince of Zhao (趙王)
  6. Princess Ulujin (吾魯真公主) — married to Buqa from Ikires clan
  7. Princess Chalun (昌国大长公主) - married to Teliqian from Ikires clan
  8. Grand Princess of Lu, Öljei (鲁国长公主) — married to Ulujin Küregen from Khongirad clan, Prince of Lu
  9. Grand Princess of Lu, Nangiajin (鲁国大长公主) — married to Ulujin Küregen from Khongirad clan, Princess of Lu, then after Ulujin's death in 1278 to his brother Temür, and after Temür's death in 1290 to a third brother, Manzitai
  10. Princess Jeguk

In popular media[edit]

She was portrayed several times in TV series and movies:

Sources[edit]

  • Stearns, Peter N.; Michael Adas; Stuart B. Schwartz; Marc Jason Gilbert (2011). "14 • The Last Great Nomadic Challenges: From Chinggis Khan to Timur". World Civilizations: The Global Experience AP* Edition (6th ed.). pp. 327–328. ISBN 0-13-136020-5.
  • Jack Weatherford (2011). The Secret History of the Mongol Queens: How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire Paperback. Broadway Books. ISBN 0307407160.
  • "MONGOLS, CHRISTIANITY, NESTORIANS AND THE SILK ROAD". factsanddetails.com.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women, Volume II:Tang Through Ming 618-1644: "Chabui, c. 1216-1281 (Mongol and Yuan dynasties). Was the most senior, although not the first, wife of Quibilai Khan (1215-1294)"
  2. ^ a b Atwood, Christopher Pratt (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol empire. New York, NY: Facts On File. p. 82. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9. OCLC 52901464.
  3. ^ May, Timothy (2016-11-07). The Mongol Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 136–137. ISBN 978-1-61069-340-0.
  4. ^ Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb, 1247?-1318. (1971). The successors of Genghis Khan. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 241. ISBN 0-231-03351-6. OCLC 160563.
  5. ^ a b Rossabi, Morris (2014-01-01). 12. Khubilai Khan and the Women in His Family. Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004285293_014. ISBN 978-90-04-28529-3.
Preceded by Consort of Kublai Khan
1234–1281
Succeeded by
Preceded by Khatun of the Mongols
1260–1281
Preceded by Empress of Yuan
1271–1281