Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu

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Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP)
Regions with significant populations

Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) is an ethno-religious clan of South Asia. Traditionally, the CKPs have the upanayana (thread ceremony) and have been granted the rights to study the vedas and perform vedic rituals along with the Brahmins.[1][a][2][b] Ritually ranked very high, they may be considered socially proximate to the Maharashtrian Brahmin community, although they are not themselves Brahmins.[3][4][5][6] They have traditionally been an elite and literate but a numerically small community.[7][8][9][10]

'Prabhu' means a person who holds a high position in the government.[1][c]Historically, they made equally good warriors, statesmen as well as writers.[11] According to the historian, B.R. Sunthankar, this community produced some of the best warriors in Maharashtrian History.[8] The CKP also performed three Vedic karmas(duties) which in sanskrit are called: Adhyayan- studying of the Vedas, yajna- ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras and dāna – alms or charity.[12]

Traditionally, in Maharashtra, the caste structure was headed by the Brahmins castes – the deshasthas, chitpawans, karhade, saraswats and the CKPs.[13] Other than the Brahmins, the Prabhus (CKPs and Pathare Prabhus) were the communities advanced in education.[14]

They are mainly concentrated in Maharashtra. They may be considered part of the broader Kayastha community[15] or a sister caste of the other prabhu community in Maharashtra - the Pathare Prabhu.[16] The CKP followed the Advaita Vedanta tradition propounded by Adi Shankara, the first Shankaracharya whereas the Pathare Prabhu followed the Smartha tradition.[12]


The CKP claim descent from Chandrasen, an ancient kshatriya king of Ayodhya and of the Haihaya family of the lunar Kshatriya Dynasty. [17][18]

The name Chandraseniya may be a corruption of the word Chandrashreniya, meaning from the valley of the Chenab River (also known as "Chandra"). This theory states that the word Kayastha originates from the term Kaya Desha, an ancient name for the region around Ayodhya.[19]

During the times of the Shilahara dynasty of Konkan (around the 10th century), the Silhara kings were known to invite for settlement into their lands, Brahmins and Kshatriyas of the northern Indo-Gangetic valley. These are the Goud Saraswat Brahmin and the CKP.[20] In fact, epigraphical evidences i.e. engravings from the Shilahara times have been found in Deccan to prove that many CKPs held high posts and controlled the civilian and military administration. For example, a Shilahara inscription around A.D. 1088 mentions the names of a certain Velgi Prabhu. Lakshmana Prabhu is mentioned as a MahaDandanayaka (head of military) and MahaPradhana (prime minister); Ananta-Prabhu is mentioned as a MahaPradhana (prime minister), Kosadhikari (Head of treasury) and Mahasandhivigrahika (charge of foreign department). According to Historian and researcher S.Muley, these epigraphs might be the first available evidences of the existence of the CKP in Maharashtra.[21]

The CKPs have traditionally been placed in the Kshatriya varna[22][23][24] and also followed Brahmin rituals, like the sacred thread (Janeu) ceremony[25][1][a] As another example of similarity with the Brahmin rituals, the observation of the period of mourning and seclusion by person of a deceased's lineage by the CKPs has traditionally been for 10 days although Kshatriyas generally observe it for 12 days.[25][26]

According to a letter written by the Shankaracharya in the 1800s, who confirmed the 'vedadhikar' of the CKPs, the title Prabhu, which means high official, must have been given to the CKPs by the Shilahar kings of Konkan.[1][c] The Shankaracharya also formally endorsed their Kshatriya status by citing various sanskrit scriptures ; especially one scripture that explicitly called them Chandraseniya Kshatriyas. He also cited documents from Banares and Pune Brahmins ratified by Bajirao II himself that proved their rights over the Vedas.[2][d][b]

According to the American Indologist and scholar of Religious Studies and South Asian Studies who is the Professor of International Studies and Comparative Religion at the University of Washington, Christian Lee Novetzke

In the thirteenth century they might have been considered as equal to brahmin or simply within the Brahminic ecumene, this despite the fact that modern day CKPs of Maharashtra understand themselves to have arisen from the Kshatriya varna. Thus they are an intermediate caste between brahmins and Kshatriyas.[27]

The CKPs, described as a traditionally well-educated and intellectual group, came into conflict with Marathi Brahmins at least 350 years ago over their rights to be teachers and scholars. As such they competed with the Brahmins in the 18th and 19th centuries for government jobs.[23][full citation needed]. They even demanded privileges of the Brahmin order – the rights to conduct the vedic rituals(all by themselves) and satkarma(all six karmas of the Brahmin order) for which they were opposed especially by the Chitpawans.[28][10]University of Toronto historians and Professors Emeriti, Milton Israel and N.K Wagle opine about this as follows in their analysis:

The CKP could undertake the six functions (satkarma) because they had the expertise to do so. Aba Parasnis the CKP[in the early 1800s] could easily hold his own and argue intricate points from the vedas, puranas and the dharmasastras in a debate which resulted in his composition of the siddhantavijaya in sanskrit.He prepared the sanskara manual(karmakalpadruma), which was published by Pratapsimha. The CKP as an educated elite therefore, were a serious challenge to the Brahman monopoly of Vedokta.[2][e]

Deccan sultanate and Maratha Era[edit]

The CKP community became more prominent during the Deccan sultanates and Maratha rule era. During Adilshahi and Nizamshahi, CKP, the Brahmins and high status Maratha were part of the elites. Given their training CKP served both as civilian and military officers.[29] Several of the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji's generals and ministers, such as Murarbaji Deshpande and Baji Prabhu Deshpande, were CKPs.[30] During this period, three notables CKPs - Netaji Palkar, Pilaji Prabhu Deshpande (the son of Baji Prabhu Deshpande) and Shamji Kulkarni (the son of Raoji Narao Kulkarni) were converted to Islam. The conversion happened after being taken as prisoners in war campaigns in the case of the latter two and after being lured by Mirza Raja Jai Singh into the military services of Aurangzeb in the case of Netaji Palkar. After their escape, conversions back to Hinduism were done using Brahminical rituals performed after authorization by the Brahmins, under the minister "Panditrao". Thus, they were accepted back not only into Hinduism but also the CKP community.[31]

As the Maratha empire/confederacy expanded in the 18th century, and given the nepotism of the Peshwa of Pune towards their own Chitpavan Brahmin caste, CKP and other literal castes migrated for administration jobs to the new Maratha ruling states such as the Bhosale of Nagpur, the Gaekwads, the Scindia, the Holkars etc.,[32][29] The Gaekwads of Baroda and the Bhosale of Nagpur gave preference to CKPs in their administration[33]

In 1801-1802 CE (1858 Samvat), a Pune-based council of 626 Brahmins from Maharashtra, Karnataka and other areas made a formal declaration that the CKPs are twice-born (upper caste) people who are expected to follow the thread ceremony(munja).[34]

British era[edit]

During the British colonial era, the two literate communities of Maharashtra, namely the Brahmins and the CKP were the first to adopt western education with enthusiasm and prospered with opportunities in the colonial administration. A number of CKP families also served the semi-independent princely states in Maharashtra and other regions of India, such as Baroda.[35][36][full citation needed]

The British era of the 1800s and 1900s saw the publications dedicated to finding sources of CKP history[37] The book 'Prabhu Kul Deepika' gives the gotras (rishi name) and pravaras etc. of the CKP caste. Another publication, "Kayastha-mitra"(Volume 1, No.9. Dec 1930) gives a list of north Indian princely families that belonged to the CKP caste. [38]

Rango Bapuji Gupte, the CKP representative of the deposed Raja Pratapsinh Bhosale of Satara spent 13 years in London in the 1840s and 50s to plead for restoration of the ruler without success. At the time of the Indian rebellion of 1857, Rango tried to raise a rebel force to fight the British but the plan was thwarted and most of the conspirators were executed.However, Rango Bapuji escaped from his captivity and was never found[39]

Other communities, at times, tried to contest CKP rights to Upanayana and being twice born.They based their opinion on the belief that no true Kshatriyas existed in the Kali Yuga; however the upanayana for CKPs was supported by prominent Brahmins like Gaga Bhatt[40]

When the prominent Marathi historian Vishwanath Kashinath Rajwade contested their claimed Kshatriya status in a 1916 essay, the CKP writer Prabodhankar Thackeray wrote a text outlining the identity of the caste, and its contributions to the Maratha empire. In this text, Gramanyachya Sadhyant Itihas, he wrote that the CKPs "provided the cement" for Shivaji's swaraj (self-rule) "with their blood".[41]


The CKPs share many common rituals with the upper-caste communities and the study of Vedas and Sanskrit. Unlike most upper-caste Marathi communities however, the CKPs, through their interaction with Muslims and residence in the coastal Konkan region, have adopted a diet which includes meat, fish, poultry and eggs.[42]

The CKP and the marathi Saraswats historically performed three "vedic karmas"(studying vedas, fire sacrifice, giving alms) as opposed to full("Shatkarmi") Brahmins who performed six vedic duties which also include accepting gifts, teaching Vedas to other and performing vedic rites for others.[12][43][44]

They have Vedic thread ceremonies("munja" in marathi) for male children and a death pollution period of 10 days.[25] Educationally and professionally, 20th century research showed that the Saraswat, CKP, Deshastha and Chitpawan were quite similar.[6] Researcher and professor Dr.Neela Dabir sums it up as follows "In Maharashtra for instance, the family norms among the Saraswats and CKPs were similar to those of the Brahmins". However, she also criticizes these communities by concluding that until the 20th century, the Marathi Brahmin, CKP and Saraswat communities, due to their upper-caste ritualistic norms, traditionally discouraged widow remarriage. This resulted in distress in the lives of widows from these castes as opposed to widows from other marathi hindu castes.[45]

Concerning female education, researchers showed that CKPs had a progressive attitude compared to others. For example, Dr.Christine Dobbin's research concludes that the educationally advanced communities in the 1850's - the CKPS, Pathare Prabhus, Saraswats, Daivadnya Sonars and the Parsis were the first communities in the Bombay Presidency that allowed female education.[46]

They worship Ganesh, Vishnu and other Hindu gods[12]. Many are devotees of Sai Baba of Shirdi. Some CKPs may also be devotees of the religious swamis from their own caste - "Ram Maruti Maharaj(Deshpande)".  and "Gajanan Maharaj (Gupte)", who took samadhis at Kalyan(in 1919) and Nasik(in 1946) respectively.[1][f][47] Many CKP clans have Ekvira temple at Karle as their family deity whereas others worship Vinzai, Kadapkarin, Janani as their family deity[48] The mother tongue of most of the community is now Marathi, though in Gujarat they also communicate with their neighbours in Gujarati, and use the Gujarati script,[49] while those in Maharashtra speak English and Hindi with outsiders, and use the Devanagari script.[50]

Notable people[edit]



  1. ^ a b quote on page 8: They have the "upanayana" ceremony, and so, they have the Vedadhikar – the right to read the Vedas.
  2. ^ a b quote on page 173:Rajvadyanchi Gagabhatti appendix 4, pp-1-21. The Shankaracharya's letter contains three documents which he produces verbatim, two from Banares Brahmins (1779, 1801) proving the CKPs vedokta and one from Pune Brahmins award Ratified by Bajirav II in 1796.
  3. ^ a b quote on page 8 :"Prabhu means a high government official"
  4. ^ quote on page 170: The sankaracharya in his 1827 and november 1830 letter cites the sastric support for the kshatriyahood of the ckps:[names of many religious scriptures]. His trump card is the [name/section names of religious scriptures] where the CKP are explicitly referred to as 'Chandraseniya Kshatriyas'
  5. ^ quote on page 168:The CKP could undertake the six functions (satkarma) because they had the expertise to do so. Aba Parasnis the CKP[ in the early 1800s] could easily hold his own and argue intricate points from the vedas,puranas and the dharmasastras in a debate which resulted in his composition of the siddhantavijaya in sanskrit.He prepared the samskara manual(karmakalpadruma), which was published by Pratapsimha. The CKP as an educated elite therefore, were a serious challenge to the Brahman monopoly of Vedokta. page
  6. ^ quote from page 14:Rubbing shoulders with the portraits of the Gods and Goddesses would be pictures of Ram Maruti Maharaj or Gajanan Maharaj(both CKP Swamis, whose samadhis are at Kalyan and Nasik respectively).


  1. ^ a b c d e 'The illustrated weekly of India, volume 91, part 3'. 1970. pp. 6–13. 
  2. ^ a b c Milton Israel and N.K.Wagle, ed. (1987). Religion and Society in Maharashtra. Center for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, Canada. 
  3. ^ André Béteille (1991). Society and Politics in India: Essays in a Comparative Perspective. Athlone Press. p. 48. Although the Chandraseniya Kayasth Prabhu are non-Brahmins, they rank very high and might be regarded as being socially proximate to the Koknasth Brahman. 
  4. ^ Kurtz Dr, Donald V (1997). Book Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India (Studies in Human Society, Vol 9). p. 68. ISBN 9004098283. ... CKPs. They represent a small but literate and ritually high caste. 
  5. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2003). Communal Identity in India: Its Construction and Articulation in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. Of the six groups, four are Brahmins; one is high non-Brahmin caste, Chandraseniya Kayashth Prabhu (CKP), ranking next only to the Brahmins; and the other is a cultivating caste, Maratha (MK), belonging to the middle level of the hierarchy. 
  6. ^ a b Champa Aphale (1976). Growing Up in an Urban Complex. National Publishing House. p. 5. advanced castes among the maharashtrians viz.Brahmins. In this groups were also included families belonging to the chandraseniya kayastha prabhu besides the three subscastes among the brahmins, viz. Kokanastha Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins and Saraswat Brahmins. The reason for this was that, though non-Brahmins, these C.K.P. families were very much near the Brahmin families as regards their educational and occupational status. 
  7. ^ "The American Economic Review – Volume 96, Issues 3–4". Nashville, Tenn. American Economic Association. 2006: 1228. High castes include all the Brahmin jatis, as well as a few other elite jatis (CKP and Pathare Prabhus).Low castes include formerly untouchable and backward castes (Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Castes, as defined by the government of India). Medium castes are drawn mostly from the cultivator jatis, such as the Marathas and the Kunbis, as well as other traditional vocations that were not considered to be ritually impure. 
  8. ^ a b B. R. Sunthankar (1988). Nineteenth Century History of Maharashtra: 1818–1857. p. 121. The Kayastha Prabhus, though small in number, were another caste of importance in Maharashtra. The Konkan districts were their homeland. They formed one of the elite castes of Maharashtra. They also held the position of Deshpandes and Gadkaris and produced some of the best warriors in the Maratha history 
  9. ^ V. B. Ghuge (1994). Rajarshi Shahu: a model ruler. kirti prakashan. p. 20. In the Hindu social hierarchy the privileged classes were Brahmins, CKP's and others. Similarly other elite classes were Parsis and Europeans. 
  10. ^ a b "Special Studies Series, State University of New York". Buffalo, N.Y. Council on International Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo. 1973: 7. Within the circle of "available" non-Brahman elite groups one might also count the tiny community of CKP's Chandrasenya Kayastha Prabhu numbering...A community which claimed status equal to Brahmans-a claim which the Brahmans always stridently rejected – the CKP's were a source of men of talent who were to act as advisors to Shahu ... 
  11. ^ Krishna Prakash Bahadur, Sukhdev Singh Chib (1977). The Castes, Tribes & Culture of India: Western Maharashtra & Gujarat. Ess Ess Publications. p. 27. A sanad was bestowed on one Parashurama Prabhu Karnik in 1426 by the Bldar king...They showed remarkable valour and loyalty, and were one of the chief sources of strength to useful did Shivaji find them, that at one stage he dismissed all the Brahmins from their high posts and replaced them by Kayastha Prabhus...... remarkable inasmuch as they were equally good warriors, statesmen and writer 
  12. ^ a b c d K.P.Bahadur, Sukhdev Singh Chib (1981). The Castes, Tribes and Culture of India. ESS Publications. p. 161. pg 161: The Kayastha Prabhus...They performed three of the vedic duties or karmas, studying the Vedas adhyapan, sacrificing yajna and giving alms or dana...The creed mostly accepted by them is that of the advaita school of Shankaracharya, though they also worship Vishnu, Ganapati and other gods. ...Most of the Pathare Prabhus are the followers of smart sect who adopt the teachings of Shankaracharya 
  13. ^ Sharmila Rege (2013). Writing Caste/Writing Gender: Narrating Dalit Women's Testimonies. Zubaan Books. p. 28. The traditional caste hierarchy was headed by the brahmin castes-the deshasthas, chitpawans, karhades saraswats and the changdraseniya kayastha prabhus. 
  14. ^ Sulabha Brahme, Ashok Upadhyaya (2004). Agrarian structure, movements & peasant organisations in India, Volume 2. V.V. Giri National Labour Institute. p. 29. Besides Brahmins, the other communities advanced in education are Kayastha Prabhu, Pathare Prabhu found mainly in the... 
  15. ^ D. Shyam Babu; Ravindra S. Khare (2011). Caste in Life: Experiencing Inequalities. Pearson Education India. p. 165. ISBN 978-81-317-5439-9. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  16. ^ Christine E. Dobbin (1972). Urban leadership in Western India: politics and communities in Bombay city, 1840-1885. p. 225. Not only were the Pathare prabhus aware for the need for self help. In 1876 the members of their sister community, the Chandraseniya Kyasth Prabhus, began to organize themselves. 
  17. ^ Sharad Hebalkar (2001). Ancient Indian ports: with special reference to Maharashtra. p. 87. 
  18. ^ Lucy Carol Stout (1976). The Hindustani Kayasthas : The Kayastha Pathshala, and the Kayastha Conference. University of California, Berkeley. p. 17. 
  19. ^ Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 88. Retrieved 31 March 2013. 
  20. ^ Raj Pruthi, Rameshwari Devi (2004). Religions And Faiths in India. Mangal Deep Publications. p. 204. There was a craze in the southern and eastern countries for the importation of the supposed pure Aryan Brahmins and Kshatriyas from the indo-ganjetic valley in the north..The silhara kings of Konkan also seem to have invited both brahmins and kshatriyas from the north for settling in the south about this time. They are the Gauda Sarasvata Brahmins and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus of Konkan. 
  21. ^ S.Muley,M.A.,PhD (1972). Studies in the Historical and cultural geography and ethnography of the Deccan. Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, University of Poona. pp. 301, 303, 304. " pg 301: (section)Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu...From our epigraphical evidences, many Prabhus seem to have held high posts in the Silahara kingdom, and controlled the civil and military administration. The Chaul inscription of AD.1088 mentions Veliga Prabhu. Ananta Prabhu and Lakshamana Prabhu appear in a number of records. The former was a MahaPradhana, Kosadhikari, MahasandhiVigrahika and the latter was a MahaPradhana and Mahadandanayaka. Table on Pg 303,304: minister: pradhana, head of treasury: kosadhikari, foreign department charge: Mahasandhivigrahika, head of military: MahaDandanayaka 
  22. ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (2009). "The Last Institution Standing: Contradictions and the politics of Domination in an Indian University". Journal of Anthropological Research Volume 65, Issue 4, University of Chicago Press: 623. JSTOR 25608264. The CKP jati is resident largely in Maharashtra, holds the varna rank of Kshatria, which commonly, except by some Brahmans, is accorded a caste [social] status equal to that of the Chitpawan Brahmans. 
  23. ^ a b Harry M. Lindquist (1970). Education: readings in the processes of cultural transmission. p. 88. this case the particular tradition of a Kshatriya caste called "CKP"(Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu). This group described as an intellectual community came into conflict with the Brahmins at least 300 years ago over their right to be teachers and scholars 
  24. ^ Shanta Gokhale (1995). Rita Welinkar. p. 179. CKP: A subcaste of Kshatriyas, the second ranking caste after the Brahmins. 
  25. ^ a b c KS Singh (1998). India's communities. Oxford University Press. p. 2083. ..the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu observe the thread-wearing (janeu) ceremony for male children. They cremate the dead and observe death pollution for ten days. 
  26. ^ Paul Gwynne (2017). World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction. John Wiley and Sons. p. 146. According to tradition the defilement period differs by class; 10 days for brahmin, 12 days for kshatriya , 15 days for vaishya and one month for shudra. 
  27. ^ Christian Lee Noverzke (2016). The Qutodian revolution : Vernacularization, Religion, and the Premodern Public Sphere in India, part 2. Columbia University Press. p. 159. 
  28. ^ Gokhale, Sandhya (2008). The Chitpwans. Shubhi Publications. p. 30. [the CKP] claimed privilege of the traditional Brahmin order, the right to perform Vedic this they were frequently opposed by the Brahmins, especially the Chitpawans 
  29. ^ a b Pandit, Nalini (1979). "Caste and Class in Maharashtra". Economic and Political Weekly. 14 (7/8 (February 1979)): 425–436. JSTOR 4367360. 
  30. ^ Balkrishna Govind Gokhale (1988). Poona in the eighteenth century: an urban history. Oxford University Press. p. 112. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  31. ^ a b "Hindu Vishva, Volume 16, No.9". May 1981. p. 19. Netaji Palkar, who, on account of his superb valour was known as a second Shivaji at his time, was lured by Mirza Jaising into Augrangzeb's services .....he served the Mughal armies under Diler Khan for full seven years...He was not only brought back to Hinduism but was taken back into his own community of Kayasth prabhus...The minister[Panditrao] then called a meeing of learned Brahmins and took the convert into Hinduism with religious rites and official sanction. The son of the illustrious Baji Prabhu Deshpande, Pilaji, who was taken Prisoner by the Sidi of Janjira and converted to Islam reverted to Hinduism in this way. Another notable shuddhi was that of Shamji, the son of Raoji Naro Kulkarni...When Shamji escaped and returned to swarajya, he appealed to his community of kayastha prabhu to take him back ... 
  32. ^ Bayly, Susan (2000). Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age (1. Indian ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 79. ISBN 9780521798426. 
  33. ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818 (1. publ. ed.). New York: Cambridge University. p. 145. ISBN 9780521268837. 
  34. ^ Varma, Dayal, Dusre, Gaur. Kayastha Ethnology. American Methodist Mission Press. 
  35. ^ Gulati, Leela (editor); Bagchi, Jasodhara (Editor); Mehta, Vijaya (Author) (2005). A space of her own : personal narratives of twelve women. London: SAGE. p. 181. ISBN 9780761933151. 
  36. ^ Dattopant Thengadi (1992). National Pursuit. 
  37. ^ Divekar, V.D., 1978. Survey of Material in Marathi on the Economic and Social History of India—3. The Indian Economic & Social History Review, 15(3), pp.375–407.
  38. ^ ' V.D Divekar' (1981). 'Survey of Material in Marathi on the Economic and Social History of India'. 'Bharata Itihasa Samshodhaka Mandala'. p. 61. 
  39. ^ Bates, Crispin (Editor); Naregal, Veena (Author) (2013). Mutiny at the margins : new perspectives on the Indian uprising of 1857. Los Angeles: SAGE. pp. 167–186. ISBN 9788132109709. 
  40. ^ Deshpande, M.M., 2010. Ksatriyas in the Kali Age? Gāgābhatta & His Opponents. Indo- Iranian Journal, 53(2), pp.95–120.
  41. ^ Prachi Deshpande (2007). Creative Pasts: Historical Memory And Identity in Western India, 1700–1960. Columbia University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-231-12486-7. Retrieved 1 September 2012. 
  42. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. pp. 399–400. ISBN 978-81-7991-100-6. Retrieved 17 November 2012. 
  43. ^ Vijaya Gupchup. Bombay: Social Change, 1813-1857. Popular Book Depot. The Brahmana's six duties (Satakarmas) are studying the Vedas and teaching them, performing rites for himself and for others, giving and accepting gifts. Trikarmi means that one can study the Vedas, perform rites for himself and give gifts. 
  44. ^ {[cite book|title=Goan Society in Transition: A Study in Social Change|page=61|publisher=Popular Prakashan|year=1975|author=Bento Graciano D'Souza|quote=The most important of the Konkani caste communities were: (1) The Saraswat Brahmins such as Shenvis, Sastikars, Bardesh- ... They are, therefore, called Trikarmi Brahmins as distinguished from Shatkarmi Brahmins who performed all the six duties}}
  45. ^ Dr.Neela Dabir (2000). women in distress. Rawat Publishers. pp. 97,99. 
  46. ^ Christine Dobbin (1972). Urban leadership in western India. Oxford University Press. pp. 57–58. 
  47. ^ N.S.Pathak. "Mountain Path - Volume 12 - No.1". T. N. Venkataraman,Sri Ramanasramam, Tiruvannamalai. p. 37. [by N.S.Pathak] My guru, Sri Gajanan Maharaj Gupte of Nasik (who attained Mahasamadhi in September 1946) was, in 1943, invited by Sri Ramana Maharshi Mandal of Matunga, Bombay, to attend the 63rd birth anniversary celebrations... 
  48. ^ Zelliot, Eleanor; Berntsen,, Maxine (1988). The Experience of Hinduism : essays on religion in Maharashtra. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. p. 335. ISBN 9780887066627. 
  49. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). People of India: Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  50. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. pp. 398–. ISBN 978-81-7991-100-6. Retrieved 12 September 2012. 
  51. ^ a b Kantak, M. R. (1978). "The Political Role of Different Hindu Castes and Communities in Maharashtra in the Foundation of the Shivaji's Swarajya". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 38 (1): 46. JSTOR 42931051. 
  52. ^ The Indian Portrait III. 
  53. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1961). Anglo-Maratha relations during the administration of Warren Hastings, 1772–1785. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 10. ISBN 9788171545780. Retrieved 28 November 2017. 
  54. ^ a b Professor Dr.Mrudula Verma; Professor Dr.Sarjerao Bhamare; Professor Shripad Nandedkar; Dr.Mokashi (RK Taleja College) (2015). Sanshodhak. Historian V.K. Rajwade Research center (mandal), Dhule, India. pp. 1–14. quote on page 1; Not much information is available about the early life of Narayan Jagannatha Vaidya. Narayan Jagannatha Vaidya belonged to the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) community of Maharashtra. His brother was the Diwan of Baroda state 
  55. ^ a b The Bombay University Calendar, Volume 2. University of Bombay. 1925. p. 582. Paper for the foundation of a Scholarship to be called " The Dewan Bahadur Lakshman Jagannath Vaidya Scholarship " and to be awarded to a Candidate of the Kayastha Prabhu community who passes the Matriculation Examination with the highest number.. 
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  79. ^ a b Parvati Menon (2004). Breaking Barriers: Stories of Twelve Women. LeftWord Books. p. 10. My family was from the Chandrasena Kayastha Prabhu community, popularly called the CKP community, from which a large number of the social reformers came." Ahilya recalls an event that took place in Malad, where a big satyagraha was organized against untouchability. "My father, although a government servant, gave this campaign all his support.My brother B.T. Ranadive, who was a brilliant student, used to tutor dalit boys when he was at University,... 
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