Chakwal District

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Chakwal
چکوال
District
Katas Raj Temples
Katas Raj Temples
Chakwal is located in the north of Punjab
Chakwal is located in the north of Punjab
Coordinates: 33°40′38″N 72°51′21″E / 33.67722°N 72.85583°E / 33.67722; 72.85583Coordinates: 33°40′38″N 72°51′21″E / 33.67722°N 72.85583°E / 33.67722; 72.85583
Country Pakistan
Province Punjab
Headquarters Chakwal
Tehsils (5)
Government
 • District Coordination Officer Mehmood Javed Bhatti[1]
 • Members of National Assembly Tahir Iqbal (NA-60)
Sardar Mumtaz Khan (NA-61)[2]
 • Members of Provincial Assembly Chaudhry Liaqut Ali Khan (PP-20)
Tanveer Aslam Malik (PP-21)
Sardar Zulfiqar Ali Khan (PP-22)
Malik Zahoor Anwar (PP-23)
Area
 • Total 6,524 km2 (2,519 sq mi)
Population (1998)
 • Total 1,083,725
Time zone PKT (UTC+5)

Chakwal District (Urdu: ضِلع چکوال‎) is in Pothohar Plateau of Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the north of the Punjab province, Chakwal district is bordered by Khushab to its south, Rawalpindi to its north east, Jhelum to its east, Mianwali to its west and Attock to its north west. The district was created out of pats of Jhelum and Attock in 1985.[3] The large part of M2 passes through Chakwal District.

The Best Way Cement Factory, the largest factory in Asia is located in District Chakwal. Currently, Chakwal is noted for the production of international standard oranges, wheat, barley, sugarcane, and many other fruits and vegetables. Chakwal has an urban population of 12%; the remainder is rural. That makes Chakwal, the district with largest rural population in Punjab, Pakistan.

Administrative divisions[edit]

The district of Chakwal, which covers an area of 6,524 km²,[4] is subdivided into five tehsils.[5] These tehsils were formerly part of neighbouring districts:[6]:1

The district is administratively subdivided into five tehsils and 68 Union Councils.[7]

Name of Tehsil No of Union Councils
Chakwal 30
Kallar Kahar 8
Choa Saidan Shah 7
Talagang 17
Lawa 6
Total 68

Constituencies[edit]

There is one district council, two municipal committees — Chakwal and Talagang — and two town committees — Choa Saidan Shah and Kallar Kahar.

The district is represented in the National Assembly by two constituencies: NA-60 and NA-61. The district is represented in the provincial assembly by four elected MPAs and in National Assembly by two MNAs who represent the following constituencies:[8]

Constituency MPA Party
(PP-20) Chaudhary Liaqut Ali Khan Pakistan Muslim League (N)
(PP-21) Tanveer Aslam Malik Pakistan Muslim League (N)
(PP-22) Sardar Zulfiqar Ali Khan Pakistan Muslim League (N)
(PP-23) Malik shahryar Awan Pakistan Muslim League (N)
NA-60 Maj(R) Tahir Iqbal Pakistan Muslim League (N)
NA-61 Sardar Mumtaz Khan Tamman Pakistan Muslim League (N)[2]

Geography[edit]

Chakwal district borders the districts of Rawalpindi and Attock in the north, Jhelum in the east, Khushab in the south and Mianwali in the west. The total area of Chakwal district is 6,609 square kilometres, which is equivalent to 1,652,443 acres (6,687.20 km2).

The southern portion runs up into the Salt Range, and includes the Chail peak, 3,701 feet (1,128 m) above the sea, the highest point in the district. Between this and the Sohan river, which follows more or less the northern boundary, the country consists of what was once a fairly level plain, sloping down from 2,000 feet (610 m) at the foot of the hills to 1,400 feet (430 m) in the neighbourhood of the Sohan; the surface is now much cut up by ravines and is very difficult to travel over.[9]

Lying at the beginning of the Potohar plateau and the Salt Range, Chakwal is a barani district and the terrain is mainly hilly, covered with scrub forest in the southwest and leveled plains interspaced with dry rocky patches in the north and northeast.

History[edit]

In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, Sultan Sebuktegin. In 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul in 1005, and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region. The Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh Empire invaded and occupied Mianwali District. The Muslims faced restrictions during the Sikh rule.[citation needed]

During British rule, Chakwal was a tehsil of Jhelum district, the population according to the 1891 census of India was 164,912 which had fallen to 160,316 in 1901. It contained the towns of Chakwal and Bhaun and 248 villages. The land revenue and cesses amounted in 1903-4 to 3–300,000.[9] The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslims refugees from India settled down in the Chakwal District.

The boundaries and area of the tehsil were described by the Imperial Gazetteer of India as follows the tehsil "lies between 28° 45' and 30°05' N. and 72°32' and 73° 13' E., with an area of 1,004 square miles".[9]

Demography[edit]

According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the total population is 1,083,725 of which only 12.01% were urban — making Chakwal the most rural district in Punjab.[10] The literacy rate in 1998 was 57%.[11]

The predominantly Muslim population supported Muslim League and Pakistan Movement. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs migrated to India while the Muslim refugees from India settled in the Chakwal District.

According to the 1998 census, the predominant first language[12] of the district is Punjabi, spoken by 97.7% of the population. Pashto is the first language of 1.2%, and Urdu – of 0.9%.[6]:23 The local Punjabi dialects are Dhani[13] and Awankari[14]

Education[edit]

Chakwal has a total of 1,199 government schools out of which 52 percent (627 schools) are for girl students. The district has an enrolment of 181,574 in public sector schools.[15]

Educational institutions[edit]

Notables[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ CM appreciates DCO Chakwal for seizing illegal Iranian coaltar, retrieved 17 September 2015 
  2. ^ a b Chakwal district falls into PML-N’s fold, retrieved 17 September 2015 
  3. ^ "Chalwal – Punjab Portal". Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  4. ^ Official Website of Chakwal District Archived 3 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ List to tehsils and districts Archived 1 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ a b 1998 District Census report of Chakwal. Census publication. 77. Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan. 2000. 
  7. ^ Tehsils & Unions in the District of Chakwal Archived 24 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Nrb.gov.pk. Retrieved on 21 April 2012.
  8. ^ CHAKWAL (PP-20 to PP-23) – Website of the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
  9. ^ a b c Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 10, p. 126. Dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved on 21 April 2012.
  10. ^ 1998 Census figures – Urban Resource Centre
  11. ^ "Districts at a glance – Chakwal". Retrieved 17 December 2016. 
  12. ^ "Mother tongue": defined as the language of communication between parents and children, and recorded of each individual.
  13. ^ Masica, Colon P. (9 September 1993). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0521299446. 
  14. ^ *Rensch, Calvin R. (1992). "The Language Environment of Hindko-Speaking People". In O'Leary, Clare F.; Rensch, Calvin R.; Hallberg, Calinda E. Hindko and Gujari. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics. p. 7. ISBN 969-8023-13-5. 
  15. ^ "Punjab Annual Schools Census Data 2014-15". Retrieved 22 August 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • University of Engineering and Technology. Centre of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering; Pakistan Science Foundation (1979), National Seminar on Land and Water Resources Development of Barani Areas, [July 21-24, 1979], The University of Wisconsin, ISBN 978-01-9023-806-3