Leather-bottle makers (Presumably members of the ‘Chamaar’ caste), Tashrih al-aqvam (1825)
|Regions with significant populations|
|India • Pakistan|
|Punjabi • Urdu • Hindi|
|Related ethnic groups|
|other Ramdasia Ravidassia Julaha|
Chamar is one of the untouchable communities, or dalits, who are now classified as a Scheduled Caste under modern India's system of positive discrimination. As untouchables, they were traditionally considered outside the Hindu ritual ranking system of castes known as varna. They are found mainly in the northern states of India and in Pakistan and Nepal.
The term chamar has also been used as a pejorative word for anyone whom the describer considers to be of low standing.
Chamars who have adopted the weaving profession and abandoned tanning and leathercraft, identify themselves as Julaha Chamar; R. K. Pruthi suggests this is in the hope that they might in future be considered as Julaha by other communities in the future.. They believe that leatherwork is "degrading" when compared to weaving.
Sikh Light Infantry
The 1st Chamar Regiment was an infantry regiment formed by the British during World War II. Officially, it was created on 1 March 1943, as the 27th Battalion 2nd Punjab Regiment was converted.[full citation needed] The Chamar Regiment which was involved in the Pacific War Japanese front and was awarded the Battle Honor of Kohima for theirs distinguished role in the Battle of Kohima. The Regiment was disbanded in 1946. Recently, several politicians have demanded that The Chamar Regiment be revived.
- "Pakistan's caste system: the untouchable's struggle". Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- "Socio-Economic Position of Leatherworkers in Gulbarga City" (PDF). Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Yadav, Bhupendra (21 February 2012). "Aspirations of Chamars in North India". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Singh, Sanjay L. (20 August 2008). "Calling an SC ‘chamar’ offensive, punishable, says apex court". The Economic Times. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- "Uttar Pradesh data highlights: the Scheduled Castes, Census of India 2001" (PDF).
- "Uttar Pradesh data highlights: the Scheduled Castes" (PDF).
- "West Bengal — DATA HIGHLIGHTS: THE SCHEDULED CASTES — Census of India 2001" (PDF). Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- "Microsoft Word - Delhi comments.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- https://books.google.com/books?id=rTdnvQBPWIUC&pg=PA579%7Ctitle=Balahi: Chamars employed to measure land.
- Ram, Ronki (21 January 2017). "Internal Caste Cleavages among Dalits in Punjab". Economic & Political Weekly. 52 (3).
- Rawat, Shyam (2010). Studies in Social Protest. VEDAMS. ISBN 8131603318.
- Balai: Chamars in Bikaner region are known as Balai.
- "A-10 Individual Scheduled Caste Primary Census Abstract Data and its Appendix - Uttar Pradesh". Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- Pruthi, R. K. Indian caste system. Discovery. p. 189. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
- Wilkinson, Steven I. (2015). Army and Nation: The Military and Indian Democracy since Independence. Harvard University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-67496-700-7.
- "Orders of Battle - 27/2 Punjab Regiment [British Commonwealth]". ordersofbattle.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- "The Battle of Kohima" (PDF).
- "RJD man Raghuvansh calls for reviving Chamar Regiment". indianexpress.com. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- "I will be the best PM and Mayawati is my chosen heir". Indian Express. 2 May 2003.
...I am a chamar from Punjab...
- Briggs, George W. (1920). The Religious Life of India — The Chamars. Calcutta: Association Press. ISBN 1-4067-5762-4.
- Rawat, Ramnarayan S. (2011). Reconsidering Untouchability: Chamars and Dalit History in North India. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253222626.
- Schmalz, Mathew N. (2004). "A Bibliographic Essay on Hindu and Christian Dalit Religiosity". Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies. 17: 55–65.