Chain smoking

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chain smoker)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The X-Files Cigarette Smoking Man (William B. Davis) earned his moniker because of his nonstop chain smoking.

Chain smoking is the practice of smoking several cigarettes in succession, sometimes using the ember of a finished cigarette to light the next. The term chain smoker often also refers to a person who smokes relatively constantly, though not necessarily chaining each cigarette. The term applies primarily to cigarettes, although it can be used to describe incessant cigar and pipe smoking as well. It is a common form of addiction.[1]

Causes[edit]

The use of cocaine or an amphetamine with cigarettes can result in chain smoking.[2] Many people chain-smoke when drinking alcoholic beverages, because alcohol potentiates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, leading to re-sensitization and hence inducing a craving.[3]

The extent to which chain smoking is driven by nicotine dependence has been studied. It does not seem that the amount of nicotine delivered is a significant factor, as the puff volume correlates poorly with the frequency of cigarette consumption.[4]

Clinical use[edit]

Chain-smoking is given as an example of excessive addictive behaviour in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[5] It may be used as a form of aversion therapy for smokers who are unused to such heavy smoking, inducing them to give up altogether.[6]

Ventilation[edit]

Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) professionals claim that an airflow of about 1000 cubic feet (28.32 cubic meters) per minute per smoker is required to maintain satisfactory air quality when the smokers are chain smoking.[7] However, research confirms that current HVAC systems, while important for general air quality, cannot control exposure to secondhand smoke.[8]

Chain smokers[edit]

A number of public figures were noted for being chain smokers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Charles, Gerras (1976). The Encyclopedia of Common Diseases. Rodale Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-87857-113-0. 
  2. ^ Fisher, Gary L.; Roget, Nancy A. (11 November 2008). Encyclopedia of Substance Abuse Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-4129-5084-8. 
  3. ^ Rose, J.; Brauer, L.; Behm, F.; Cramblett, M. (2004). "Psychopharmacological interactions between nicotine and ethanol" (PDF). Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 6 (1): 133–44. doi:10.1080/14622200310001656957. PMID 14982697. 
  4. ^ Kolonen, S.; Tuomisto, J.; Puustinen, P.; Airaksinen, M. M. (1992). "Effects of smoking abstinence and chain-smoking on puffing topography and diurnal nicotine exposure". Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 42 (2): 327–32. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(92)90535-N. PMID 1631188. 
  5. ^ Helen, Keane (2002). What's Wrong with Addiction?. Melbourne University Publish. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-522-84991-2. 
  6. ^ Cocores, James (1991). The Clinical Management of Nicotine Dependence. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-0-387-97464-4. 
  7. ^ Rock, Brian A. (13 January 2006). Ventilation for Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Elsevier Science. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-08-052539-6. 
  8. ^ U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General (PDF). p. 92. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-02-05. 
  9. ^ King, Kelley (19 July 1999). "Dick Allen, Baseball Bad Boy". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c Okrent, Daniel (1985). Nine Innings: The Anatomy of a Baseball Game. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 107. ISBN 0-618-05669-6. 
  11. ^ DeFrank, Thomas M. (13 September 2010). "'Face the Nation' cigarette query rattles chain-smokin' GOP big John Boehner". New York Daily News. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  12. ^ Thompson, Wright (24 May 2012). "The last ride of Bear and Billy". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  13. ^ Samuel, Henry (22 April 2009). "Whiff of Kafka to Coco Chanel smoking poster ban". telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  14. ^ Lukas, Paul (29 April 2008). "The rule in sports: Smoke 'em if you got 'em". ESPN.com. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  15. ^ Droppo, Dana (August 2014). "Against the Grain". Complex. Well, smoking is one of them. Sugar, coffee. I must have 13 cups a day. It’s a shame about the health consequences because a lot of great things happen over coffee and a cigarette. A lot of great songs were written ... There’s a grace to the way she chain-smokes Parliaments and says “fuck” when she chips one of her pointed purple acrylic nails. 
  16. ^ "King Diamond Undergoes Triple Bypass Heart Surgery". Blabbermouth.net. 11 December 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  17. ^ Jerome, Richard (29 March 1999). "Joe Dimaggio: the Quiet Man". People Magazine. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  18. ^ Walker, Tim (18 November 2013). "Walt Disney's chain-smoking habit that new film 'Saving Mr Banks' hides from view". The Independent. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  19. ^ Korda, Michael (December 2007). "Ike at D-Day". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  20. ^ "Gorillas' Protector on the Hunt for Poachers". The Palm Beach Post. 24 October 1985. p. B8. Retrieved 14 December 2014. [dead link]
  21. ^ Bickley, Dan (14 February 2013). "A cold wake-up call for humbled Diamondbacks' Mark Grace". USA Today. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  22. ^ Langford, Jim. "Joe Grzenda". BaseballLibrary.com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  23. ^ Chen, Albert (1 June 2009). "The Greatest Game Ever Pitched". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  24. ^ "Nationalpastime.com". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  25. ^ Roger Lewis, The Man Who Was Private Widdle, London, 2002
  26. ^ "Jesse Helms". The Daily Telegraph. London: TMG. 6 July 2008. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Archived from the original on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  27. ^ "Leona Helmsley (1920 – 2007)". 
  28. ^ "Steroid Frenzy Goes Into High Gear". Daily Kos. 30 March 2006. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  29. ^ Rowe, Sam (February 26, 2014). "Five things all men can learn from Bill Hicks". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2017. 
  30. ^ Clavin, Tom; Danny Peary (2012). Gil Hodges: the Brooklyn bums, the miracle Mets, and the extraordinary life of a baseball legend. New York: New American Library, a division of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. ISBN 978-1-101-59305-9. 
  31. ^ Beschloss, Michael (4 December 2012). "In His Final Days, LBJ Agonized Over His Legacy". PBS News Hour. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013. 
  32. ^ Cummings, K. Michael (1994). "A picture is worth a thousand words" (PDF). Tobacco Control (3): 300–301. doi:10.1136/tc.3.4.300. PMC 1759378Freely accessible. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-01-03. 
  33. ^ Pasbani, Robert (22 November 2013). "Lemmy Kilmister Says He's Quit Smoking And Only Drinks Wine". Metal Injection. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  34. ^ Fife-Yeomans, Janet (20 December 2011). "Kim Jong-il – the high life of an evil dictator". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2011. When North Korea's Dear Leader, the chain-smoking Kim Jong-il, 69, died on Saturday 
  35. ^ Jackson, Patrick (29 June 2007). "Profile: Putin's foreign minister Lavrov". BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 28 August 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  36. ^ "Russia's Medvedev was given a cold remedy and tried archery". RIA Novosti. 27 August 2009. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 
  37. ^ Bumblebeemagnify (17 May 2011). "Denis Leary Smoke". Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2018 – via YouTube. 
  38. ^ Madden, Bill (21 October 2013). "MLB loses one of its great characters as Jim Leyland retires as Tigers manager". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on 6 December 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  39. ^ Maraniss, David (1999). "19". When Pride Still Mattered: A Life of Vince Lombardi. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-87290-2. 
  40. ^ "5 Things I Learned While Working for Courtney Love". Dynamic Hedge. 11 March 2012. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 20 August 2015. I’ve been advised by her previous assistant to carry no less than 12 packs of smokes and 10 lighters at all times. 
  41. ^ Kennedy, Dana (12 August 1994). "Courtney Comes Out of Hiding". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on 9 July 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2015. Courtney-style: chain-smoking and talking for hours at a time on the phone... 
  42. ^ Hope, Jenny. "Cancer killed her father yet she still smoked 60 a day". Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  43. ^ Isherwood, Julian (23 March 2001). "Danish royals angry at cancer accusation". BBC News. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 2014-12-11. 
  44. ^ Borelli, Stephen (17 January 2002). "Remember Roger Maris?". USA Today. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  45. ^ Greenwood, Alan (8 December 2013). "Johnny, we still know ye". The Telegraph (Nashua, NH). Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  46. ^ "Edward R. Murrow, Broadcaster And Ex-Chief of U.S.I.A., Dies". The New York Times. 28 April 1965. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  47. ^ Debolt, Abbe A.; Baugess, James S., eds. (December 2011). Encyclopedia of the Sixties: A Decade of Culture and Counterculture (Volume 2: N-Z). Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood (ABC-CLIO). p. 454. ISBN 978-0-313-32944-9. 
  48. ^ "Willie Nelson: Road Rules And Deep Thoughts". NPR. 18 November 2012. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  49. ^ Schneider, Karen; Reed, J.D.; Levitt, Shelley; Gleick, Elizabeth (6 June 1994). "Hour of Farewell". People Magazine. 41 (21). Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  50. ^ Sherwin, Bob (1 April 1993). "The Pride And The Passion -- M's Manager Lou Piniella Brings Emotion And A Fierce Will To Win To Seattle Baseball". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  51. ^ "The Heart of Israel". www.nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 28 August 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  52. ^ Hastings, Max (19 January 2009). "Franklin D. Roosevelt: The man who conquered fear". The Independent. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  53. ^ Sandomir, Richard (7 November 2004). "'America's Game': The Real National Pastime". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  54. ^ Abadi, Cameron (2015-11-11). "A Last Cigarette With Helmut Schmidt". ForeignPolicy.com. Retrieved 2018-05-07. 
  55. ^ Radel, Cliff (2 March 2004). "'A woman of the people'". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  56. ^ Ilya (29 April 2011). "Burning Bridges: An Interview With Doug Stanhope". thelaughbutton.com. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  57. ^ Phillips, Nicholas (4 November 2010). "Doug Stanhope Sounds Off on the British, Bill Hicks and Why He Loathes Comedy Clubs". Riverfront Times. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014. 
  58. ^ "Dragon Ball: Adventure Special - Akira Toriyama Q&A". kanzenshuu.com. Archived from the original on 10 January 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  59. ^ Balch, Dr. Charles (14 February 2010). "John Wayne's Change of Heart About Smoking Cigarettes". My Cancer Advisor. Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014. 
  60. ^ Klingaman, Mike; Peter Schmuck (19 January 2013). "Former Orioles manager Earl Weaver dies at 82". The Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  61. ^ Nylander, Johan. "Stubbing out Mao's smoky legacy". www.aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 20 October 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2018. 
  62. ^ "Algunas curiosidades sobre el siempre recordado Gustavo Cerati". www.esplota.com. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 1 May 2018.