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A page of the Qur'an,16th century: "They would never produce its like not though they backed one another" written at the center.

In Islam, ’i‘jāz (Arabic: اَلْإِعْجَازُ, romanizedal-’iʿjāz) or inimitability of the Qur’ān is the doctrine which holds that the Qur’ān has a miraculous quality, both in content and in form, that no human speech can match.[1] According to this doctrine the Qur'an is a miracle and its inimitability is the proof granted to Muhammad in authentication of his prophetic status. It serves the dual purpose of proving the authenticity of its divineness as being a source from the creator as well as proving the genuineness of Muhammad's prophethood to whom it was revealed as he was the one bringing the message.

Today, works continue to be written, especially about the scientific and hurufic/numerolologic miraculousness of the Quran, and arouse interest in certain segments of Islamic society. (Quran code)

History and sociology[edit]

The concept of “I'jaz” (lit; challenging) existed in preislamic Arabic poetry as a tradition in the sense of challenging one's rivals and rendering them incapable of creating a similar one, and a large part of the Quran was in the "nature of poetry".[2]

The first works about the I'jaz of the Quran began to appear in the 9th century in the Mu'tazila circles, which emphasized only its literary aspect, and were adopted by other religious groups.[3] The scientific miraculousness of the Quran began to be claimed in recent times. The claim that it was a miracle was reinforced by the emphasis that, despite some rumors to the contrary, Muhammad could not have achieved these feats without being able to read and write, and that this success could only come with Divine help.

Angelika Neuwirth lists the factors that led to the emergence of the doctrine of I'jaz: The necessity of explaining some challenging verses in the Quran;[4] In the context of the emergence of the theory of "proofs of prophecy" (dâ'il an-nubûvva) in Islamic theology, proving that the Quran is a work worthy of the emphasized superior place of Muhammad in the history of the prophets, thus gaining polemical superiority over Jews and Christians; Preservation of Arab national pride in the face of confrontation with the Iranian Shu'ubiyya movement, etc.[5]

The poetic structure of the Quran also means that it can contain many allegories or literal mysteries that cause problems in Quran translations, and that some literary arts and exaggerations are used in the Quran to increase impressiveness.[6]

Heinz Grotzfeld talks about the advantages of metaphorical interpretations.[7] Thus, some Muslims may adopt a more flexible lifestyle in the face of the rules imposed by religious leaders on society based on the apparent meaning of the expressions of the Quran,[8] and some religious leadersowner of great claims such as being mahdi, mujaddid, or "being chosen" such as Said Nursi, may claim that some verses of the Quran are actually talking about themselves or their works[9] and giving good news to them.

Qur'anic basis[edit]

The concept of inimitability originates in the Qur'an. In five different verses, opponents are challenged to produce something like the Qur'an. The suggestion is that those who doubt the divine authorship of the Qur'an should try to disprove it by demonstrating that a human being could have created it:

  • "If men and Jinn banded together to produce the like of this Qur'an they would never produce its like not though they backed one another." (17:88) [10]
  • "Say, Bring you then ten chapters like unto it, and call whomsoever you can, other than God, if you speak the truth!" (11:13) [11]
  • "Or do they say he has fabricated it? Say bring then a chapter like unto it, and call upon whom you can besides God, if you speak truly!" (10:38) [12]
  • "Or do they say he has fabricated it? Nay! They believe not! Let them then produce a recital like unto it if they speak the truth." (52:34) [13]
  • "And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to our servant, then produce a chapter of the like." (2:23) [14]

In the verses cited, Muhammad's opponents are invited to try to produce a text like the Qur'an, or even ten chapters, or even a single chapter. It is thought among Muslims that the challenge has not been met.[15]


Folio from a section of the Qur'an, 14th century

The literary quality of the Qur'an has been praised by Muslim scholars and by many non-Muslim scholars.[1][16][17] Some Muslim scholars claim that early Muslims accepted Islam on the basis of evaluating the Qur'an as a text that surpasses all human production.[17] Whilst western views typically ascribe social, ideological, propagandistic, or military reasons for the success of early Islam, Muslim sources view the literary quality of the Qur'an as a decisive factor for the adoption of the Islamic creed and its ideology, resulting in its spread and development in the 7th century.[15] A thriving poetic tradition existed at the time of Muhammad, but Muslim scholars such as Afnan Fatani contend that Muhammad had brought, despite being unlettered, something that was superior to anything that the poets and orators had ever written or heard. The Qur'an states that poets did not question this, what they rejected was the Qur'an's ideas, especially monotheism and resurrection.[1] Numerous Muslim scholars devoted time to finding out why the Qur'an was inimitable. The majority of opinions was around eloquence of the Qur'an are in both wording and meaning as its speech does not form to poetry nor prose commonly expressed in all languages. However, some Muslims differed, claiming that after handing down the Qur'an, God performed an additional miracle which rendered people unable to imitate the Qur'an, and that this is the source of I'jaz. This idea was less popular, however.[18]

Nonlinguistic approaches focus on the inner meanings of the Qur'an.[19] Oliver Leaman, favoring a nonlinguistic approach, criticizes the links between aesthetic judgment and faith and argues that it is possible to be impressed by something without thinking that it came about supernaturally and vice versa it is possible to believe in the divine origin of the Qur'an without agreeing to the aesthetic supremacy of the text. He thinks that it is the combination of language, ideas, and hidden meanings of the Qur'an that makes it an immediately convincing product.[20]

Classic works[edit]

There are numerous classical works of Islamic literary criticism which have studied the Qur'an and examined its style:

The most famous works on the doctrine of inimitability are two medieval books by the grammarian Al Jurjani (d. 1078 CE), Dala’il al-i'jaz ('the Arguments of Inimitability') and Asraral-balagha ('the Secrets of Eloquence'). Al Jurjani argued that the inimitability of the Qur'an is a linguistic phenomenon and proposed that the Qur'an has a degree of excellence unachievable by human beings.[21] Al Jurjani believed that Qur'an's eloquence must be a certain special quality in the manner of its stylistic arrangement and composition or a certain special way of joining words. He studied the Qur'an with literary proofs and examined the various literary features and how they were utilized.[18] He rejected the idea that the words (alfaz) and meaning (ma'ani) of a literary work can be separated. In his view the meaning was what determined the quality of the style and that it would be absurd to attribute qualities of eloquence to a text only by observing its words. He explains that eloquence does not reside in the correct application of grammar as these are only necessary not sufficient conditions for the quality of a text. The originality of Al Jurjani is that he linked his view on meaning as the determining factor in the quality of a text by considering it not in isolation but as it is realized within a text. He wished to impress his audience with the need to study not only theology but also grammatical details and literary theory in order to improve their understanding of the inimitability of the Qur'an.[22] For Al Jurjani the dichotomy much elaborated by earlier critics between 'word' and 'meaning' was a false one. He suggested considering not merely the meaning but 'the meaning of the meaning'. He defined two types of meaning one that resorts to the 'intellect' the other to the 'imagination'.[23]

A page of the Qur'an with illumination, 16th century

Al-Baqillani (d. 1013 CE) wrote a book named I'jaz al-Qur'an ('inimitability of the Qur'an') and emphasized that the style of the Qur'an cannot be classified, and eloquence sustains throughout the Qur'an in spite of dealing with various themes. Al Baqillani's point was not that the Qur'an broke the custom by extraordinary degree of eloquence but that it broke the custom of the existing literary forms by creating a new genre of expression.

Ibrahim al-Nazzam of Basra (d. 846 CE) was among the first to study the doctrine.[18] According to Al Nazzam, the Qur'an's inimitability is due to the information in its content which as divine revelation contains divine knowledge. Thus, Qur'an's supremacy lies in its content rather than its style.[17] A- Murtaza (d. 1044 CE) had similar views, turning to divine intervention as the only viable explanation as to why the challenge was not met.[24]

Al-Qadi Abd al-Jabbar (d. 1025 CE), in his book Al-Mughni ("the sufficient book"), insists on the hidden meanings of the Qur'an along with its eloquence and provides some counter-arguments against the criticism leveled at Muhammad and the Qur'an. Abd al-Jabbar studies the doctrine in parts 15 and 16 of his book series. According to Abd al-Jabbr, Arabs chose not to compete with Muhammad in the literary field but on the battlefield and this was another reason that they recognized the superiority of the Qur'an. Abd al-Jabbar rejected the doctrine of sarfah (the prohibition from production) because according to him sarfah makes a miracle of something other than the Qur'an and not the Qur'an itself. The doctrine of sarfah means that people can produce a rival to the Qur'an but due to some supernatural or divine cause decide against doing so. Therefore, according to Abd al-Jabbar, the correct interpretation of sarfah is that the motives to rival the Qur'an disappears because of the recognition of the impossibility of doing so.[25]

Yahya ibn Ziyad al-Farra (d. 822 CE), Abu Ubaydah (d. 824 CE), Ibn Qutaybah (d. 889 CE), Rummani (d. 994 CE), Khattabi (d. 998 CE), and Zarkashi (d. 1392 CE) are also among notable scholars in this subject. Ibn Qutaybah considered 'brevity' which he defined as "jam' al-kathir mi ma'anih fi l-qalil min lafzih" (collection of many ideas in a few words) as one aspect of Qur'anic miraculousness.[26] Zarkashi in his book Al-Burhan stated that miraculousness of the Qur'an can be perceived but not described.[18]

Scientific I'jaz Literature[edit]

Some hold that certain verses of the Qur'an contain scientific theories that have been discovered only in modern times, confirming Qur'an's miraculousness. This has been criticized by the scientific community. Critics argue that verses which allegedly explain modern scientific facts, about subjects such as plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe, subterranean oceans, biology, human evolution, the beginnings and origin of human life, or the history of Earth, for example, contain fallacies and are unscientific.[27][28][29]

Maurice Bucaille argued that some Quranic verses are agreement with modern science and contain information that had not been known in the past. He stated that he examined the degree of compatibility between the Qur'an and modern scientific data and concluded that the Qur'an did not contradict modern science. He argued that it is inconceivable that the scientific statements of the Qur'an could have been the work of man.[30] Bucaille's arguments have been criticized by both Muslim and non-Muslim scientists.[31]

The methodology of scientific I'jaz has not gained full approval by Islamic scholars and is the subject of ongoing debate.[32] According to Ziauddin Sardar, the Qur'an does not contain many verses that point towards nature, however, it constantly asks its readers to reflect on the wonders of the cosmos. He refers to verse 29:20 which says "Travel throughout the earth and see how He brings life into being" and 3:190 which says "In the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of night and day there are indeed signs for men of understanding" and concludes that these verses do not have any specific scientific content, rather they encourage believers to observe natural phenomena and reflect on the complexity of the universe. According to Nidhal Guessoum some works on miracles in the Qur'an follow a set pattern; they generally begin with a verse from the Qur'an, for example, the verse "So verily I swear by the stars that run and hide . . ." (81:15-16) and quickly declare that it refers to black holes, or take the verse "I swear by the Moon in her fullness, that ye shall journey on from stage to stage" (84:18-19) and decide it refers to space travel, and so on. "What is meant to be allegorical and poetic is transformed into products of science".[33]

I'jaz has also been examined from the vantage point of its contribution to literary theory by Rebecca Ruth Gould,[34] Lara Harb,[35] and others.

Muhammad's illiteracy[edit]

In Islamic theology, Muhammad's illiteracy is a way of emphasizing that he was a transparent medium for divine revelation and a sign of the genuineness of his prophethood since the illiterate prophet could not have composed the eloquent poetry and prose of the Qur'an.[36] According to Tabatabaei (d. 1981), a Muslim scholar, the force of this challenge becomes clear when we realize that it is issued for someone whose life should resemble that of Muhammad namely the life of an orphan, uneducated in any formal sense, not being able to read or write and grew up in the unenlightened age of the jahiliyah period (the age of ignorance) before Islam.[37]

The references to illiteracy are found in verses 7:158,[38] 29:48,[39] and 62:2.[40] The verse 25:5[41] also implies that Muhammad was unable to read and write. The Arabic term "ummi" in 7:158 and 62:2 is translated to 'illiterate' and 'unlettered'.[42] The medieval exegete Al Tabari (d. 923 CE) maintained that the term induced two meanings: firstly, the inability to read or write in general and secondly, the inexperience or ignorance of the previous books or scriptures.[43]

The early sources on the history of Islam provide that Muhammad especially in Medina used scribes to correspond with the tribes. Likewise, though infrequently rather than constantly, he had scribes write down, on separate pages not yet in one single book, parts of the Qur'an.[43] Collections of prophetic tradition occasionally mention Muhammad having basic knowledge of reading and writing, while others deny it. For example, in the book Sahih al-Bukhari, a collection of early sayings, it is mentioned that when Muhammad and the Meccans agreed to conclude a peace treaty, Muhammad made a minor change to his signature or in one occasion he asked for a paper to write a statement.[44] On another occasion, the Sira of Ibn Ishaq records that Muhammad wrote a letter with secret instructions to be opened after two days on the expedition to Nakhla in 2 A.H. Alan Jones has discussed these incidents and the use of Arabic writing in the earliest Islamic period in some detail.[45]

Fakhr Al-Razi, the 12th century Islamic theologian, has expressed his idea is his book Tafsir Al Razi:[46]

...Most arabs were not able to read or write and the prophet was one of them. The prophet recited a perfect book to them again and again without editing or changing the words, in contrast when arab orators prepared their speech they added or deleted large or small parts of their speech before delivering it. But the Prophet did not write down the revelation and recited the book of God without addition, deletion, or revision...If he had mastered writing and reading, people would have suspected that he had studied previous books but he brought this noble Qur'an without learning and education...the Prophet had not learned from a teacher, he had not studied any book, and did not attend any classroom of a scholar because Mecca was not a place of scholars. And he was not absent from Mecca for a long period of time which would make it possible to claim that he learned during that absence.

Contrary views[edit]


Towards the end of Muhammad's life and after his death several men and a woman appeared in various parts of Arabia and claimed to be prophets. Musaylimah, a contemporary of Muhammad, claimed that he received revelations; some of his revelations are recorded. Ibn al-Muqaffa' was a critic of the Qur'an and reportedly made attempts to imitate it. Bashshar ibn Burd (d. 784), Abul Atahiya (d. 828), Al-Mutanabbi (d. 965), and Al-Maʿarri (d. 1058) claimed that their writings surpassed Qur'an in eloquence.[15]


German orientalist Theodor Nöldeke criticized the Qur'anic text as careless and imperfect, pointing out claimed linguistic defects. His argument was countered by Muslim scholar Muhammad Mohar Ali in his book "The Qur'an and the Orientalists".[47] Orientalist scholars Friedrich Schwally and John Wansbrough held a similar opinion to Nöldeke.[1] Some writers have questioned Muhammad's illiteracy.[43] Ruthven states that "The fact of Muhammad's illiteracy would in no way constitute proof of the Qur'an miraculous origin as the great pre-Islamic poets were illiterate."[48] Peters writes: "We do not know where this minor merchant of Mecca learned to make poetry...most oral poets and certainly the best have been illiterate."[49] Others believe that Muhammad hired poets or that the Qur'an was translated into Arabic from another language.[50]


  1. ^ a b c d Leaman, Oliver, ed. (2006). The Qur'an: an encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 9780415326391.
  2. ^ Vgl. Nöldeke, I S. 66–74.
  3. ^ Vgl. Martin 533
  4. ^ Quran 17:88
  5. ^ Vgl. Neuwirth 172-175.
  6. ^ Vgl. Neuwirth 177 und Grotzfeld 65.
  7. ^ Vgl. Grotzfeld 71 und Kermani 246.
  8. ^ Hodgson, M.G.S. (1960). "Bāṭiniyya". In Gibb, H. A. R.; Kramers, J. H.; Lévi-Provençal, E.; Schacht, J.; Lewis, B. & Pellat, Ch. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Volume I: A–B. Leiden: E. J. Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_1284. OCLC 495469456.
  9. ^ "Thirty-three verses of the Qur’an, and Imam ‘Ali (May God be pleased with him) and ‘Abd al-Qadir Geylani (May God be pleased with him) made predictions that the Risale-i Nur would be written and would offer guidance to the people of this age" https://risaleglobal.com/?lang=en&book=ingsualar&sec=53
  10. ^ "Qur'an verse 17:88".
  11. ^ "Qur'an verse 11:33".
  12. ^ "Qur'an verse 10:38".
  13. ^ "Qur'an verse 52:34".
  14. ^ "Qur'an verse 2:23".
  15. ^ a b c Kermani, Naved (2006). The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-1752-4.
  16. ^ For example see comments by Arthur John Arberry: "to produce something which might be accepted as echoing however faintly the sublime rhetoric of the Arabic Koran, I have been at pains to study the intricate and richly varied rhythms which constitute the Koran's undeniable claim to rank amongst the greatest literary masterpieces of mankind Arberry, A.J (1955). The Koran: Interpreted. New York: Macmillan. pp. x; Karen Armstrong : "It is as though Muhammad had created an entirely new literary form that some people were not ready for but which thrilled others. Without this experience of the Koran, it is extremely unlikely that Islam would have taken root." Armstrong, K (1994). A History of God.p.78; Oliver Leaman: "the verses of the Qur'an represent its uniqueness and beauty not to mention its novelty and originality. That is why it has succeeded in convincing so many people of its truth. it imitates nothing and no one nor can it be imitated. Its style does not pall even after long periods of study and the text does not lose its freshness over time" Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia.p.404 and similar views by Joseph Schacht (1974) The legacy of Islam, Henry Stubbe An account of the Rise and Progress of Mohammadanism (1911), Martin Zammit A Comparative Lexical Study of Qur'anic Arabic (2002), and Alfred Guillaume Islam (1990)
  17. ^ a b c Nasr, Abu-Zayd (2003). "The Dilemma of the Literary Approach to the Qur'an". Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics. 23: 8–47. doi:10.2307/1350075. JSTOR 1350075.
  18. ^ a b c d Vasalou, Sophia (2002). "The Miraculous Eloquence of the Qur'an: General Trajectories and Individual Approaches". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 4 (2): 23–53. doi:10.3366/jqs.2002.4.2.23.
  19. ^ Taji-Farouki, Suha (2004). Modern Muslim Intellectuals and the Qur'an. Oxford university press and The Institute of Ismaili Studies. p. 281. ISBN 9780197200032.
  20. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2004). Islamic aesthetics: an introduction. University of Notre Dame Press. pp. 141–164. ISBN 978-0268033699.
  21. ^ Larkin, Margaret (1988). "The Inimitability of the Qur'an: Two Perspectives". Religion & Literature. 20 (1): 31–47.
  22. ^ Versteegh, Kees (1997). Landmarks in linguistic thought III : the Arabic linguistic tradition: chapter 8 (1. publ. ed.). Routledge. ISBN 0415157579.
  23. ^ Allen, Roger (2000). An introduction to Arabic literature (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 225–226. ISBN 0521776570.
  24. ^ Zadeh, Travis (2008). "'Fire cannot harm it', Mediation, Temptation and the charismatic power of the Qur'an". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 10 (2): 50–72. doi:10.3366/E1465359109000412.
  25. ^ Rahman, Yusuf (1996). "The miraculous nature of muslim scripture: A study of Abd Al-Jabbr's "I'jaz Al-Qur'an"". Islamic Studies. 35 (4): 409–424.
  26. ^ Boullata, Issa J. (2007). Literary structures of religious meaning in the Qur'an. Routledge. p. 279. ISBN 978-0700712564.
  27. ^ Cook, The Koran, 2000: p.30
  28. ^ see also: Ruthven, Malise. 2002. A Fury For God. London: Granta. p. 126.
  29. ^ "Secular Web Kiosk: The Koran Predicted the Speed of Light? Not Really". Archived from the original on 9 February 2008.
  30. ^ Pannell, Maurice Bucaille ; translated from the French by Alastair D.; author, the (1980). The Bible, the Qur'an, and science : the Holy scriptures examined in the light of modern knowledge (3rd ed., rev. and expanded. ed.). Paris: Seghers. pp. Introduction. ISBN 2221012119. {{cite book}}: |author2= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  31. ^ Paracha, Nadeem (January 30, 2014). "The science of farce". DAWN.com.
  32. ^ Khir, Bustami Mohamed (2000). "The Qur'an and Science: The Debate on the Validity of Scientific Interpretations". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 2 (2): 19–35. doi:10.3366/jqs.2000.2.2.19.
  33. ^ Sardar, Ziauddin. "Weird science". Newstatesman. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  34. ^ Rebecca Ruth Gould, "Inimitability versus translatability: the structure of literary meaning in Arabo-Persian poetics," The Translator 19.1 (2013), 81-104
  35. ^ Lara Harb, Arabic Poetics: Aesthetic Experience in Classical Arabic Literature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020), 203-251.
  36. ^ Weddle, David L. (2010). Miracles. ; Wonder and Meaning in World Religions. New York University Press. pp. 177–209. ISBN 978-0814794166.
  37. ^ TabaTaba'i, Allamah Sayyid M. H. (1987). The Qur'an in Islam : its impact and influence on the life of muslims. Zahra Publ. pp. 65. ISBN 0710302665.
  38. ^ " Say, "O mankind, indeed I am the Messenger of God to you all, to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. There is no deity except Him, He gives life and causes death." So believe in God and His Messenger, the unlettered prophet, who believes in God and His words, and follow him that you may be guided."(7:158)
  39. ^ "And you (Muhammad) were not a reader of any scripture before it, nor did you write it with your right hand, for then those who follow falsehood, might have doubted."(29:48)
  40. ^ " It is He (God) who has sent among the unlettered a Messenger from themselves reciting to them His verses and purifying them and teaching them the Book and wisdom, although they were before in clear error."(62:2)
  41. ^ "They say, 'Fairy-tales of the ancients that he has had written down, so that they are recited to him at the dawn and in the evening."(25:5)
  42. ^ see for example translations by Pickthall, Yusuf Ali, and Daryabadi. It has also been translated to 'Gentile'. Arberry translates to 'the prophet of the common folk'.
  43. ^ a b c Günther, Sebastian (2002). "Muhammad, the Illiterate Prophet: An Islamic Creed in the Qur'an and Qur'anic Exegesis". Journal of Qur'anic Studies. 4 (1): 1–26. doi:10.3366/jqs.2002.4.1.1.
  44. ^ Sahih Bukhari by Muhammad Al Bukhari (d.870CE), narrations number 2699 http://sunnah.com/bukhari/53/9 and 114 http://sunnah.com/bukhari/3/56
  45. ^ Jones, Alan (2003). "The word made visible: Arabic script and the committing of the Qur'an to writing". In Robinson, Chase F. (ed.). Texts, documents, and artefacts [electronic resource]: Islamic studies in honour of D.S. Richards. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. pp. 1–16. ISBN 9789004128644.
  46. ^ Tafsir Al Razi by Fakhr Al Din Al Razi, volume 15 pages 23 and 29, translated in Günther, Sebastian (2002). "Muhammad, the Illiterate Prophet: An Islamic Creed in the Qur'an and Qur'anic Exegesis". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 4 (1): 1–26.
  47. ^ Muhammad Mohar (2004). The Qur'an and the Orientalists. Jamiat Ihyaa Minhaaj al-Sunnah (JIMAS), Ipswich, United Kingdom. ISBN 0954036972.
  48. ^ Ruthven, Malise (2006). Islam in the world (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 0195305035.
  49. ^ Peters, F. E. (2010). Jesus and Muhammad : parallel tracks, parallel lives. Oxford University Press. pp. 82. ISBN 978-0199747467.
  50. ^ Gabriel, Richard A. (2007). Muhammad: Islam's First Great General. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. xxvi. ISBN 978-0806138602.