Chach of Aror

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Chach
Maharaja of Sindh
Reign631-711
PredecessorRai Sahasi (Sinhasena)
SuccessorChandar
IssueDahir
HouseBrahmin dynasty
ReligionHinduism

Chach (c. 631-711 CE) (Sindhi: چچ‎)[1] was a Brahmin who reigned as king of Sindh region of the Indian subcontinent in the mid-7th century CE. Chach expanded the kingdom of Sindh, and his successful efforts to subjugate surrounding monarchies and ethnic groups into an empire covering the entire Indus valley and beyond were recorded in the Chach Nama.

Biography[edit]

Chach was a Brahmin[2] who rose to a position of influence under Rai Sahiras II, king of Sindh and a member of the Rai dynasty. Chach was given the appointments prime minister[citation needed] to the King, and retained influence after Rai Sahasi's death. He became the lover of Chach's widow, and their marriage enabled him to receive the kingship the date of which is normally put at 632 AD.[1] Chach enlisted his brother Chandar (also known as Chandra) to help him administer the kingdom. He then launched a campaign against a succession of autonomous regions; he defeated his opponents along the south bank of the River Beas, at Iskandah, and at Sikkah. He sacked Sikkah, killing 5,000 men and taking the remainder of its inhabitants prisoners. A significant number of these captives were enslaved, and much booty was taken. After this victory, which he appointed a thakur to govern from Multan, and used his army to settle boundary disputes with Kashmir. Chach also conquered Siwistan, but allowed its chief, Matta, to remain as his feudatory.

Later, he expanded his rule into Buddhist regions across the Indus River. These efforts culminated in a battle at Brahmanabad, in which the region's governor, Agham Lohana, was killed. Chach remained in Brahmanabad for a year to cement his authority there, and appointed Agham's son Sarhand as his governor; Sarhand was also wed to Chach's niece. Chach took Agham's widow as his wife, as well.

From Brahmanabad, he invaded Sassanid territory through the town of Armanbelah, marching from Turan to Kandahar. He exacted tribute from the latter before returning.

Upon his death, Chach was succeeded by his brother Chandar; Chandar is stated to have ruled for eight years, whereupon Dahir, Chach's eldest son, inherited the throne.

Islamic expansion[edit]

In 644, after the Muslim conquest of Sassanid Empire, the Rashidun army entered Makran and defeated Sindh's army in the Battle of Rasil, annexing Makran (a traditional Persian territory under control of Rai dynasty at that time) and eastern Balochistan. Caliph Umar (634-644), however, for the time being, disapproved of any incursion beyond the Indus river and ordered his subordinates to consolidate their position west of Indus.[citation needed]

Places named after Chach[edit]

Several places along the Sindhu River were named after Chach; among these are Chachpur, Chachar, Chachro, Chachgaon, Chachi.[citation needed]

Preceded by
Rai Sahasi II
Chach of Alor
632-671 AD
Succeeded by
Chandar

References[edit]