Chalkware is an American term for popular figurines either made of moulded plaster of Paris (usually) or sculpted gypsum, and painted, typically with oils or watercolors. They were primarily created during one of two periods: from the late 18th century to the beginning of the 20th century, or during the Great Depression. Those created during the earlier period were intended as a more serious decorative art, often imitating the more expensive imported English Staffordshire potteries figurines such as Staffordshire dog figurines; those during the second period, by contrast, were more typically somewhat jocular. Early chalkware was often hollow and is difficult to find unblemished.
Judi Vaillancourt has revived the style using a fine plaster substance combined with confectionery moulds to create collectibles; making them commercially available under the company Vaillancourt Folk Art. Chalkware is still commercially available today using the moulding technique developed by Vaillancourt at department stores such as Neiman Marcus, Macy's, and museum gift shoppes like Colonial Williamsburg  and Old Sturbridge Village.
- Grove Dictionary of Art, "Chalkware"
- Staff Writer. (1988, August). Folk artists. Early American Life, Cover, 17, 40, 46, 49-50.
- Lewis, Hal. "Top Folk Art Designers." Isnare.com (2008): n. pag. Web. 7 Apr 2010. <http://www.isnare.com/?aid=218464&ca=Arts+and+Crafts>.
- Dees, B. (1997). Santa’s price guide to contemporary Christmas collectibles. Iola, WI: Krause Publications.
- Elliott, S. K. (2013, April). In the studio with judi vaillancourt. Treasures, 14-16. Retrieved from http://www.treasuresmagazine.com/treasures/feature_articles/april_2013/
- Staff Writer. (2011, November 21). Molding tradition: Vaillancourt folk art designs osv figurines from antique chocolate molds. Old Sturbridge Village Visitor, Winter, 10-11. Retrieved from http://www.osv.org/docs/VisitorMagazine2011-2012Fall-Winter-1.pdf