Chaná language

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Chaná
Lanték Yañá
Native toUruguay,
Argentina.
RegionAround Uruguay River and Paraná River and Río de la Plata
EthnicityChaná people
ExtinctNo[1]
Revival2005; several students in both Uruguay and Argentina
DialectsYañá-yañá, Yañá-ntimpúc, and (probably) Nbeuá
Language codes
ISO 639-3None (mis)
qsi
Glottologchan1296[2]
Linguasphere85-DCA-d(a)[3]

The Chaná language[4] (autoglossonym: Lanték, that means "speak" or "language"; and this, from lan, "tongue" and tek, a communicational suffix)[5] is one of the Charruan languages spoken by the Chaná People-Nation, in some regions of what is now Argentina and Uruguay, along the Uruguay and Paraná Rivers, even on margins of the Río de la Plata.[6] It was spoken by the chanás from pre-Columbian times, in the vast region that today is between Entre Ríos Province, Argentina and Uruguay, all along the rivers Uruguay y Paraná Guazú. According to the oral memory narratives[7] taken on recent findings, they would have inhabited in very ancient times, including territories around the current brazilian margin of the Uruguay River. This "north", from which they would have migrated, both along the Uruguay as along the Paraná rivers, on the one hand from the outfall of the Iguazú River and on the other from the Paraguay River, in vicinities of the current location of the Asunción City.[8]

UNESCO recognizes it as a living language, but "extremely endangered", because it has only one native speaker alive.[9] The Chamber of Deputies of the Entre Ríos Province recognized the necessity for its preservation and governmental protection.[10]

Blas Wilfredo Omar Jaime[edit]

Blas Jaime, 2019

Blas Wilfredo Omar Jaime (Agó Acoé Inó, "dog without owner-" in chaná language, Nogoyá, Entre Rios, (1934-02-02)February 2, 1934), an argentinian, is the only native speaker of the language of the Chaná people, being called Tató Oyendén -man who is a custodian of the ancestral memory. The language, which Blas learned from his ancestors, was considered extinct before he was interviewed by the linguist José Pedro Viegas Barros,[11][12][13][14] with whom he wrote in partnership the book "La Lengua Chaná. Patrimonio Cultural de Entre Ríos" which was edited by the official editorial of the provincial government of Entre Ríos, as a further recognition of those held for the official declaration of Lanték, as Cultural Patrimony of the Province.[15]

Dictionary Viegas-Jaime[edit]

"Lanték", has been recognized as a "Cultural Heritage of the Entre Ríos Province", by the publication of the first Dictionary of the language by the Provincial Publishing House of Entre Ríos.[16] This publication contains, in addition to the dictionary compiled by Don Blas Wilfredo Omar Jaime, with an encyclopedic approach to the Chaná culture and its wealth, it is preceded by several sections of linguistic studies by the linguist José Pedro Viegas Barros.[17] The fourth and last section of the book, includes a significant sample of the existing Chaná ethnoliterature, both contemporary composed and ancestrally transmitted. Viegas Barros, the linguist who discovered and researched the language provided by Don Blas, have done several recursive elicitation sessions about the various semantic fields covered in this work, during the span of the 7 years prior to the publication of the volume. It also has an audio CD, which includes recordings that illustrate, with the own voice of "Don Blas", the corresponding pronunciation for Lanték.

Phonology[edit]

The following are phonemes according to modern Chaná phonology.[18][19]

Consonant phonemes
Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ
Stop p b t d k g ʔ
Affricate
Fricative s ʃ ʒ (x) h
Approximant w j
Lateral l
Trill r
Flap ɾ
Monophthong vowel phonemes
Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chaná". UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger. UNESCO. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chaná". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ "Linguasphere Index C" (PDF). www.linguasphere.info. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  4. ^ "Chaná - Biblioteca Digital Curt Nimuendajú". www.etnolinguistica.org. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  5. ^ JAIME, Blas Wilfredo Omar; VIEGAS BARROS, José Pedro (2013). La lengua chaná, patrimonio cultural de Entre Ríos (in Spanish and Chaná). Paraná: Dirección Editorial de Entre Ríos. p. 145. ISBN 950-686-039-4.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
  6. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). "Classification of South American Indian Languages". UCLA Latin American Center. Los Ángeles.
  7. ^ JAIME, Blas Wilfredo Omar (4 August 2017). "Conservar la cultura, Blas Jaime". inicio (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  8. ^ "Blas el chaná". Nación Charrua Artiguista y Originaria (in Spanish). 30 January 2013. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  9. ^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  10. ^ Diario de Sesiones de la Cámara de Diputados de la Provincia de Entre Ríos, sesión del 03 de julio de 2018.
  11. ^ Página12. "La misión del último hablante chaná | Cómo se recuperó una lengua originaria de América gracias al encuentro entre un jubilado y un lingüista". PAGINA12.com.ar (in Spanish). Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  12. ^ "Un chaná que habla su idioma" (in Spanish). 2005-03-26.
  13. ^ "El último chaná busca recuperar su historia" (in Spanish).
  14. ^ "Historiografía lingüística del Río de la Plata: las lenguas indígenas de la Banda Oriental". Boletín de filología (in Spanish). 48 (2): 131–171. 2013. doi:10.4067/S0718-93032013000200007. ISSN 0718-9303.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "El diccionario de chaná ya es patrimonio de los entrerrianos". Radio La Voz. Radio La Voz.
  16. ^ "Museo Antonio Serrano". museoserrano.blogspot.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  17. ^ "J. Pedro Viegas Barros | Universidad de Buenos Aires - Academia.edu". uba.academia.edu. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
  18. ^ Jaime & Viegas Barros 2013, pp. 31-33
  19. ^ Barros, J. Pedro Viegas (2015). Una posible diferenciación de hablas feminina y masculina en chaná.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jaime, Blas Wilfredo Omar; Viegas Barros, José Pedro (2013). La lengua chaná, patrimonio cultural de Entre Ríos (in Spanish and Chaná). Paraná: Editorial de Entre Ríos. ISBN 978-950-686-039-4.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)