Chamomile

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German chamomile
Roman chamomile

Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English; see spelling differences) (/ˈkæməˌml, -ˌml/ KAM-ə-myl or KAM-ə-meel[1][2]) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae. Two of the species are commonly used to make herb infusions thought to serve various medicinal purposes. Popular uses of chamomile preparations include treating hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasms, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, gastrointestinal disorders, and hemorrhoids.[3] Chamomile is also thought to treat skin conditions such as eczema, chickenpox, and psoriasis.[4]

Etymology[edit]

The word "chamomile" derives, via French and Latin, from Greek χαμαίμηλον (khamaimēlon), i.e. "earth apple", from χαμαί (khamai) "on the ground" and μῆλον (mēlon) "apple".[5][6] The more common British spelling "camomile," is the older one in English, while the spelling "chamomile" corresponds to the Latin and Greek source.[7] The spelling camomile is a derivation from the French.[8]

Species[edit]

Some commonly used species include:

  • Matricaria chamomilla (also known as Water of Youth'),[9] German chamomile[10] or wild chamomile, the most commonly used species
  • Chamaemelum nobile, Roman, English or garden chamomile, also frequently used,[10] (C. nobile ‘Treneague’ is normally used to create a chamomile lawn).[11]
Loose leaf chamomile tea

A number of other species' common names include the word "chamomile". This does not mean they are used in the same manner as the species used in the herbal tea known as "chamomile." Plants including the common name "chamomile," of the family Asteraceae, are:

Tea / Herbal infusion[edit]

Chamomile tea is an herbal infusion made from dried chamomile flowers and hot water. Two types of chamomile used: German chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). One recipe calls for 2 to 3 heaped teaspoons of the flowers, steeped for 10-20 minutes and then strained.[12]

In The Tale of Peter Rabbit by Beatrix Potter (in 1902), she refers to chamomile tea given to Peter after being chased by Mr McGregor.[12] In Norway, the tea is used to treat the common cold.[13]

Research[edit]

Chamomile is under preliminary research for its potential anti-anxiety properties.[9] Chamomile tea may be a relaxant.[14] Chemical compounds present within chamomile include numerous polyphenols which have unknown effects in humans.[3][9][15]

Drug interactions[edit]

Apigenin and other compounds may interact with medications causing drug-drug interactions, some of the possible interactions include those with antiplatelet agents, anticoagulant agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents.[16] Apigenin was found to interact with antiarrhythmic agents and antihypertensive agents in animal research. Other interactions include those against sedative agents, antibiotic agents, and antianxiety agents.[citation needed]

While chamomile exhibits some anti-inflammatory effects by itself, it is not recommended that it be taken concurrently with Aspirin or non-salicylate NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) as it is unknown if a clinically significant herb-drug interaction exists.

"Chamomile consists of several ingredients including coumarin, glycoside, heniarin, flavonoid, farnesol, nerolidol and germacranolide. Despite the presence of coumarin, as chamomiles effect on the coagulation system has not yet been studied, it is unknown if a clinically significant drug-herb interaction exists with antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs. However, until more information is available, it is not recommended to use these substances concurrently."[17]

Adverse reactions[edit]

People who are allergic to ragweed (also in the daisy family) may be allergic to chamomile due to cross-reactivity.[18]

Pregnancy / Lactation[edit]

Because chamomile has been known to cause uterine contractions that can invoke miscarriage, the U.S. National Institutes of Health recommends that pregnant and nursing mothers not consume Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).[19]

Agriculture[edit]

The chamomile plant is known to be susceptible to many fungi, insects, and viruses. Fungi such as Albugo tragopogonis (white rust), Cylindrosporium matricariae, Erysiphe cichoracearum (powdery mildew), and Sphaerotheca macularis (powdery mildew) are known pathogens of the chamomile plant.[15] Aphids have been observed feeding on chamomile plants and the moth Autographa chryson causes defoliation.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter, eds., English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 3-12-539683-2 
  2. ^ "chamomile". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 29 August 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Srivastava, JK; Shankar, E; Gupta, S (November 2010). "Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future". Molecular medicine reports. 3 (6): 895–901. PMC 2995283Freely accessible. PMID 21132119. doi:10.3892/mmr.2010.377. 
  4. ^ "Chamomile-Topic Overview". WebMD. Retrieved 2016-12-01. 
  5. ^ χαμαίμηλον. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  6. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. 
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, entry "camomile | chamomile"
  8. ^ "Chamomile - Define Chamomile at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. 
  9. ^ a b c Sarris, J; Panossian, A; Schweitzer, I; Stough, C; Scholey, A (December 2011). "Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety, and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence". European neuropsychopharmacology. 21 (12): 841–860. PMID 21601431. doi:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2011.04.002. 
  10. ^ a b "Chamomile". NYU Langone Medical Center. 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "Camomile lawn". rhs.org. Retrieved 21 July 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Michael Castleman The New Healing Herbs: The Classic Guide to Nature's Best Medicines ... at Google Books
  13. ^ J.T. Sibley The Way of the Wise: Traditional Norwegian Folk and Magic Medicine, p. 192, at Google Books
  14. ^ Srivastava, JK; Shankar, E; Gupta, S (November 2010). "Chamomile: A herbal medicine of the past with bright future". Mol Med Rep. 3: 895–901. PMC 2995283Freely accessible. PMID 21132119. doi:10.3892/mmr.2010.377. 
  15. ^ a b c Singh, O; Khanam, Z; Misra, N; Srivastava, MK (January 2011). "Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview.". Pharmacognosy reviews. 5 (9): 82–95. PMC 3210003Freely accessible. PMID 22096322. doi:10.4103/0973-7847.79103. 
  16. ^ Miller, LG (1998). "Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions". Arch. Intern. Med. 158 (20): 220–2211. PMID 9818800. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.20.2200. [better source needed]
  17. ^ Abebe, W. (2002-12-01). "Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 27 (6): 391–401. ISSN 0269-4727. PMID 12472978. 
  18. ^ National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (2012). "Chamomile". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 
  19. ^ "Roman chamomile: MedlinePlus". MedlinePlus. National Institutes of Health. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2014-08-30. 

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