Chamber of Deputies (Brazil)
||This article needs to be updated. (May 2016)|
|Chamber of Deputies
Câmara dos Deputados
|55th Legislature of the National Congress|
|Founded||May 6, 1826|
New session started
|February 1, 2017|
Lelo Coimbra, PMDB
José Guimarães, PT
Length of term
|Open list proportional representation|
|October 5, 2014|
|October 7, 2018|
|Ulysses Guimarães plenary chamber
National Congress Palace
Brasília, Federal District, Brazil
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Chamber of Deputies (Portuguese: Câmara dos Deputados) is a federal legislative body and the lower house of the National Congress of Brazil. The chamber comprises 513 deputies, who are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms. The current president of the Chamber is the deputy Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), who was elected in July 14, 2016 to serve for the remainder of the 2015-2016 term.
The legislatures are counted from the first meeting of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, on 6 May 1826, in the imperial era (the Chamber of Deputies met for preparatory sessions from 29 April 1826 to elect its officers and conduct other preliminary business, but the Legislature was formally opened on 6 May). The Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were created by Brazil's first Constitution, the Constitution of the Empire of Brazil, adopted in 1824. The numbering of the legislatures is continuous and counts all bicameral legislatures elected since the adoption of the 1824 Constitution including the imperial General Assembly and the republican National Congress. The previous constituent and legislative assembly of the Empire of Brazil, a unicameral national assembly convened in 1823 and dissolved by Emperor Pedro I before the Constitution was adopted, is not counted. The inauguration of a new composition of Chamber of Deputies for a four-year term of office marks the start of a new Legislature.
In the imperial era the national legislature was named General Assembly. It was made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. Senators were elected for life and the Senate was a permanent institution, whereas the Chamber of Deputies, unless dissolved earlier, was elected every four years. When Brazil became a republic and a federal state the model of a bicameral Legislature was retained at the federal level, but the parliament was renamed National Congress. The National Congress is made up of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Both houses have fixed terms and cannot be dissolved earlier. Under Brazil's present Constitution, adopted in 1988, senators are elected to eight-year terms and deputies are elected every four years.
Each Brazilian state (and the Federal District) is represented in the Senate by three senators.
Elections to the Senate are held every four years, with either a third or two thirds of the seats up for election.
The number of deputies elected is proportional to the size of the population of the respective state (or of the Federal District). However, no delegation can be made up of less than eight or more than seventy seats. Thus the least populous state elects eight Federal Deputies and the most populous elects seventy. These restrictions favour the smaller states at the expense of the more populous states and so the size of the delegations is not exactly proportional to population.
Elections to the Chamber of Deputies are held every four years, with all seats up for election.
- 1st Legislature (1826–1829)
- 2nd Legislature (1830–1833)
- 3rd Legislature (1834–1837)
- 4th Legislature (1838–1841)
- 5th Legislature (1842–1844)
- 6th Legislature (1845–1847)
- 7th Legislature (1848)
- 8th Legislature (1849–1852)
- 9th Legislature (1853–1856)
- 10th Legislature (1857–1860)
- 11th Legislature (1861–1863)
- 12th Legislature (1864–1866)
- 13th Legislature (1867–1868)
- 14th Legislature (1869–1872)
- 15th Legislature (1872–1875)
- 16th Legislature (1876–1877)
- 17th Legislature (1878–1881)
- 18th Legislature (1882–1884)
- 19th Legislature (1885)
- 20th Legislature (1886–1889), dissolved by the 15 November 1889 military coup that proclaimed Brazil a Republic
- 21st Legislature: had already been elected to succeed the 20th legislature, but was not installed due to the proclamation of the Republic. New elections were summoned by the provisional government of the Republic in 1890.
- 21st Legislature (1890–1891), discharged the role of Constituent Congress (1890–1891). The act that summoned the elections for the Constituent Congress and that empowered it to draft a Constitution already established that the Congress would be made up of two Houses, an elected Senate with equal representation for the Brazilian States, and a Chamber of Deputies, each State having a number of Deputies proportional to the size of its population. During the drafting of the Constitution, the Congress was to meet in joint session. The Congress was required to adopt a Constitution that conformed to the republican form of government, and that preserved the recently declared Federal model of the State.
- 22nd Legislature (1891–1893)
- 23rd Legislature (1894–1896)
- 24th Legislature (1897–1899)
- 25th Legislature (1900–1902)
- 26th Legislature (1903–1905)
- 27th Legislature (1906–1908)
- 28th Legislature (1909–1911)
- 29th Legislature (1912–1914)
- 30th Legislature (1915–1917)
- 31st Legislature (1918–1920)
- 32nd Legislature (1921–1923)
- 33rd Legislature (1924–1926)
- 34th Legislature (1927–1929)
- 35th Legislature (1930): dissolved by the provisional government after the 1930 Revolution.
- 36th Legislature (1933–1935), discharged the role of Constituent Assembly (1933–1934)
- 37th Legislature (1935–1937), dissolved by the Estado Novo coup d'état.
Legislatures elected under the Republic of 46
- 38th Legislature (1946–1950), discharged the role of National Constituent Assembly (1946).
- 39th Legislature (1951–1954)
- 40th Legislature (1955–1958)
- 41st Legislature (1959–1962)
- 42nd Legislature (1963–1967), already under the Military Regime instituted by the 1964 military coup, the legislature discharged the role of Constituent Congress (1966–1967), under a decree of the military government (AI-4, Fourth Institutional Act), that commissioned the drafting of a new Constitution. The Constitution was voted under duress.
Legislatures elected under the Military Regime
- 43rd Legislature (1967–1970)
- 44th Legislature (1971–1975)
- 45th Legislature (1975–1979)
- 46th Legislature (1979–1983)
- 47th Legislature (1983–1987). The Chamber of Deputies was elected under the process of gradual return to democracy. During that legislature, the last military President handed over power to the first civilian Administration, still elected indirectly, by means of an Electoral College. The 1985 Electoral College, however, was placed under no duress, and elected the Opposition candidates for President and Vice-President. After the inauguration of the civilian Administration, the 47th Legislature passed a Constitutional Amendment, empowering the next Legislature, that would convene in February 1987 after the 1986 legislative elections, to discharge the role of National Constituent Assembly, empowered to adopt a new Constitution to replace the one inheirited from the Military Regime.
Legislatures elected after the restoration of civilian government ("New Republic")
- 48th Legislature (1987–1991), discharged the role of National Constituent Assembly (1987–1988).
- 49th Legislature (1991–1995)
- 50th Legislature (1995–1999)
- 51st Legislature (1999–2003)
- 52nd Legislature (2003–2007)
- 53rd Legislature (2007–2011)
- 54th Legislature (2011–2015)
- 55th Legislature (2015-2019)
The number of seats per state is distributed according to the number of inhabitants per state, according to the official measurement taken by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics through a census held each 10 years. The Brazilian population is represented by one deputy for each 362,013 inhabitants on average, but this proportionality is limited by having a minimum of eight members and a maximum of seventy members per state, these criteria being subject to an apportionment paradox.
Therefore, states with 3,258,117 inhabitants upwards have 9 to 70 deputies. Following this scenario for example the city of São Paulo with its 11,253,503 inhabitants is represented by 31 deputies of the total members of the state and the rest of the state with its 28,670,588 inhabitants are represented by 39 MPs (Member of Parliament).
There is a distorted representation of the Brazilian states in congress, having some groups of deputies representing on average more than the proportion of the population of the state, and others representing less. That proportionality means that Roraima is represented by a representative for every 51,000 inhabitants and, at the other extreme, São Paulo is represented by one representative for every 585,000 inhabitants. This difference is reflected in the representation of the states in the Brazilian Congress with deputations for states as Roraima with 681% of the population represented by their deputies in the Congress, and less proportionality for the population of the state of São Paulo with 63% of the population represented by their deputies in the Congress, where proportionality is the percentage of representatives in the chamber divided by the percentage of the population. The population of the state of São Paulo, because of the maximum limits of 70 MPs for any one state, give up having 40 more seats in congress compared to the other states.
|Federal state||Number of members||% Of total members||Population (on the census also called Censo 2010)||% Of the population (Censo 2010)||Representativeness (Inhabitants / Mr)||Representatives of national average||% Representative distortion||% Of the population represented by MPs||Deputies required ignoring the limits|
|São Paulo||70||13,6%||39 924 091||21,5%||570 344||110||-7,90%||63%||40|
|Minas Gerais||53||10,3%||19 159 260||10,3%||361 495||53||0,00%||100%||0|
|Rio de Janeiro||46||9%||15 180 636||8,2%||330 014||42||0,80%||110%||-4|
|Bahia||39||7,6%||13 633 969||7,3%||349 589||38||0,30%||104%||-1|
|Rio Grande do Sul||31||6%||10 576 758||5,7%||341 186||29||0,30%||106%||-2|
|Paraná||30||5,8%||10 226 737||5,5%||340 891||28||0,30%||106%||-2|
|Pernambuco||25||4,9%||8 541 250||4,6%||341 650||24||0,30%||106%||-1|
|Ceará||22||4,3%||8 450 527||4,4%||371 822||23||-0,10%||94%||1|
|Maranhão||18||3,5%||6 424 340||3,5%||356 908||18||0,00%||101%||0|
|Goiás||17||3,3%||5 849 105||3,1%||344 065||16||0,20%||105%||-1|
|Pará||17||3,3%||7 443 904||4%||437 877||21||-0,70%||83%||4|
|Santa Catarina||16||3,1%||6 178 603||3,3%||386 163||17||-0,20%||94%||1|
|Paraíba||12||2,3%||3 753 633||2%||312 803||10||0,30%||116%||-2|
|Espírito Santo||10||1,9%||3 392 775||1,8%||339 278||9||0,10%||107%||-1|
|Piauí||10||1,9%||3 086 448||1,7%||308 645||9||0,20%||117%||-1|
|Alagoas||9||1,7%||3 093 994||1,7%||343 777||9||0,00%||105%||0|
|Acre||8||1,6%||707 125||0,4%||88 391||2||1,20%||410%||-6|
|Amazonas||8||1,6%||3 350 773||1,8%||418 847||9||-0,20%||86%||1|
|Amapá||8||1,6%||648 553||0,3%||81 069||2||1,30%||447%||-6|
|Distrito Federal||8||1,6%||2 469 489||1,3%||308 686||7||0,30%||117%||-1|
|Mato Grosso do Sul||8||1,6%||2 404 256||1,3%||300 532||7||0,30%||120%||-1|
|Mato Grosso||8||1,6%||2 954 625||1,6%||369 328||8||0,00%||98%||0|
|Rio Grande do Norte||8||1,6%||3 121 451||1,7%||390 181||9||-0,10%||93%||1|
|Rondônia||8||1,6%||1 535 625||0,8%||191 953||4||0,80%||189%||-4|
|Roraima||8||1,6%||425 398||0,2%||53 175||1||1,40%||681%||-7|
|Sergipe||8||1.6%||2 036 227||1.1%||254 528||6||0.50%||142%||-2|
|Tocantins||8||1.6%||1 373 551||0.7%||171 694||4||0.90%||211%||-4|
|Total||513||100%||185 712 713||100%||362 013 (representative national average)||514 (Population / representative national average)||0,30% accumulated (% of total members -% of the population)||156% average (number of members / Representatives of national average)||1|
|PV||6||Leandre Dal Ponte||Independent|
Partisan blocs composition
|Government||±350||Aguinaldo Ribeiro (PP)|
|Majority||±350||Lelo Coimbra (PMDB)|
|PP, PODE, PTdoB Bloc||64||Arthur Lira (PP)|
|PTB, PROS, PSL, PRP Bloc||25||Jovair Arantes (PTB)|
The House of Representatives is composed of the Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil by College Leaders and the Commissions, which can be permanent, temporary, or special inquiry.
Bureau of the Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
The current composition of the Board of the Chamber of Deputies is the following:
President: Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ) (elected in July 14, 2016 to serve for the remainder of the 2015-2016 term, after Eduardo Cunha was suspended by the Supreme Court in May 5, 2016.)
1st Vice President: Fábio Ramalho (PMDB-MG)
2nd Vice President: André Fufuca (PP-MA)
1st Secretary: Fernando Giacobo (PR-PR)
2nd Secretary: Mariana Carvalho (PSDB-RO)
3rd Secretary: João Henrique Caldas (PSB-AL)
4th Secretary: Rômulo Gouveia (PSD-PB)
1st Alternate Registrar: Dagoberto Nogueira (PDT-MS)
2nd Alternate Registrar: César Halum (PRB-TO)
3rd Alternate Registrar: Pedro Uczai (PT-SC)
4th Alternate Registrar: Carlos Manato (SD-ES)
||This section needs to be updated. (March 2017)|
On March 6 of 2012, was defined division of committees between parties. The President's House, Marco Maia, believes that the proportionality between the parties / blocs must take into account the data of the last election. Thus, PT and PMDB, with the highest benches, were three committees (the PT made the choice first). DEM and PSDB, the two largest opposition, were two commissions each. On the other hand, PSD, most harmed by this decision, filed a lawsuit in the Supreme Court (STF) trying to reverse this decision.
The chair of the committee, was defined as follows:
- Federal institutions of Brazil
- 54th Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
- 53rd Chamber of Deputies of Brazil
- National Congress of Brazil
- Federal Senate of Brazil
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: O Império do Brasil
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: First Republic
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: The Second Republic
- Chamber of Deputies Home Page: The Fourth Republic
- Constitutional Amendment 26, of 27 November 1985
- Juridically, the National Constituent Assembly was a separate legal entity, distinct from the bicameral National Congress, but it was exclusively made up of the entire membership of the National Congress (the Senators and Federal Deputies that served in the 48th Legislature), and it even held its sessions in the plenary hall of the Chamber of Deputies, the same place were joint sessions of Congress usually gather. Also, the congressional staff served as the support staff for the Constituent Assembly. The only differences, therefore, between sessions of the Constituent Assembly and Joint Sessions of Congress were: first, that the President of the Senate was ex officio the President of Congress, and in that capacity he chaired all joint sessions of Congress; the Constituent Assembly, on the other hand, elected its own President, and the President of the Chamber of Deputies was chosen for that office. Secondly, under the norms then in force, the Directing Board of the Senate (made up of the President, the Vice-Presidents and the Secretaries of that House) served as the Directing Board for joint sessions of Congress. The Constituent Assembly, however, elected its Vice-Presidents and Secretaries from its entire membership, and it thus had a distinct Directing Board, that included members from the Senate and members from the Chamber of Deputies. Thirdly, when meeting in joint sessions of Congress Senators were still Senators, and Federal Deputies were still Federal Deputies, and if votes were taken during a joint session of National Congress, the members of both Houses deliberated separately. When the composition of Congress met as the Constituent Assembly, however, all members were simply members of the Constituent Assembly, without distinction regarding their origin as Senators or Federal Deputies, and the Assembly voted as a unicameral entity, so that all members, Senators or Federal Deputies, had an equal vote. The Constituent Assembly convened on 1 February 1987, the first day of the preparatory meetings of both Houses of Congress for the 48th Legislature; on that date, prior to the solemn opening of the Constituent Assembly, the new membership of National Congress met for the first time after the 1986 legislative elections: the new Senators were sworn-in at a meeting of the Senate, and an entirely new composition of the Chamber of Deputies was sworn-in at the first meeting of that House in the new Legislature. The Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate were also elected on that date, in the said meetings of each House. The election for President of the Constituent Assembly, however, took place on the following day, 2 February 1987. Both the solemn opening session of the Constituent Assembly and the election of its President were chaired by the President of the Supreme Federal Court. The solemn joint session of Congress for the opening of the first annual session of the 48th Legislature, with the reading of the message from the President of the Republic reporting on the state of the Nation and presenting the government's ordinary legislative programme for the annual session ahead, was held on 1 March 1987. Senators and Federal Deputies continued their double role as members of Congress and members ex officio of the Constituent Assembly until Brazil's new Constitution was promulgated by the Constituent Assembly on 5 October 1988, at which point the Assembly concluded its business and ceased to exist.During that period from February 1987 to October 1988, separate meetings of the Houses of Congress, and joint sessions of Congress, transacted the ordinary legislative business, as the Legislative Branch of the Government then in existence, limited by the Constitution then in force, while when gathered as the Constituent Assembly, the legislators drafted the new Constitution with unlimited authority, and thus discharged their sovereign constituent power.
- IBGE Censo 2010
- MP - definition of MP by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia
- Gasto com deputados caminha para R$ 1 bilhão | Congresso em Foco
- "Rodrigo Maia vence Rosso no 2º turno e é eleito presidente da Câmara" (in Portuguese). 2016-07-14. Retrieved 2016-07-14.
- Finch, Nathalia (March 6, 2012), G1,
defines the distribution of the standing committeesMissing or empty
- Santos, Deborah (February 27, 2012), G1,
going to have the Supreme Command of committees in the HouseMissing or empty
- "Eleitos os presidentes das 25 comissões da Câmara" (in Portuguese). Portal da Câmara dos Deputados. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
- Comissão de Agricultura, Pecuária, Abastecimento e Desenvolvimento Rural - CAPADR — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Integração Nacional, Desenvolvimento Regional e da Amazônia - CINDRA — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Ciência e Tecnologia, Comunicação e Informática - CCTCI — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Constituição e Justiça e de Cidadania - CCJC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Defesa do Consumidor - CDC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Econômico, Indústria e Comércio - CDEIC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Desenvolvimento Urbano - CDU — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Direitos Humanos e Minorias - CDHM — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Educação - CE — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Cultura - CCULT - Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Finanças e Tributação - CFT — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Fiscalização Financeira e Controle - CFFC — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Legislação Participativa - CLP — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável - CMADS — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Minas e Energia - CME — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Relações Exteriores e de Defesa Nacional - CREDN — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Segurança Pública e Combate ao Crime Organizado - CSPCCO — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Seguridade Social e Família - CSSF — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Trabalho, de Administração e Serviço Público - CTASP — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Turismo - CTUR — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Coissão do Esporte - CESPO - Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Viação e Transportes - CVT — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Defesa dos Direitos da Mulher - Mulher — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Defesa dos Direitos da Pessoa Idosa - Idoso — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados
- Comissão de Defesa dos Direitos da Pessoa com Deficiência - CPD — Portal da Câmara dos Deputados