Varna was a social order in ancient India of division of labour by birth , based on the Vedas. Since the Vedic corpus constitute the earliest literary source, it came to be seen as the origin of society. In this Brahmanical view, varnas were created on a particular occasion . In this ordering of society, and activities were delineated in this context. Varna divides the society into four group.
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- Jha, Ashok Kumar (2013). Meghadutam. PartridgeIndia. p. 101. ISBN 978-1-48289-494-3.
- Thapar, Romila (2004). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. University of California Press. pp. 63, 511. ISBN 978-0-52024-225-8.
- Biswas, A. K. (2000). The Namasudras of Bengal: profile of a persecuted people. Blumoon Books. p. viii.
Though he is physically almost practically unknown, save and except in Bengal, calling someone a Chandal is the ultimate insult and humiliation of a Hindu anywhere under the sun.