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Chaldean (or Kaldani or Kaldean) may refer to:

  • Chaldea ("the Chaldees"), designation for a part of southeast Mesopotamia between the 9th and 6th centuries BC ruled by the Aramaean tribes known as known collectively as the Kaldu- the biblical Chaldeans
  • Neo-Babylonian Empire
  • Ancient Mesopotamian religion
  • Chaldean Oracles, played a role in the start of the Christian church 1st centuries BC and AD.
  • Historical Babylon, particularly from a later Greek and Jewish perspective
  • Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, a Neo-Aramaic dialect closely related to Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, originating from Syriac spoken in northern Iraq
  • "Chaldean script", sometimes used (erroneously) to refer to the Syriac alphabet
Religion and Churches