Israel Meir Kagan
|Israel Meir Kagan|
Age 91, on his visit to the Polish Prime Minister
January 26, 1839 (11 Shevat 5599)|
Dzyatlava, Grodno Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||September 15, 1933
(24 Elul 5693)
Israel Meir (HaKohen) Kagan (January 26, 1839 – September 15, 1933), known popularly as the Chofetz Chaim (Hebrew: חפץ חיים, Hafetz Chaim), was an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.
Kagan was born in Dzyatlava, Grodno Governorate, Russian Empire (today Belarus), on January 26, 1839, and died in Radun', Wilno Province in Poland (now Belarus) on September 15, 1933. His surname, Poupko, is not widely known. His home town, Dzyatlava, was once named Zdzięcioł when it was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the time of the partitions of Poland. When Kagan was ten years old, his father died. His mother moved the family to Vilnius in order to continue her son's education. While in Vilnius, Kagan became a student of Rabbi Jacob Barit. Kagan's mother later remarried (Epstein) and moved to Radin. At 17, he married the daughter of his stepfather, and settled in Radin.
He served as the town rabbi of Radin for a short period. He then resigned from this position to establish the yeshiva in the city, which eventually became world-famous. By all accounts he was a modest and humble man. For a while he had a shop selling household provisions, which his wife managed. However, the business was not successful and he turned to teaching in order to support himself and his family. From 1864 to 1869 he taught Talmud in Minsk and Washilishok.
In 1869, he formed a Yeshiva in Radin. The Yeshiva was a success and grew to prominence, later becoming known as "Yeshivas Chofetz Chaim of Radin". In addition to spreading Torah through his yeshiva, Kagan, who became known as the Chofetz Chaim, was very active in Jewish causes. He traveled extensively to encourage the keeping of the Mitzvot amongst Jews. He became one of the most influential rabbis within Orthodox Judaism during the late 19th and early 20th century, taking a central leadership role in the World Agudath Israel movement in Eastern Europe.
Although the anti-religious attitudes which pervaded Zionism greatly distressed him, Kagan initially refused to become personally involved in the matter and refrained from publicly denouncing the movement. When his views became known, he cautioned his students about joining the Zionists and declared its political aims as being contrary to the Torah. He nevertheless cherished the Holy Land and in 1925 it was announced that he would be leaving Warsaw with his daughter and son-in-law to permanently settle in Petach Tikvah, Palestine. Upon discovering his plans, prominent rabbis and yeshiva deans persuaded him to remain in Radun and he died there on September 15, 1933 aged 95.
Many other Jewish religious institutions throughout the world also bear his name. One American yeshiva named in his honor is the Yeshivas Rabbeinu Yisrael Meir HaKohen centered in Queens, New York founded by his great nephew, Rabbi Dovid Leibowitz, with several branches in the United States, Canada, and Israel. The Chofetz Chaim's teachings have inspired some English-speaking American Jews to establish the Chofetz Chaim Heritage Foundation, dedicated to the dissemination of his teachings to Jewish communities around the world. An Orthodox kibbutz in Israel was named in his honor.
The house of the Chofetz Chaim in Radin, was disassembled, moved to Lithuania, and later transported to the USA. This fact became the ground for a criminal case which is as of December 2012[update] in court in Belarus.
During his lifetime he was venerated by Jews and non-Jews alike. Orthodox Jews across the world viewed him as one of the 36 saints and Polish farmers were said to have lured him into their fields believing his feet would bring blessing to their crops.
- Chafetz Chayim (חָפֵץ חַיִּים "Seeker/Desirer [of] Life"), his first book, (published in 1873), deals with the Biblical laws of gossip and slander (known in Hebrew as Lashon Hara, meaning "Evil tongue"). View the online edition in Hebrew here
- Sh'mirat HaLashon ("Guarding of the Tongue"), is a comprehensive discussion of the philosophy behind the Jewish concepts of power of speech and guarding one's speech. It also serves as an inspirational work designed to motivate the reader to be vigilant in the ethical usage of his speech and avoidance of others' unethical speech. Published in 1876. View the online edition in Hebrew here
- Mishna Berura ("Clarified teachings") is an important and widely used commentary, consisting of six volumes, on the Orach Chayim section of Yosef Karo's digested compilation of practical Jewish Law, the Shulchan Aruch. It combines his own elucidations and differing opinions with those of other Aharonim (post-medieval authorities.) [As found in the book by Rabbi Moses M. Yoshor "The Chafetz Chaim" on page 603 the 1st volume was published in 1884; 2nd volume in 1886; 3rd volume in 1891; 4th volume in 1898; 5th volume in 1902; 6th volume in 1907.]
- Biur Halacha ("Explanation of the Law") is a commentary tangential to the Mishna Berurah. It usually provides complex analysis of the legal rulings of earlier Jewish halachic authorities.
- Sha'ar HaTziyyun ("Gate of Distinction") serves primarily to document sources for laws and customs quoted in the Mishnah Berurah, but sometimes serves also to clarify ambiguous legal statements. The name Sha'ar HaTziyyun derives from the phrase sh'arim m'tzuyanim ba'halacha, translated as "gateways distinguished in (or marked in) Jewish Law," referring to the Torah study and scholarship that would distinguish Jewish homes. Rabbi Kagan chose the title as a pun, hinting at the distinction of the scholarship referenced in his work, but primarily referring to (as he writes on his title page) the function of Sha'ar HaTziyyun to document (mark) sources.
- Ahavat Chesed - One volume, published in 1888. On the commandment of lending money to the needy, the value of being kind to one another and various ways to do so.
- Machaneh Yisrael - One volume. On the minimum and manner of observing the Jewish commandments for a soldier in the army.
- Tiferes Adam - One volume. On the importance of a Jew having a beard and peyos (sidelocks).
- Geder Olam - One volume, published in 1890. On the importance of a married Jewish woman covering her hair.
- Nidchei Yisrael - Two volumes, published in 1893.
- Shem Olam - One volume, published in 1893.
- Chomas Hadas - 1 Volume, published in 1905. On the importance of a man to study Torah, and encourage others to learn. as well as the need to create groups in every city wherein a man could acquire Torah.
- Likutei Halachos - 5 Volumes. The first volume was published in 1900; 2nd volume in 1903; 3rd volume in 1913; 4th volume in 1922. There is a fifth volume called "Hashlamah" or "Completion" which was published in 1925.
- Gibores Ari - 2 volumes, published in 1907.
- Taharas Yisrael - 1 volume, published in 1910.On the importance of women to purify themselves in the waters of a mikvah (ritual bath) in accordance with accepted halachic practice.
- Toras Kohanim - 1 volume, published in 1911.
- Asifas Zikainim - 3 volumes, published in 1913.
- Chovas Hashmirah - 1 volume, published in 1915.
- Toras Habayis - 1 volume, published in 1923.
- Zechor Limiriam - 1 volume, published in 1925.
- Beis Yisrael - 1 volume, published in 1925.
- Sefer Hamitzvos Hakotzer - 2 volumes on those biblical commandments that are applicable during the exile, outside the land of Israel, and when the temple is not in existence. Published in 1931.
- Tzipita L'Yeshuah ("Have you yearned the redemption") is based on a passage from Tractate Shabbat, which states that after one passes away, he is asked by the heavenly court: "Have you yearned for the redemption?" This work describes the importance of actively awaiting Moshiach every day and doing everything in our power (learning Torah and doing mitzvot) to bring the redemption. The Chofetz Chaim's expectation of the immediate redemption was so strong that he would always carry special garments to change into once the redemption begins.
- Musar movement: Its history, leading personalities and doctrines by Rabbi Dov Katz, Feldheim Publishers 1996 (the new edition),printed in Israel.
- "Israel Meir Ha-Kohen" Encyclopedia Judaica. Jerusalem: Keter, 1972. Excerpt
- Chofetz Chaim
- Moses M. Yoshor, Israel Meir haKohen in Jewish Leaders, ed. Leo Jung. p. 462.
- Lester Samuel Eckman (1975). The history of the Musar movement, 1840-1945. Shengold Publishers. p. 100.
Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan received protests from many rabbis concerning his silence and lack of objection against the leaders of the Zionist movement as well as against the mocking of religion. By nature Rabbi Kagan was a man who avoided quarrels, and in the dispute over the Zionist movement he tried to avert further altercation. Nevertheless, "his heart was broken upon hearing that the leaders of Zionism [were] leading Jews astray in the colonies in Palestine and at home from the ways of the Torah; [...] Rabbi Kagan's stand was this: He denied "young scholarly-religious students under his jurisdiction [permission] to follow in the footsteps of the irreligious Zionist leaders, especially when one of the enlightened Zionists, reputed for always telling the truth, after his visiting all the schools in Palestine, testified that in the schools the critical method [was] used to study the Holy Books."
- Sacks, Jonathan (1992). Crisis and Covenant: Jewish Thought After the Holocaust. Manchester University Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7190-4203-4.
The saintly Rabbi Israel Meir ha-Cohen invoked the talmudic passage of the three oaths to remind his followers that the Jewish fate was to remain in exile until redeemed by God.
- Ravitzky, Aviezer (1 September 1996). Messianism, Zionism, and Jewish Religious Radicalism. University of Chicago Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-226-70578-1.
To be sure, this fierce opposition has not yet abated. There is little to distinguish the approach of Rabbi Hayyim Soloveichik of Brisk at the birth of Zionism from that of Rabbi Velvel Soloveichik after the establishment of the state. Just as the criticism levelled against the Zionists by the Hafetz Hayim and Rabbi Elhanan Wasserman is once more extensively cited today, buttressing the attacks made by Rabbi Schach and his circle. As Rabbi Schach quipped, "When I am asked by the heavenly court why I did not identify with the Zionist idea, I will unhesitatingly place the blame for this on the Hafetz Hayim and the other leading scholars who preceded me, and they will already know what answer to give."
- Marek Čejka; Roman Kořan (16 October 2015). "The rabbi for everyday: Israel Meir Ha-Kohen/Kagan". Rabbis of Our Time: Authorities of Judaism in the Religious and Political Ferment of Modern Times. Routledge. p. 83. ISBN 978-1-317-60544-7.
The book is also a vital component of the Judaic critique of Zionism, In this context the Chaftez Chaim was also very critical not only towards the state building attempts of Zionists, but also towards their efforts to create a modern Hebrew language. He sarcastically condemned the activities of Zionist philologist Eliezer Ben-Yehuda. […] Even through the Chaftez Chaim died 15 years before the establishment of the State of Israel, he influenced later rabbinical anti-Zionism in Israel very significantly.
- Heilman, Samuel C. (1992). "Who are the Haredim?". Defenders of the Faith: Inside Ultra-Orthodox Jewry. University of California Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-520-22112-3.
Second was the objection to the religiously unacceptable notion of a Zionism that suggest the Jews could become a "People like all other people." […] The Orthodox did not want a "normal Jewish state," but one that was altogether different. "It was not worthwhile," the Hafetz Hayim was quoted as saying, "to become another Albania or even another Belgium after ni9neteen centuries of suffering. A state must be established on Torah foundations.”
- "Chofetz Chaim Will Leave for Palestine Nov. 1". The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 30 October 1925. p. 6. Retrieved 25 November 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Lester Samuel Eckman (1975). The history of the Musar movement, 1840-1945. Shengold Publishers. pp. 101–2.
When his plans became public, a committee of leading rabbis and deans of theological seminaries requested him to postpone his journey, because the seminaries needed his guidance in the critical time of their time of their existence. Rabbi Kagan complied...
- "Chofetz Chaim Ill". The Kingston Daily Freeman. Kingston, New York. 7 May 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 25 November 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Chofetz Chaim, 105 Is Dead in Poland New York Times 16 September 1933.
- William G. Braude (1988). "Longevity's Secret". The Journal of Reform Judaism. 35. Central Conference of American Rabbis. p. 49.
He was sage, saint, and legend. Polish peasants used sundry ploys to get him to walk across their fields, believing that the touch of his feet would improve the soil.
- Yoshor, Moses Meir (June 1986) . Chafetz Chaim, the life and works of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan of Radin. rendered into English by Charles Wengrov (1st Revised ed.). New York, NY: Mesorah publications. ISBN 0-89906-462-0.
- "CHOFETZ CHAIM, 105, IS DEAD IN POLAND". The New York Times. 16 September 1933.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yisrael Meir Kagan.|
- Chofetz Chaim Heritage Foundation
- Video lecture on the Chofetz Chaim by Dr. Henry Abramson
- Many of the Chafetz Chaim's works are available online in English at http://chafetzchayim.org/
- The Ohr Olam Edition 'Mishnah Berurah' (new English translation)
- Fox, Joseph (October 16, 1931). "Chofetz Chaim - The Jewish Ghandi". Canadian Jewish Chronicle. pp. 5, 16. (photo)
- Benjamin Brown, "From Principles to Rules and from Musar to Halakhah - The Hafetz Hayim's Rulings on Libel and Gossip" 
- Benjamin Brown, "'"Soft Stringency' in the Mishnah Brurah: Jurisprudential, Social and Ideological Aspects of a Halakhic Formulation"