Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu

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Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP)
Regions with significant populations
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat
Languages
Marathi, Regional
Religion
Hinduism

Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) is an ethno-religious clan of South Asia. Traditionally, the CKPs have the upanayana (thread ceremony) and have been granted the rights to study the vedas and perform vedic rituals along with the Brahmins.[1][a][2][b] Ritually ranked very high, they may be considered socially proximate to the Maharashtrian Brahmin community.[3][4][5][6][7] They have traditionally been an elite and literate but a numerically small community.[8][9][10][11][2][c]

'Prabhu' means a person who holds a high position in the government.[1][d]Historically, they made equally good warriors, statesmen as well as writers.[12][13] According to the historian, B.R. Sunthankar, this community produced some of the best warriors in Maharashtrian History.[8] The CKP also performed three Vedic karmas(duties) which in sanskrit are called: Adhyayan- studying of the Vedas, yajna- ritual done in front of a sacred fire, often with mantras and dāna – alms or charity.[14]

Traditionally, in Maharashtra, the caste structure was headed by the Brahmins castes – the deshasthas, chitpawans, karhade, saraswats and the CKPs.[15] Other than the Brahmins, the Prabhus (CKPs and Pathare Prabhus) were the communities advanced in education.[16]

They are mainly concentrated in Maharashtra. They may be considered part of the broader "non-uniform functional group" called Kayastha which modern scholars opine is not a "caste" but a group composed of distinct castes of different varna origins (based on the region of origin), each of different social and ritual status. For example, the CKP, who are "Chandraseniya" or "Chandraseni" are of distinct origin and status from the "Chitragupta" Kayasthas of north-India and Bengal. Another difference given by Hayden J. Bellenoit who only discusses the north-Indian group in depth is that the north-Indian (Chitragupta) group usually held only lower level administrative and scribal(writer) posts unlike the Prabhus(CKP) and other groups who were more prominent. In addition, the north-Indian Kayasthas did not hold any military posts unlike the CKPs in the medieval era. The others [non-CKP] have subdivisions that again vary in Varna, origin and ritual status based on the subgroup whereas the CKP do not have any subdivisions.[17][13][18]

More formally, in Maharashtra, they are one of the Prabhu Communities and a sister caste of the Pathare Prabhu.[19][20]

The CKP followed the Advaita Vedanta tradition propounded by Adi Shankara, the first Shankaracharya whereas the Pathare Prabhu followed the Smartha tradition.[14]

History[edit]

The CKP claim descent from Chandrasen, an ancient kshatriya king of Ayodhya and of the Haihaya family of the lunar Kshatriya Dynasty. [21][22]

The name Chandraseniya may be a corruption of the word Chandrashreniya, meaning from the valley of the Chenab River (also known as "Chandra"). This theory states that the word Kayastha originates from the term Kaya Desha, an ancient name for the region around Ayodhya.[23]

During the times of the Shilahara dynasty of Konkan (around the 10th century), the Silhara kings were known to invite for settlement into their lands, Brahmins and Kshatriyas of the northern Indo-Gangetic valley. These are the Goud Saraswat Brahmin and the CKP.[24] In fact, epigraphical evidences i.e. engravings from the Shilahara times have been found in Deccan to prove that many CKPs held high posts and controlled the civilian and military administration. For example, a Shilahara inscription around A.D. 1088 mentions the names of a certain Velgi Prabhu. Lakshmana Prabhu is mentioned as a MahaDandanayaka (head of military) and MahaPradhana (prime minister); Ananta-Prabhu is mentioned as a MahaPradhana (prime minister), Kosadhikari (Head of treasury) and Mahasandhivigrahika (charge of foreign department). According to Historian and researcher S.Muley, these epigraphs might be the first available evidences of the existence of the CKP in Maharashtra.[25]

The CKPs have traditionally been placed in the Kshatriya varna[26][27][28] and also followed Brahmin rituals, like the sacred thread (Janeu) ceremony[29][1][a] As another example of similarity with the Brahmin rituals, the observation of the period of mourning and seclusion by person of a deceased's lineage by the CKPs has traditionally been for 10 days although Kshatriyas generally observe it for 12 days.[29][30]

According to a letter written by the Shankaracharya in the 1800s, who confirmed the 'vedadhikar' of the CKPs, the title Prabhu, which means high official, must have been given to the CKPs by the Shilahar kings of Konkan.[1][d] The Shankaracharya also formally endorsed their Kshatriya status by citing various sanskrit scriptures ; especially one scripture that explicitly called them Chandraseniya Kshatriyas. He also cited documents from Banares and Pune Brahmins ratified by Bajirao II himself that proved their rights over the Vedas.[2][e][b]

According to the American Indologist and scholar of Religious Studies and South Asian Studies who is the Professor of International Studies and Comparative Religion at the University of Washington, Christian Lee Novetzke

In the thirteenth century they might have been considered as equal to brahmin or simply within the Brahminic ecumene, this despite the fact that modern day CKPs of Maharashtra understand themselves to have arisen from the Kshatriya varna. Thus they are an intermediate caste between brahmins and Kshatriyas.[31]

The CKPs, described as a traditionally well-educated and intellectual group, came into conflict with Marathi Brahmins at least 350 years ago over their rights to be teachers and scholars. As such they competed with the Brahmins in the 18th and 19th centuries for government jobs.[27][full citation needed]. They even demanded privileges of the Brahmin order – the rights to conduct the vedic rituals(all by themselves) and satkarma(all six karmas of the Brahmin order) for which they were opposed especially by the Chitpawans.[32][10]University of Toronto historians and Professors Emeriti, Milton Israel and N.K Wagle opine about this as follows in their analysis:

The CKP could undertake the six functions (satkarma) because they had the expertise to do so. Aba Parasnis the CKP[in the early 1800s] could easily hold his own and argue intricate points from the vedas, puranas and the dharmasastras in a debate which resulted in his composition of the siddhantavijaya in sanskrit.He prepared the sanskara manual(karmakalpadruma), which was published by Pratapsimha. The CKP as an educated elite therefore, were a serious challenge to the Brahman monopoly of Vedokta.[2][c]

Deccan sultanate and Maratha Era[edit]

The CKP community became more prominent during the Deccan sultanates and Maratha rule era. During Adilshahi and Nizamshahi, CKP, the Brahmins and high status Maratha were part of the elites. Given their training CKP served both as civilian and military officers.[33] Several of the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji's generals and ministers, such as Murarbaji Deshpande and Baji Prabhu Deshpande, were CKPs.[34].

In 17th century Maharashtra, during Shivaji's time, the so called higher classes i.e. the Marathi Brahmins, CKPs and Saraswat Brahmins, due to social and religious restrictions were the only communities that had a system of education for males. Except these three castes, education for all other castes and communities was very limited and consisted of listening to stories from religious texts like the Puranas or to Kirtans and thus the common masses remained illiterate and backward. Hence Shivaji was compelled to use people from these three educated communities - Marathi Brahmins, CKPs and Saraswat Brahmins - for civilian posts as they required education and intellectual maturity. However, in this time period, these three as well as other communities, depending on caste, also contributed their share to Shivaji's "Swaraj"(self-rule) by being cavalry soldiers, commanders, mountaineers, seafarers etc.[35]

During this period, some prominent CKPs like Pilaji Prabhu Deshpande (the son of Baji Prabhu Deshpande) and Shamji Kulkarni (the son of Raoji Narao Kulkarni) were converted to Islam. The conversion happened after being taken as prisoners in war campaigns. After their escape, conversions back to Hinduism were done using Brahminical rituals performed after authorization by the Brahmins, under the minister "Panditrao". Thus, they were accepted back not only into Hinduism but also the CKP community.[36][37]

During the Peshwa era, the CKP's main preceptor or Vedic Guru was a Brahmin by the name of Abashastri Takle, who was referred to by the CKP community as "Gurubaba". Sale of liquor was banned by the Brahmin administrators to the Brahmins, CKPs, Pathare Prabhus and Saraswat Brahmins but there was no objection to other castes drinking it or even to the castes such as Bhandaris from manufacturing it. Gramanyas i.e. "dispute involving the supposed violation of the Brahmanical ritual code of behavior" were very common in that era and some Chitpawans, at times, initiated Gramanyas against other communities – Prabhu communities(CKP, Pathare Prabhu), Saraswats and Shukla Yajurvedis.[38] They did not come to fruition however. The analysis of gramanyas against the CKP was done in depth by historians from the University of Toronto. Modern scholars quote statements that show that they were due to political malice – especially given that the Gramanya was started by a certain Yamaji Pant who had sent an assassin to murder a rival CKP. This was noted by Gangadharshastri Dikshit who gave his verdict in favor of the CKPs. Abashastri Takle had used the scriptures to establish their "Vedokta". Similarly, the famous jurist Ramshastri Prabhune also supported the CKPs Vedokta. Modern scholars conclude that the fact that the CKPs held high ranking positions in administration and the military and as statesmen was a "double edged sword". Historians, while analyzing the gramanyas state "As statesmen, they were engulfed in the court intrigues and factions, and, as a result, were prone to persecution by opposing factions. On the other hand, their influence in the court meant that they could wield enough political clout to effect settlements in favor of their caste.". The gramanyas during the Peshwa eras finally culminated in the favor of the CKPs as the Vedokta had support from the Shastras and this was affirmed by two letters from Brahmins from Varanasi as well as one from Pune Brahmins ratified by Bajirao II himself. The late Indian professor of sociology, Govind Sadashiv Ghurye commented on the strictness of the caste system during the Peshwa rule in Maharashtra by noting that even advanced caste such as the Prabhus had to establish rights to carry on with the vedic rituals.[39][40][2][f][b][41]

As the Maratha empire/confederacy expanded in the 18th century, and given the nepotism of the Peshwa of Pune towards their own Chitpavan Brahmin caste, CKP and other literal castes migrated for administration jobs to the new Maratha ruling states such as the Bhosale of Nagpur, the Gaekwads, the Scindia, the Holkars etc.,[42][33] The Gaekwads of Baroda and the Bhosale of Nagpur gave preference to CKPs in their administration[43]

In 1801-1802 CE (1858 Samvat), a Pune-based council of 626 Brahmins from Maharashtra, Karnataka and other areas made a formal declaration that the CKPs are twice-born (upper caste) people who are expected to follow the thread ceremony(munja).[44]

British era[edit]

During the British colonial era, the two literate communities of Maharashtra, namely the Brahmins and the CKP were the first to adopt western education with enthusiasm and prospered with opportunities in the colonial administration. A number of CKP families also served the semi-independent princely states in Maharashtra and other regions of India, such as Baroda.[45][46][full citation needed]

The British era of the 1800s and 1900s saw the publications dedicated to finding sources of CKP history[47] The book 'Prabhu Kul Deepika' gives the gotras (rishi name) and pravaras etc. of the CKP caste. Another publication, "Kayastha-mitra"(Volume 1, No.9. Dec 1930) gives a list of north Indian princely families that belonged to the CKP caste. [48]

Rango Bapuji Gupte, the CKP representative of the deposed Raja Pratapsinh Bhosale of Satara spent 13 years in London in the 1840s and 50s to plead for restoration of the ruler without success. At the time of the Indian rebellion of 1857, Rango tried to raise a rebel force to fight the British but the plan was thwarted and most of the conspirators were executed.However, Rango Bapuji escaped from his captivity and was never found.[49]

Other communities, at times, tried to contest CKP rights to Upanayana and being twice born.They based their opinion on the belief that no true Kshatriyas existed in the Kali Yuga; however the upanayana for CKPs was supported by prominent Brahmins like Gaga Bhatt[50]

When the prominent Marathi historian Vishwanath Kashinath Rajwade contested their claimed Kshatriya status in a 1916 essay, the CKP writer Prabodhankar Thackeray wrote a text outlining the identity of the caste, and its contributions to the Maratha empire. In this text, Gramanyachya Sadhyant Itihas, he wrote that the CKPs "provided the cement" for Shivaji's swaraj (self-rule) "with their blood".[51]

Gail Omvedt concludes that during the British era, the overall literacy of Brahmins and CKP was overwhelmingly high as opposed to the literacy of others such as the Kunbis and Marathas for whom it was strikingly low.[52][g]

In 1902, all communities other than Marathi Brahmins,Saraswat Brahmins, Prabhus (Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus, Pathare Prabhus) and Parsi were considered backward and 50% reservation was provided for them in by the princely state of Kolhapur. Then in 1925, the list was updated and only communities that were not considered backward by the British Government in the Bombay Presidency were Brahmins, CKP, Pathare Prabhus, Marwaris, Parsis, Banias and Christians.[53][54][55]

Culture[edit]

The CKPs share many common rituals with the upper-caste communities and the study of Vedas and Sanskrit. Unlike most upper-caste Marathi communities however, the CKPs, through their interaction with Muslims and residence in the coastal Konkan region, have adopted a diet which includes meat, fish, poultry and eggs.[56]

The CKP historically performed three "vedic karmas"(studying vedas, fire sacrifice, giving alms) as opposed to full("Shatkarmi") Brahmins who performed six vedic duties which also include accepting gifts, teaching Vedas to other and performing vedic rites for others.[14][57][58]

They have Vedic thread ceremonies("munja" in Marathi) for male children and a death pollution period of 10 days.[29] Educationally and professionally, 20th century research showed that the Saraswat, CKP, Deshastha and Chitpawan were quite similar.[7] Researcher and professor Dr.Neela Dabir sums it up as follows "In Maharashtra for instance, the family norms among the Saraswat Brahmins and CKPs were similar to those of the Marathi Brahmins". However, she also criticizes these communities by concluding that until the 20th century, the Marathi Brahmin, CKP and Saraswat Brahmin communities, due to their upper-caste ritualistic norms, traditionally discouraged widow remarriage. This resulted in distress in the lives of widows from these castes as opposed to widows from other Marathi Hindu castes.[59]

Concerning female education, researchers showed that CKPs had a progressive attitude compared to others. For example, Dr.Christine Dobbin's research concludes that the educationally advanced communities in the 1850s – the CKPS, Pathare Prabhus, Saraswats, Daivadnya Brahmin and the Parsis were the first communities in the Bombay Presidency that allowed female education.[60]

They worship Ganesh, Vishnu and other Hindu gods.[14] Many are devotees of Sai Baba of Shirdi. Some CKPs may also be devotees of the religious swamis from their own caste – "Ram Maruti Maharaj(Deshpande)". and "Gajanan Maharaj (Gupte)", who took samadhis at Kalyan(in 1919) and Nasik(in 1946) respectively.[1][h][61] Many CKP clans have Ekvira temple at Karle as their family deity whereas others worship Vinzai, Kadapkarin, Janani as their family deity[62] The mother tongue of most of the community is now Marathi, though in Gujarat they also communicate with their neighbours in Gujarati, and use the Gujarati script,[63] while those in Maharashtra speak English and Hindi with outsiders, and use the Devanagari script.[64]

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b quote on page 8: They have the "upanayana" ceremony, and so, they have the Vedadhikar – the right to read the Vedas.
  2. ^ a b c quote on page 173:Rajvadyanchi Gagabhatti appendix 4, pp-1-21. The Shankaracharya's letter contains three documents which he produces verbatim, two from Banares Brahmins (1779, 1801) proving the CKPs vedokta and one from Pune Brahmins award Ratified by Bajirav II in 1796.
  3. ^ a b c quote on page 168:The CKP could undertake the six functions (satkarma) because they had the expertise to do so. Aba Parasnis the CKP[ in the early 1800s] could easily hold his own and argue intricate points from the vedas,puranas and the dharmasastras in a debate which resulted in his composition of the siddhantavijaya in sanskrit.He prepared the samskara manual(karmakalpadruma), which was published by Pratapsimha. The CKP as an educated elite therefore, were a serious challenge to the Brahman monopoly of Vedokta.
  4. ^ a b quote on page 8 :"Prabhu means a high government official"
  5. ^ quote on page 170: The sankaracharya in his 1827 and November 1830 letter cites the sastric support for the kshatriyahood of the ckps:[names of many religious scriptures]. His trump card is the [name/section names of religious scriptures] where the CKP are explicitly referred to as 'Chandraseniya Kshatriyas'
  6. ^ quote on page 147: That the "pure Kshatriya"(shuddha kshatria) status of the CKP was fully backed up by the actual shastras, was the unofficial verdict of Gangadharshastri Dikshit who was appointed arbiter to resolve the dispute. The famous jurist Ramshastri Prabhune was also in favor of the CKP's vedokta
  7. ^ Omvedt does add a proviso saying that :There is difficulty in using such Census data, particularly because the various categories tended to be defined in different ways in different years, and different criteria were used in different provinces for classifying the population. Nonetheless, the overall trend is clear
  8. ^ quote from page 14: Rubbing shoulders with the portraits of the Gods and Goddesses would be pictures of Ram Maruti Maharaj or Gajanan Maharaj(both CKP Swamis, whose samadhis are at Kalyan and Nasik respectively)....Almost every C K.P home will have either a coloured or a black-and-white portrait of Sai Baba of Shirdi...

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e The illustrated weekly of India, volume 91, part 3. 1970. pp. 6–13.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Milton Israel and N.K.Wagle, ed. (1987). Religion and Society in Maharashtra. Center for South Asian Studies, University of Toronto, Canada.
  3. ^ André Béteille (1992). Society and Politics in India: Essays in a Comparative Perspective. Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 0195630661. Although the Chandraseniya Kayasth Prabhu are non-Brahmins, they rank very high and might be regarded as being socially proximate to the Koknasth Brahman.
  4. ^ Kurtz Dr, Donald V (1997). Book Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India (Studies in Human Society, Vol 9). p. 68. ISBN 978-9004098282. ... CKPs. They represent a small but literate and ritually high caste.
  5. ^ Rosenzweig, Mark; Munshi, Kaivan (September 2006). "Traditional Institutions Meet the Modern World: Caste, Gender, and Schooling Choice in a Globalizing Economy". American Economic Review. 96 (4): 1225–1252. doi:10.1257/aer.96.4.1225. (page 1228)High castes include all the Brahmin jatis, as well as a few other elite jatis (CKP and Pathare Prabhus).Low castes include formerly untouchable and backward castes (Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Castes, as defined by the government of India). Medium castes are drawn mostly from the cultivator jatis, such as the Marathas and the Kunbis, as well as other traditional vocations that were not considered to be ritually impure.
  6. ^ Bidyut Chakrabarty (2003). Communal Identity in India: Its Construction and Articulation in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-19-566330-3. Of the six groups, four are Brahmins; one is high non-Brahmin caste, Chandraseniya Kayashth Prabhu (CKP), ranking next only to the Brahmins; and the other is a cultivating caste, Maratha (MK), belonging to the middle level of the hierarchy.
  7. ^ a b Champa Aphale (1976). Growing Up in an Urban Complex. National Publishing House. p. 5. advanced castes among the maharashtrians viz.Brahmins. In this groups were also included families belonging to the chandraseniya kayastha prabhu besides the three subscastes among the brahmins, viz. Kokanastha Brahmins, Deshastha Brahmins and Saraswat Brahmins. The reason for this was that, though non-Brahmins, these C.K.P. families were very much near the Brahmin families as regards their educational and occupational status.
  8. ^ a b B. R. Sunthankar (1988). Nineteenth Century History of Maharashtra: 1818–1857. p. 121. The Kayastha Prabhus, though small in number, were another caste of importance in Maharashtra. The Konkan districts were their homeland. They formed one of the elite castes of Maharashtra. They also held the position of Deshpandes and Gadkaris and produced some of the best warriors in the Maratha history
  9. ^ V. B. Ghuge (1994). Rajarshi Shahu: a model ruler. kirti prakashan. p. 20. In the Hindu social hierarchy the privileged classes were Brahmins, CKP's and others. Similarly other elite classes were Parsis and Europeans.
  10. ^ a b Donald B. Rosenthal (1973). "From Reformist Princes to 'Co-operative Kings". Special Studies Series, State University of New York. Buffalo, N.Y. Council on International Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo: 7.
  11. ^ Rosenthal, Donald (19 May 1973). "From Reformist Princes to 'Co-operative Kings': I: Political Change in Pre-Independence Kolhapur". Economic and Political Weekly. 8 (20): 903–910. JSTOR 4362649. (page 905)Within the circle of "available" non-Brahman elite groups one might also count the tiny community of CKP's Chandrasenya Kayastha Prabhu...A community which claimed status equal to Brahmans-a claim which the Brahmans always stridently rejected – the CKP's were a source of men of talent who were to act as advisors to Shahu...
  12. ^ Krishna Prakash Bahadur, Sukhdev Singh Chib (1977). The Castes, Tribes & Culture of India: Western Maharashtra & Gujarat. Ess Ess Publications. p. 27. A sanad was bestowed on one Parashurama Prabhu Karnik in 1426 by the Bldar king...They showed remarkable valour and loyalty, and were one of the chief sources of strength to Shivaji..so useful did Shivaji find them, that at one stage he dismissed all the Brahmins from their high posts and replaced them by Kayastha Prabhus...... remarkable inasmuch as they were equally good warriors, statesmen and writer
  13. ^ a b Dhananyaja Keer (1976). Shahu Chhatrapati: A Royal Revolutionary. popular prakashan. p. 43. ...[Dewan Raghunath Vyankoji Sabnis] came of a family belonging to the [Chandraseniya] Kayastha Prabhu community which was well known in Maratha history for its loyalty, intelligence and ability in civil and military administration.
  14. ^ a b c d K.P.Bahadur, Sukhdev Singh Chib (1981). The Castes, Tribes and Culture of India. ESS Publications. p. 161. pg 161: The Kayastha Prabhus...They performed three of the vedic duties or karmas, studying the Vedas adhyayan, sacrificing yajna and giving alms or dana...The creed mostly accepted by them is that of the advaita school of Shankaracharya, though they also worship Vishnu, Ganapati and other gods. ...Most of the Pathare Prabhus are the followers of smart sect who adopt the teachings of Shankaracharya
  15. ^ Sharmila Rege (2013). Writing Caste/Writing Gender: Narrating Dalit Women's Testimonies. Zubaan Books. p. 28. ISBN 978-93-83074-67-9. The traditional caste hierarchy was headed by the brahmin castes-the deshasthas, chitpawans, karhades saraswats and the changdraseniya kayastha prabhus.
  16. ^ Sulabha Brahme, Ashok Upadhyaya (2004). Agrarian structure, movements & peasant organisations in India, Volume 2. V.V. Giri National Labour Institute. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-7827-064-7. Besides Brahmins, the other communities advanced in education are Kayastha Prabhu, Pathare Prabhu found mainly in the...
  17. ^ Hayden J. Bellenoit (17 February 2017). The Formation of the Colonial State in India: Scribes, Paper and Taxes, 1760–1860. Taylor & Francis. p. 34,36. ISBN 978-1-134-49429-3. Kayasthas, it must be stressed, are not a uniform cohesive group. They possess marked regional variations and differences....page 34:...the north kayasthas were largely employed as scribes, paper mangers and lower administrators.The prabhus of the west and Bengali kayasthas were relatively more prominent in trade and commerce..(page 36)...a Kayastha [Bengal, Bihar and Doab]...probably best understood as a functional group rather than as a caste based upon descent and varna-defined origins.
  18. ^ R. B. Mandal (1981). Frontiers in Migration Analysis. Concept Publishing Company. p. 175. ISBN 978-03-91-02471-7.
  19. ^ Christine E. Dobbin (1972). Urban leadership in Western India: politics and communities in Bombay city, 1840–1885. p. 225. Not only were the Pathare prabhus aware for the need for self help. In 1876 the members of their sister community, the Chandraseniya Kyasth Prabhus, began to organize themselves.
  20. ^ Vijaya Gupchup. Bombay: Social Change 1813–1857. p. 166. The other intellectual class[other than Brahmins], the Prabhus were once again subdivided in the Chnadraseniya Kayastha Prabhu and the Pathare Prabhus
  21. ^ Sharad Hebalkar (2001). Ancient Indian ports: with special reference to Maharashtra. p. 87.
  22. ^ Lucy Carol Stout (1976). The Hindustani Kayasthas : The Kayastha Pathshala, and the Kayastha Conference. University of California, Berkeley. p. 17.
  23. ^ Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 88. Retrieved 31 March 2013.
  24. ^ Raj Pruthi, Rameshwari Devi (2004). Religions And Faiths in India. Mangal Deep Publications. p. 204. There was a craze in the southern and eastern countries for the importation of the supposed pure Aryan Brahmins and Kshatriyas from the indo-ganjetic valley in the north..The silhara kings of Konkan also seem to have invited both brahmins and kshatriyas from the north for settling in the south about this time. They are the Gauda Sarasvata Brahmins and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus of Konkan.
  25. ^ S.Muley,M.A.,PhD (1972). Studies in the Historical and cultural geography and ethnography of the Deccan. Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, University of Poona. pp. 301, 303, 304. " pg 301: (section)Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu...From our epigraphical evidences, many Prabhus seem to have held high posts in the Silahara kingdom, and controlled the civil and military administration. The Chaul inscription of AD.1088 mentions Veliga Prabhu. Ananta Prabhu and Lakshamana Prabhu appear in a number of records. The former was a MahaPradhana, Kosadhikari, MahasandhiVigrahika and the latter was a MahaPradhana and Mahadandanayaka. Table on Pg 303,304: minister: pradhana, head of treasury: kosadhikari, foreign department charge: Mahasandhivigrahika, head of military: MahaDandanayakaCS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ Kurtz, Donald V. (2009). "The Last Institution Standing: Contradictions and the politics of Domination in an Indian University". Journal of Anthropological Research. 65 (4): 611–640. JSTOR 25608264. The CKP jati is resident largely in Maharashtra, holds the varna rank of Kshatria, which commonly, except by some Brahmans, is accorded a caste [social] status equal to that of the Chitpawan Brahmans.
  27. ^ a b Harry M. Lindquist (1970). Education: readings in the processes of cultural transmission. p. 88. ..in this case the particular tradition of a Kshatriya caste called "CKP"(Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu). This group described as an intellectual community came into conflict with the Brahmins at least 300 years ago over their right to be teachers and scholars
  28. ^ Shanta Gokhale (1995). Rita Welinkar. p. 179. CKP: A subcaste of Kshatriyas, the second ranking caste after the Brahmins.
  29. ^ a b c KS Singh (1998). India's communities. Oxford University Press. p. 2083. ..the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu observe the thread-wearing (janeu) ceremony for male children. They cremate the dead and observe death pollution for ten days.
  30. ^ Paul Gwynne (2017). World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction. John Wiley and Sons. p. 146. According to tradition the defilement period differs by class; 10 days for brahmin, 12 days for kshatriya , 15 days for vaishya and one month for shudra.
  31. ^ Christian Lee Noverzke (2016). The Qutodian revolution : Vernacularization, Religion, and the Premodern Public Sphere in India, part 2. Columbia University Press. p. 159.
  32. ^ Gokhale, Sandhya (2008). The Chitpwans. Shubhi Publications. p. 30. [the CKP] claimed privilege of the traditional Brahmin order, the right to perform Vedic Ritual...in this they were frequently opposed by the Brahmins, especially the Chitpawans
  33. ^ a b Pandit, Nalini (1979). "Caste and Class in Maharashtra". Economic and Political Weekly. 14 (7/8 (February 1979)): 425–436. JSTOR 4367360.
  34. ^ Balkrishna Govind Gokhale (1988). Poona in the eighteenth century: an urban history. Oxford University Press. p. 112. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  35. ^ Kantak, M. R. (1978). "The Political Role of Different Hindu Castes and Communities in Maharashtra in the Foundation of the Shivaji's Swarajya". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 38 (1): 44,47. JSTOR 42931051. (page 44) Next to the Brahmins came the Saraswats and the Kayastha Prabhus. Except the Brahmins, the saraswats and the kayasthas, all other castes and communities in Maharashtra received very little education, which was the sole privilege of the higher castes.(page 47)A charge may be leveled against Shivaji that he recruited in his civil departments the people from the so called intellectual classes only. It is a fact that Shivaji's civil services were dominated by the Brahmins, the Prabhus and the Saraswats. However, the blame on it does not fall on Shivaji but on the social framework within which he was workings. As has been pointed out earlier in this article , in 17th century Maharashtra, due to social and religious restrictions, education was the privilege of the higher classes only. Consequently, the common masses remained illiterate and backward. For civil posts, intellectual maturity, some standard of education as well as knowledge of reading, writing and account keeping ,etc. were essential. Shivaji found these requisites readily in the Brahmins, the Saraswats and the Kayasthas which were the only educated classes then. Shivaji had no alternative but to recruit them in his services for maintaining a high standard of efficiency.
  36. ^ "Hindu Vishva, Volume 16, No.9". May 1981. p. 19. Netaji Palkar, who, on account of his superb valour was known as a second Shivaji at his time, was lured by Mirza Jaising into Augrangzeb's services .....he served the Mughal armies under Diler Khan for full seven years...He was not only brought back to Hinduism but was taken back into his own community of Kayasth prabhus...The minister[Panditrao] then called a meeing of learned Brahmins and took the convert into Hinduism with religious rites and official sanction. The son of the illustrious Baji Prabhu Deshpande, Pilaji, who was taken Prisoner by the Sidi of Janjira and converted to Islam reverted to Hinduism in this way. Another notable shuddhi was that of Shamji, the son of Raoji Naro Kulkarni...When Shamji escaped and returned to swarajya, he appealed to his community of kayastha prabhu to take him back ...
  37. ^ "Organiser, Volume 27". Bharat Prakashan (Delhi) Ltd. 1974: 205. Aurangzeb converted Shivaji's general Netaji Palkar a Kayastha Prabhoo to Islam and named him Kuli Khan. He sent him to the north west frontier province. Netaji suspected that he would be murdered in the north west by some secret agent of the Emperor.
  38. ^ Gokhale, Sandhya (2008). The Chitpwans. Shubhi publications. p. 204. The jati disputes were not a rare occurrence in Maharashtra. There are recorded instances of disputes between jatis such as Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Pathare Prabhus and the Chitpawans, Saraswats and the Chitpawans and Shukla Yajurvedi and the Chitpawans. The intra-caste dispute involving the supposed violation of the Brahmanical ritual code of behavior was called Gramanya in marathi.
  39. ^ Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1969). Caste and Race in India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 5, 14. ISBN 9788171542055. (page 5) Thus the Brahmin government of Poona, while passing some legislation prohibiting the manufacture and sale of liquors, excluded the bhandaris kolis and similar other castes from the operation thereof but strictly forbade the sale of drinks to Brahmins, Shenvis, Prabhus and Government officers (page 14). Such an advanced caste as the Prabhus in the Maratha country had to establish its rights to carry on the rites according to the vedic formulae which were being questioned at the time of the later peshwas
  40. ^ Gunther-Dietz Sontheimer; Parameswara Aithal, eds. (1982). Indology and Law: Studies in the Honour or Professor J.Duncan M.Derett. Südasien-Institut – Universität Heidelberg. p. 325. (page 321) Gangadhar Dikshit remarked "The proof in favor of the prabhus vedokta adduced by their preceptor is preponderant. There is no argument against it. Who can, therefore, dare say that the Shastra is false? Their preceptor Gurubaba (Abashastri Takle), indeed, quoting from the scriptures convincingly argued the Prabhus claims to Vedokta before the Pandit assembly by proving their Kshatriya genealogy (page 325). As the [Chandraseniya Kayastha] prabhus's Gurubaba stated in the Pandit assembly, that the gramanya initiated by Yamaji was due to political malice("rajyakarani dvesha"). It did not therefore, come to fruition. That there was an active enmity between Govindrao, a leading member of the prabhu caste and Yamaji, is clear from a document in which it is stated that Yamaji Pant actually sent an assassin to murder Govindrao. The Prabhus eminence as soldier-statesmen and high ranking administrative officers from Bajiravs time to end of Peshwai was both an asset and a liability. As statesmen, they were engulfed in the court intrigues and factions, and, as a result, were prone to persecution by opposing factions. On the other hand, their influence in the court meant that they could wield enough political clout to effect settlements in favor of their caste.(page 328)It is significant that the two Prabhu Sardars, Nilkanthrav Page and Ravji Apaji were the key members of the faction which helped Bajirav to acquire the Peshwaship.
  41. ^ Vijaya Gupchup. Bombay: Social Change. p. 166,167. (page 166)The other intellectual class, the Prabhus were once again subdivided in the Chnadraseniya Kayastha Prabhu and the Pathare Prabhus. (page 167) The Bhandaris were given a permit for the manufacture of liquor but were forbidden to sell their products to castes such as Brahmins and Shenvis and the Prabhus because these were required by their caste laws to abstain from drinking
  42. ^ Bayly, Susan (2000). Caste, society and politics in India from the eighteenth century to the modern age (1. Indian ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6.
  43. ^ Gordon, Stewart (1993). The Marathas 1600–1818 (1. publ. ed.). New York: Cambridge University. p. 145. ISBN 9780521268837.
  44. ^ Varma, Dayal, Dusre, Gaur. Kayastha Ethnology. American Methodist Mission Press.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  45. ^ Gulati, Leela (editor); Bagchi, Jasodhara (Editor); Mehta, Vijaya (Author) (2005). A space of her own : personal narratives of twelve women. London: SAGE. p. 181. ISBN 9780761933151.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  46. ^ Dattopant Thengadi (1992). Nationalist Pursuit. Sahitya Sindhu Prakashana. p. 6. During those times Western education mainly prevailed in two communities, the Brahmins and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus (C.K.P.). Naturally they dominated the services.
  47. ^ Divekar, V.D., 1978. Survey of Material in Marathi on the Economic and Social History of India—3. The Indian Economic & Social History Review, 15(3), pp.375–407.
  48. ^ ' V.D Divekar' (1981). Survey of Material in Marathi on the Economic and Social History of India. 'Bharata Itihasa Samshodhaka Mandala'. p. 61.
  49. ^ Bates, Crispin (Editor); Naregal, Veena (Author) (2013). Mutiny at the margins : new perspectives on the Indian uprising of 1857. Los Angeles: SAGE. pp. 167–186. ISBN 9788132109709.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  50. ^ Deshpande, M.M., 2010. Ksatriyas in the Kali Age? Gāgābhatta & His Opponents. Indo- Iranian Journal, 53(2), pp.95–120.
  51. ^ Prachi Deshpande (2007). Creative Pasts: Historical Memory And Identity in Western India, 1700–1960. Columbia University Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-231-12486-7. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
  52. ^ Omvedt, Gail (August 1973). "Development of the Maharashtrian Class Structure, 1818 to 1931". Economic and Political Weekly. 8 (31/33): 1418–1419. page 1426:There is difficulty in using such Census data, particularly because the various categories tended to be defined in different ways in different years, and different criteria were used in different provinces for classifying the population. Nonetheless, the overall trend is clear...page 1419:Male literacy rates were much higher than the male and female together, but show the same pattern, as does the literacy in English. Not only were the Brahmans and CKPs overwhelmingly dominant, but maratha kunbi figures were amazingly low, especially for bombay province. Even allowing for the effects of sampling differences, the low rates for the marathas kunbis are striking, and it is noteworthy that many artisan castes were more literate. This also tended to be true in the central provinces-Berar.
  53. ^ André Burguière; Raymond Grew, eds. (2001). The construction of minorities: cases for comparison across time. p. 222. ISBN 978-0472067374. Reservations for backward communities were instituted in Bombay after 1925, when a government resolution defined backward classes as all except for "Brahmins, Prabhus, Marwaris, Parsis, Banias, and Christians."
  54. ^ Richard I. Cashman (1 January 1975). The Myth of the Lokamanya: Tilak and Mass Politics in Maharashtra. ISBN 9780520024076. when he issued the resolution of july 26th,1902, reserving, 50% of future vacancies in the kolhapur state service for the members of the "backward classes"The backward castes were considered to be those groups other than the advanced communities, namely the brahmans ,Prabhus, Shenvis and parsis
  55. ^ Vijaya Gupchup. Bombay: Social Change 1813-1857. p. 166,167. (page 167) The Bhandaris were given a permit for the manufacture of liquor but were forbidden to sell their products to castes such as Brahmins and Shenvis and the Prabhus because these were required by their caste laws to abstain from drinking.(page 166) The other intellectual class[besides Brahmins], the Prabhus were once again subdivided in the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu and the Pathare Prabhus.
  56. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. pp. 399–400. ISBN 978-81-7991-100-6. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
  57. ^ Vijaya Gupchup. Bombay: Social Change, 1813–1857. Popular Book Depot. The Brahmana's six duties (Satakarmas) are studying the Vedas and teaching them, performing rites for himself and for others, giving and accepting gifts. Trikarmi means that one can study the Vedas, perform rites for himself and give gifts.
  58. ^ Bento Graciano D'Souza (1975). Goan Society in Transition: A Study in Social Change. Popular Prakashan. p. 61. The most important of the Konkani caste communities were: (1) The Saraswat Brahmins such as Shenvis, Sastikars, Bardesh- ... They are, therefore, called Trikarmi Brahmins as distinguished from Shatkarmi Brahmins who performed all the six duties
  59. ^ Dr.Neela Dabir (2000). women in distress. Rawat Publishers. pp. 97, 99.
  60. ^ Christine Dobbin (1972). Urban leadership in western India. Oxford University Press. pp. 57–58.
  61. ^ N.S.Pathak. "Mountain Path – Volume 12 – No.1". T. N. Venkataraman,Sri Ramanasramam, Tiruvannamalai. p. 37. [by N.S.Pathak] My guru, Sri Gajanan Maharaj Gupte of Nasik (who attained Mahasamadhi in September 1946) was, in 1943, invited by Sri Ramana Maharshi Mandal of Matunga, Bombay, to attend the 63rd birth anniversary celebrations...
  62. ^ Zelliot, Eleanor; Berntsen, Maxine (1988). The Experience of Hinduism : essays on religion in Maharashtra. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. p. 335. ISBN 9780887066627.
  63. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). People of India: Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. pp. 283–. ISBN 978-81-7991-104-4. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  64. ^ Kumar Suresh Singh (2004). People of India: Maharashtra. Popular Prakashan. pp. 398–. ISBN 978-81-7991-100-6. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  65. ^ a b Kantak, M. R. (1978). "The Political Role of Different Hindu Castes and Communities in Maharashtra in the Foundation of the Shivaji's Swarajya". Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute. 38 (1): 40–56. JSTOR 42931051.
  66. ^ Relia, Anil (12 August 2014). The Indian Portrait III.
  67. ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1961). Anglo-Maratha relations during the administration of Warren Hastings, 1772–1785. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. p. 10. ISBN 978-81-7154-578-0.
  68. ^ a b Professor Dr.Mrudula Verma; Professor Dr.Sarjerao Bhamare; Professor Shripad Nandedkar; Dr.Mokashi (RK Taleja College) (2015). Sanshodhak. Historian V.K. Rajwade Research center (mandal), Dhule, India. pp. 1–14. quote on page 1; Not much information is available about the early life of Narayan Jagannatha Vaidya. Narayan Jagannatha Vaidya belonged to the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu (CKP) community of Maharashtra. His brother was the Diwan of Baroda state
  69. ^ a b The Bombay University Calendar, Volume 2. University of Bombay. 1925. p. 582. Paper for the foundation of a Scholarship to be called " The Dewan Bahadur Lakshman Jagannath Vaidya Scholarship " and to be awarded to a Candidate of the Kayastha Prabhu community who passes the Matriculation Examination with the highest number..
  70. ^ a b Bombay, University of (1908). The Bombay University Calendar, Volume 1. p. 490. LAKSHMAN. JAGANNATH. VAIDYA. SCHOLARSHIP. The Secretary to the Kayastha Prabhu Educational Fund, Baroda, in a letter dated 2nd February 1887, offered to the University a sum of Rs. 5,000 in Government 4 per cent. Paper for the foundation of a Scholarship to be called " The Dewan Bahadur Lakshman Jagannath Vaidya Scholarship " and to be awarded to a Candidate of the Kayastha Prabhu community who passes the Matriculation Examination with the highest number
  71. ^ a b J.D.Ranadive (1978). Shri Narayan Jagannatha Vaidya in Amrut. pp. 123–125.
  72. ^ Bates, Crispin (Editor); Naregal, Veena (Author) (2013). Mutiny at the margins: new perspectives on the Indian uprising of 1857. Los Angeles: SAGE. pp. 167–186. ISBN 9788132109709.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  73. ^ Surendra Nath Sen (1949). Indian Travels of Thevenot and Careri: Being the Third Part of the Travels of M. de Thevenot Into the Levant and the Third Part of a Voyage Round the World by Dr. John Francis Gemelli Careri.
  74. ^ The Illustrated Weekly of India (1970), volume 91, part 3, page 15.
  75. ^ Dhimatkar, Abhidha (16 October 2010). "The Indian Edison". Economic and Political Weekly. 45 (42): 67–74. JSTOR 20787477.
  76. ^ Nagesh Vasudeo Gunaji. Light on the path of Self Realization(Containing the life-sketch of Shri Gajanana Maharaja). The Popular Book Depot, Grant Road, Bombay – 7. pp. 8, 269. Shri Gajanana Maharaja hails from the Inamdar-Gupte family of Pen, Vasiand other villages in the Colaba District. Towards the middle of the last century the condition of the family began to deteriorate and hence Mr.Murlidhar Bajirao, the father of Gajanan Maharaja, left the district and migrated to Malkapur and sought Government service. Finding that too insufficient to maintaining the family decently, he studied law and after qualifying himself began to practise as a pleader at Yeotmal[...]The eldest son being Narayanrao, who later on became famous as poet, publishing his “Fulanchi Onjal” (Bunch or handful of flower – poems) under the pseudonym “Bee”, and the last son being Gajanana Maharaja who forms the subject of this treatise.[...]..I am here at Nasik for the last five years or so but it was not until the february of 1937 that I heard about Mr. Gajanan Murlidhar Gupte alias Shri Gajanana Maharaja of Nawa Darwaja, Nasik.[...]I thought to myself “If he be really a saint as said, how is it that for the last five years that I am here in Nasik I did not hear anything about him? Again I have never heard of a real saint belonging to C. K. P. Community except Shree Rama Maruti Maharaja of Kalyan whose fame to the effect is far and wide. He has a Samadhi at Kalyan. His friends and disciples have published abook about the life of the man. How is it that even a single writing about this man did not ever come to my notice ? Who can say, the report is not an exaggeration of the man’s qualities?”
  77. ^ Sisir Kumar Das (1991). History of Indian Literature- Western Impact, Indian Response. Sahitya Akademi. p. 324. ISBN 9788172010065.
  78. ^ Nirmala Anant Kanekar (1972). "Bee" Kavi: Charitra wa Kavya-charcha (Marathi biography) (in Marathi). Shri Lekhan Wachan Bhandar, Thokal Bhavan, Laxmi Road, Poona-30. p. 160.
  79. ^ "loksatta". 25 June 2017.
  80. ^ Purandare, Vaibhav (2012). Bal Thackeray & the rise of the Shiv Sena. New Delhi: Roli Books Private limited. ISBN 9788174369581.
  81. ^ "The Illustrated Weekly of India". 91 (3). Bennett, Coleman & Company. July 1970: 12.
  82. ^ Language and Literature. Directorate of Government of Maharashtra State. 1971. p. 119.
  83. ^ "Vanyajāti – Volume 19": 125.
  84. ^ "The Illustrated Weekly of India". 91 (3). Bennett, Coleman & Company. July 1970: 8. (page 8)The Bakhar (diary) written by Anant Malhar Chitnis has proved valuable to historians including Grant Duff. There are renowned C.K.P. historians, too, like V. C. Bendre. His Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj Charitra has won the Maharashtra State Award.
  85. ^ Chitnis, KN (1990). Research Methodology in History. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-7156-121-6.
  86. ^ Shailaja Paik (11 July 2014). Dalit Women's Education in Modern India: Double Discrimination. ISBN 9781317673309.
  87. ^ Omvedt, Gail (30 January 1994). Dalits and the Democratic Revolution: Dr Ambedkar and the Dalit Movement in Colonial India. p. 138. ISBN 9788132119838.
  88. ^ Jayashree Gokhale (1993). From Concessions to Confrontation: The Politics of an Indian Untouchable Community. popular prakashan. p. 91.
  89. ^ Chatterjee, N. (2011). The Making of Indian Secularism: Empire, Law and Christianity, 1830–1960. p. 66. ISBN 9780230298088.
  90. ^ South Asian intellectuals and social change: a study of the role of vernacular-speaking intelligentsia by Yogendra K. Malik, page 63.
  91. ^ Aruṇa Ṭikekara (2006). The Cloister's Pale: A Biography of the University of Mumbai. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. p. 105. ISBN 978-81-7991-293-5.
  92. ^ Sumita Mukherjee (2010). Nationalism, Education and Migrant Identities: The England-returned. Oxon: Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9781135271138.
  93. ^ Ganesh Prabhakar Pradhan (2005). Pursuit of ideals: autobiography of a democratic socialist. p. 88.
  94. ^ "Link – Volume 16, Part 3 – Page 38". United India Periodicals. 1974.
  95. ^ "Freedom fighter Datta Tamhane dead". 2014.
  96. ^ a b "The Illustrated Weekly of India". 91 (3). Bennett, Coleman & Company. July 1970: 14. B.T. Ranadive (b. 1904), a member of the Politbureau of the CPI.(M). Other notable C.K.Ps in this sphere are Mrinal Gore, V. B. Karnik and Datta Tamhane
  97. ^ a b Parvati Menon (2004). Breaking Barriers: Stories of Twelve Women. LeftWord Books. p. 10. My family was from the Chandrasena Kayastha Prabhu community, popularly called the CKP community, from which a large number of the social reformers came." Ahilya recalls an event that took place in Malad, where a big satyagraha was organized against untouchability. "My father, although a government servant, gave this campaign all his support.My brother B.T. Ranadive, who was a brilliant student, used to tutor dalit boys when he was at University,...
  98. ^ The Illustrated Weekly of India (1970), volume 91, part 3, page 14
  99. ^ a b c d Gupte, Pranay (30 December 2010). "Alone and forgotten". The Hindu. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  100. ^ Gulati, Leela (editor); Bagchi, Jasodhara (Editor); Mehta, Vijaya (Author) (2005). A space of her own : personal narratives of twelve women. London: Sage. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-7619-3315-1.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  101. ^ "Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East". South Asia Bulletin. 16 (2): 116. 1996. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  102. ^ a b "DnaIndia mumbai report (Dec 2013)".
  103. ^ "Nagpur Today (Nov 2014)".
  104. ^ Sonal Shah (29 June 2014). G. G. Parikh (ed.). "Janata weekly,Vol. 69 No. 22" (PDF). p. 8. "Penned by [retired professor of political science and PhD]Rohini Gawankar, Mrinal Gore's close friend and colleague of over six decades,it is an inspiring, virtually eyewitness account of one of India's tallest women leaders. ...Of a brave young woman widowed at 30, with a five-year-old daughter, who despite stringent financial circumstances and parental duties fulfilled the dream she and her husband Keshav had set out to achieve. Of a pair of young socialists belonging to different castes, (she, a woman from the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhu caste and medical student; he, a Brahmin and fulltime party worker)
  105. ^ Frontline Article on Mrinal Gore
  106. ^ "Veteran social activist Mrinal Gore passes away". The Hindu. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  107. ^ Kamble, Mohan L (2003). "The role of C K P leaders in making of modern Maharashtra". Department of History, Shivaji University: 444, 445. "The Secondary material also shows plenty of information, regarding the subject matter of study which is also referred vigorously. Besides I personally interviewed the following C.K.P. leaders from Bombay and Poona and collected valuable information regarding the features of C.K.P. community and the contribution of previous C.K.P. leaders in making of Modern Maharashtra.1) Prof. G.P. Pradhan, Pune 2) Mr. Ravindra Sabnis, Ex. M.L.A., Kolhapur. 3) Mr. J.A. Deshpande, the advocate of Bombay Highcourt of Bombay. 4) Prof. R.D. Deshpande of Bombay. 5) Mr. Datta Tamhane, Bombay. 6) Mrs. Kusum Pradhan, Bombay. 7) Mr. Narayan Raje 8) Prof. S.D. Gupte 9) Mr. Bhai Vaidya, Pune
  108. ^ "Janata Weekly" (PDF). p. 2. In an age of corruption and compromised political ideals, he stood above the squalor of petty realpolitik, maintaining his dignity through his rectitude and near legendary honesty.For last 10 years of his life he fought for free health and education. He is known as an honest politician and a fierce socialist leader/activist who never compromised on his morals and values during his career. He was one of the few prominent survivors of socialist movement in India.