Chaldon

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Chaldon
Chaldon Church - geograph.org.uk - 1188800.jpg
Church of SS. Peter and Paul
Glebe House, Chaldon - geograph.org.uk - 1466447.jpg
Glebe House, Chaldon
Chaldon is located in Surrey
Chaldon
Chaldon
Chaldon shown within Surrey
Area4.72 km2 (1.82 sq mi)
Population1,735 (Civil Parish 2011)[1]
• Density368/km2 (950/sq mi)
OS grid referenceTQ31856
• London15.8 miles (25.4 km)
Civil parish
  • Chaldon
District
Shire county
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townCATERHAM
Postcode districtCR3
Dialling code01883
PoliceSurrey
FireSurrey
AmbulanceSouth East Coast
EU ParliamentSouth East England
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Surrey
51°17′10″N 0°07′30″W / 51.286°N 0.1249°W / 51.286; -0.1249Coordinates: 51°17′10″N 0°07′30″W / 51.286°N 0.1249°W / 51.286; -0.1249

Chaldon is a village in Surrey, England, high on the North Downs immediately west of Caterham. Chaldon is centred 1.5 miles (2.4 km) WSW of Caterham on the Hill, 15.8 miles (25.4 km) south of London and falls within the boundaries of Tandridge district, just south of the border with the London Borough of Croydon

History[edit]

Etymology and Dark Ages[edit]

Chalvedune is the first written record of the place in 675 AD, meaning the hill (down) where calves were pastured, in a grant of land to Chertsey Abbey.[2] Prior to this period of human history, White Hill on the borders of Chaldon and Caterham has yielded neolithic flints.[3]

The village lay within the Anglo-Saxon administrative division of Wallington hundred.[4]

Middle Ages[edit]

In the Domesday Book the manor of Calvedone appears in Wallington hundred rendering £4 to its lord Ralph Fitz Turold holding it as was most of the hundred of Bishop Odo of Bayeux.[5] Prior to the conquest it had been held by the Saxon lord Dernic of King Edward. It consisted of two hides, land for two lord's plough teams and a church.[6] In medieval times the parish included a narrow strip of land below the southern foot of the Downs and a wedge of land to the north of the church that in the 19th century were transferred to Bletchingley and Coulsdon respectively[2] — these are omitted from this article.

An inscribed stone dedicates a pond for use by residents not animals dated to the late 18th or early 19th century illustrates the lack of water in the village during summer months.[2] St Catherine's south chancel chapel in the church became devoted to the memory of Christian Hane (d.1752) of an aedicular type with a white stone rectangular panel flanked by Doric pilasters with red marble inlay, swan-neck pediment and crowning shell.[7]

Church of St Peter and St Paul[edit]

Detail from the 12th-century mural

The Grade I architecturally listed church of Saints Peter and Paul (built before 1086 AD) contains a large wall painting of around 1170 depicting images of the ways of salvation and damnation and their result [a]

Post industrial revolution[edit]

Under Rev. James Legrew, the tithes were commuted for £335. 11s 3d, however as rector retaining a glebe of 31 acres, with a glebe house. A tower and spire were added to the church in 1843[4] from a bellcote before.[3] Given its steep, dry landscape on top of the North Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, Chaldon did not develop new homes substantially even in the 19th and 20th centuries; though replacements to farmhouses were built in this period. In 1848 the population was 197[4] and the population in 1901 was only 266[3] and it consisted of little more than "the church and six scattered farms".[2] By 1911 Viscount Hylton connected his farms and cottages with the East Surrey Water Company's mains; otherwise the supply depended upon the shallow wells and ponds, filled in a wet season and empty in a dry one.[3]

Geography[edit]

Elevations, geology and soil[edit]

Chaldon has received by some locals the epithet "Little Switzerland" because of the microclimate resulting in heavier snowfall here than in other parts of the region when there is snow in Winter.[citation needed] Caterham-on-the-Hill is centred 1.5 miles (2.4 km) ENE of Chaldon and London is 15.8 miles (25.4 km) north.[8]

Local Government[edit]

Historical[edit]

The civil parish of Chaldon fell within the Reigate Poor Law Union upon its creation in 1837, subsequently coming under control of Reigate Rural Sanitary District from 1875 and Reigate Rural District from 1894 until its abolition in 1933.[9] Thereafter it became part of the Caterham & Warlingham Urban District until 1 April 1974 when the major local government reorganisation brought Chaldon under the newly formed Tandridge District.

For the purposes of parliamentary elections, Chaldon became part of the Eastern Division of the Surrey county constituency upon its creation in 1832. It moved to the Mid Division in 1867, to the South Eastern Division in 1885, to the Reigate Division in 1918 and to the East Surrey Division in 1948 where it remains to this day.[9]

Current authorities[edit]

Civil Parishes in Tandridge District

Surrey County Council, headquartered in Kingston, elected every four years, has one representative councillor as follows:

Election Member[10]

Ward

2009 John Alexander Orrick "Caterham Hill"; includes in this context only Chaldon.

Chaldon has a representative on Tandridge District Council, headquartered in Oxted:

Election Member[11] Ward
2011 Patrick Cannon Chaldon

Civil parish[edit]

Chaldon's residents can participate in the Civil Parish Council with five parish councillors and the parish clerk.[12]

Demography and housing[edit]

In 2001, there were 1,821 residents in 639 households of which 18.8% were aged over 65; 4.5% of the population were in full-time further education; 70.9% of all men were economically active whereas 3.2% were unemployed, 5.2% worked part-time; 58.9% of all women were economically active whereas 1.2% were unemployed, 37.7% worked part-time.[13]

As to ethnicity, 97.3% of the population identified themselves as being white, 0.5% as mixed, 1.0% as of Indian descent, and 1.5% as other of the three main categories.[13]

In terms of religion, 80.1%% of the population responded as being Christian, 0.6% as Muslim, 2.0% other religions, 11.1% as atheist and 6% declined to answer.[13]

Chaldon's economy is predominantly a service sector economy reflected by the lower end of the official categorisation table of occupation given, compiled from the 2001 census:

Category Number of adults in category in 2001 Percentage of those aged 16–74
Lower supervisory and technical occupations 39 2.9%
Semi-routine occupations 83 6.2%
Routine occupations 39 2.9%[13]

Whereas in this census, 24% of the population worked in lower managerial and professional occupations and 7.9% in higher professional occupations.[13]

2011 Census Homes
Output area Detached Semi-detached Terraced Flats and apartments Caravans/temporary/mobile homes shared between households[1]
(Civil Parish) 528 78 22 15 1 0

The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average that was apartments was 22.6%.

2011 Census Key Statistics
Output area Population Households % Owned outright % Owned with a loan hectares[1]
(Civil Parish) 1,735 644 48.9% 44.4% 472

The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings (plus a negligible % of households living rent-free).

Landmarks[edit]

Along the north street, Church Lane, is a line of houses ending with the Church Green. Here is a close cluster of five listed buildings including the two most highly ranked listed buildings plus farm outbuildings. This area forms a conservation area. Its booklet with hand-drawn illustrations was produced in 1975, year of European Architectural Heritage.[2] On Roffes Lane at no. 18 and no. 20 are two unusual Arts and Crafts elm timber framed and panelled cottages by the architect Ernest George Trobridge. There was a third at no. 22; however, this was demolished in 2015 and no. 18 is under threat from developers.[14]


Church of St Peter and St Paul[edit]

See above.

Chaldon Court[edit]

This Grade II* listed timber-framed building was built in the 14th century and encased in brick and flint in the 18th century; its door is of the Tudor period.[15] Its large gable ends have a large window housing a third floor; however, its extension at a right-angle has instead two taller storeys, slightly lower in height.[2]

Surrey National Golf Course[edit]

Although almost a plateau, the highest part of Chaldon is White Hill, which overlooks Caterham and south-east London beyond and is occupied by Surrey National Golf Course.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Executed in accordance with a scheme originating in the Eastern church, preserved to us in the 'Guide to Painting of the Greek Church,' as used by the monk-painters of the monasteries of Mount Athos whose title is "The Ladder of the Salvation of the Human Soul and the Road to Heaven"

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Key Statistics; Quick Statistics: Population Density United Kingdom Census 2011 Office for National Statistics Retrieved 21 November 2013
  2. ^ a b c d e f Chaldon Explored, Appraisal on the Designation of Chaldon's Conservation Area: www.tandridge.gov.uk/Tandridge%20District%20Council/Planning/ChaldonExplored[1].pdf Tandridge District Council
  3. ^ a b c d H.E. Malden, ed. (1912). "Parishes: Chaldon". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  4. ^ a b c H.E. Malden, ed. (1912). "Parishes: Chaldon". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  5. ^ H.E. Malden, ed. (1912). "Parishes: Chaldon". A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 4. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
  6. ^ Anna Powell-Smith. "Chaldon | Domesday Book". Domesdaymap.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
  7. ^ Church of St Peter and St Paul Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1029813)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  8. ^ "UK Grid Reference Finder". Gridreferencefinder.com. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
  9. ^ a b F. Youngs, Local Administrative Units: Southern England (London: Royal Historical Society, 1979), p. 476
  10. ^ "Surrey's County councillors". Surrey County Council. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 October 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  11. ^ "Councillors". Councillors.tandridge.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-06-27.
  12. ^ "Your Councillors". Chaldon Civil Parish Council. 1 May 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  13. ^ a b c d e "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  14. ^ "Tandridge District Council - Application Details". Tdcws01.tandridge.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29 March 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2016.
  15. ^ Chaldon Court Grade II* ListingHistoric England. "Details from listed building database (1029812)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 5 November 2012.

External links[edit]