Anthemis nobilis L.
Chamaemelum nobile commonly known as chamomile (also spelled camomile), Roman chamomile, English chamomile, garden chamomile, ground apple, low chamomile, or whig plant, is a low perennial plant found in dry fields and around gardens and cultivated grounds in Europe, North America, and in Argentina. C. nobile is, along with Matricaria chamomilla, an important source of the herbal product known as chamomile.
Chamaemelum nobile has daisy-like white flowers and procumbent stems; the leaves are alternate, bipinnate, finely dissected, and downy to glabrous. The solitary, terminal flowerheads, rising 20–30 cm (8–12 in) above the ground, consist of prominent yellow disk flowers and silver-white ray flowers. The flowering time in the Northern Hemisphere is June and July, and its fragrance is sweet, crisp, fruity and herbaceous.
The word chamomile, and the genus name Chamaemelum come from the Greek χαμαίμηλον (chamaimēlon), "earth-apple", from χαμαί (chamai), "on the ground" + μήλον (mēlon), "apple", so-called because of the apple-like scent of the plant. (Note: The "ch-" spelling is used especially in science and pharmacology.)
The plant is used to flavor foods, in herbal teas, perfumes, and cosmetics. It is used to make a rinse for blonde hair, and is popular in aromatherapy; its practitioners believe it to be a calming agent to reduce stress and aid in sleep. Roman chamomile is not recommended for use during pregnancy as it can cause uterine contractions and miscarriage.
It can also be used to create a fragrant camomile lawn. A chamomile lawn needs light soil, adequate moisture, and sun in order to thrive. Each square meter contains 83-100 plants. The lawn is only suitable to light foot traffic or in places where mower access is difficult.
- 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen
- "German Chamomile". University of Maryland Medical Center. 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- Gualtiero Simonetti (1990). Stanley Schuler, ed. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Herbs and Spices. Simon & Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-73489-X.
- Chamaimelon, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus
- "Roman chamomile". Medline Plus Supplements. National Institutes of Health. 2012. Retrieved 14 December 2012.
- "Camomile lawn". rhs.org. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- English chamomile entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms
- "Anthemis". Plantarium (in Russian).
- Chamomile Plantlife website - species listing
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