Chang'e 5

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Chang'e 5
Launch of Chang'e 5.png
Ignition of Chang'e 5
Mission typeLunar sample return
OperatorCNSA
Mission duration1 day, 10 minutes (since launch)
Spacecraft properties
ManufacturerCAST
Launch mass8,200 kg (18,100 lb)[1]
Start of mission
Launch dateNovember 23, 2020
20:30 UTC
November 24, 2020
4:30 CST[2]
RocketLong March 5
Launch siteWenchang
ContractorCALT
End of mission
Landing date17 December, 2020 (planned)
Lunar orbiter
Lunar lander
Landing siteMons Rümker region of Oceanus Procellarum (planned)[3][4]
Sample mass2,000 grams (71 oz)[3]
 

Chang'e 5 (Chinese: 嫦娥五号; pinyin: Cháng'é wǔhào) is an ongoing robotic Chinese lunar exploration mission consisting of a service module, lunar lander, ascender, and a sample-return vehicle. It was launched on November 23, 2020 20:30 UTC and is expected to land on the moon sometime after November 27, and return to Earth around December 16–17.[5][6] Chang'e 5 will be China's first sample return mission, aiming to return at least 2 kilograms (4.4 pounds) of lunar soil and rock samples back to the Earth.[3] Like its predecessors, the spacecraft is named after the Chinese Moon goddess, Chang'e.

This will be the first lunar sample-return mission since Luna 24 in 1976 and – if successful – would make China the third country to return samples from the Moon after USA and USSR. It launched from the Wenchang Satellite launch centre in Hainan.

Overview[edit]

Chang'e 5 launch

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is designed to be conducted in four[7] phases of incremental technological advancement: The first was simply reaching lunar orbit, a task completed by Chang'e 1 in 2007 and Chang'e 2 in 2010. The second is landing and roving on the Moon, as Chang'e 3 did in 2013 and Chang'e 4 in 2019 (launched in December 2018, landed on the far side of the Moon in January 2019). The third phase is collecting lunar samples from the near side and sending them to Earth, a task for the future Chang'e 5 and Chang'e 6 missions. The fourth phase consists of the development of a robotic research station near the Moon's south pole.[7][8][9] The program aims to facilitate a crewed lunar landing in the 2030s and possibly build an outpost near the lunar south pole.[10]

Mission profile[edit]

The probe was previously planned for launch by a Long March 5 rocket at the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center on Hainan Island, but a failure of this vehicle in 2017 created uncertainty about its ability to carry Chang'e 5.[11] The spacecraft is still planned to be launched with a Long March 5 rocket, and the planned landing zone is Mons Rümker in Oceanus Procellarum, located in the northwest region of the near side of the Moon. This area contains geological units around 1.21 billion years old, compared to the Apollo samples that were between 3.1 and 4.4 billion years old.[6] The location is a large, elevated volcanic mound 70 km (43 mi) in diameter that features a strong spectroscopic signature of basaltic lunar mare material.[12][13]

The mission is reported to consist of four modules or elements: the lander would collect about 2 kg (4.4 lb) of samples from 2 metres (6.6 ft) below the surface[4] and place them in an attached ascent vehicle that will be launched into lunar orbit. The ascent vehicle will make an automatic rendezvous and docking with an orbiter that would transfer the samples into a sample-return capsule for their delivery to Earth.[3][14]

The estimated launch mass is 3,780 kg (8,330 lb), the lander is projected to be 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) and the ascent vehicle is about 120 kg (260 lb).[1][3][15]

The launch of Chang’e-5 from Wenchang occurred on November 24. Sunrise over Mons Rümker will occur on November 27, ahead of the landing. The mission seeks to collect 2 kilograms of rock samples by both drilling to a depth of up to two meters and scooping up surface material.[6]

Unlike Chang'e 4 which was equipped with a radioisotope heater unit to survive the extreme cold of lunar night, the Chang’e-5 landing and sampling need to take place within a single, 14-Earth-day lunar daytime. The total mission is expected to last a total of 23 days until landing in Dorbod Banner, Inner Mongolia, around December 16–17. Samples would then be transferred to specially developed facilities for handling, analyzing, and storing the lunar material.[6]

Chang'e 5-T1[edit]

Chang'e 5-T1 is an experimental robotic lunar mission that was launched on 23 October 2014 to conduct atmospheric re-entry tests on the capsule design planned to be used in the Chang'e 5 mission.[16][17] Its service module, called DFH-3A, remained in orbit around the Earth before being relocated via Earth-Moon L2 to lunar orbit by 13 January 2015, where it is using its remaining 800 kg of fuel to test maneuvers key to future lunar missions.[18]

Lander payload[edit]

lander

The lander will carry landing cameras, a panoramic camera, a spectrometer to determine mineral composition, a soil gas analytical instrument, a soil composition analytical instrument, a sampling sectional thermo-detector, and a ground-penetrating radar.[3][14] For acquiring samples, it will be equipped with a robotic arm, a rotary-percussive drill, a scoop for sampling, and separation tubes to isolate individual samples.[14]

International collaboration[edit]

The European Space Agency supports the Chang'e 5 Mission by providing tracking via ESA's Kourou station, located in French Guiana. ESA will track the spacecraft during the launch and landing phases while providing on-call backup for China's ground stations throughout the mission. Data from the Kourou station will help the mission control team at the Beijing Aerospace Control Centre to determine the spacecraft's health and orbit status. Chang'e 5 is expected to return to Earth around December 15, 2020. During the landing phase, ESA will use its Maspalomas station, located in the Canary Islands and operated by the Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA) in Spain, to support the tracking efforts.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chang'e 5 and Chang'e 6. Gunter Dirk Krebs, Gunter's Space Page. Accessed on 9 January 2019.
  2. ^ "NASA - NSSDCA Spacecraft Details - Chang'e 5". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Williams, David R. (7 December 2018). "Future Chinese Lunar Missions". NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Archived from the original on 2019-01-04.
  4. ^ a b Andrew Jones (7 June 2017). "China confirms landing site for Chang'e-5 Moon sample return". GB Times. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  5. ^ Jones, Andrew (23 November 2020). "China launches Chang'e-5 Moon sample return mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d "China rolls out Long March 5 rocket to launch Chang'e-5 lunar sample return mission". SpaceNews. 2020-11-17. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
  7. ^ a b Chang'e 4 press conference. CNSA, broadcast on 14 January 2019.
  8. ^ China's Planning for Deep Space Exploration and Lunar Exploration before 2030. (PDF) XU Lin, ZOU Yongliao, JIA Yingzhuo. Space Sci., 2018, 38(5): 591-592. doi:10.11728/cjss2018.05.591
  9. ^ A Tentative Plan of China to Establish a Lunar Research Station in the Next Ten Years. Zou, Yongliao; Xu, Lin; Jia, Yingzhuo. 42nd COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 14–22 July 2018, in Pasadena, California, USA, Abstract id. B3.1-34-18.
  10. ^ China lays out its ambitions to colonize the moon and build a "lunar palace". Echo Huang, Quartz. 26 April 2018.
  11. ^ Foust, Jeff (25 September 2017). "Long March 5 failure to postpone China's lunar exploration program". SpaceNews. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  12. ^ Zhao, Jiannan; Xiao, Long; Qiao, Le; Glotch, Timothy D.; Huang, Qian (June 27, 2017). "The Mons Rümker volcanic complex of the Moon: A candidate landing site for the Chang'E-5 mission". Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 122 (7): 1419–1442. Bibcode:2017JGRE..122.1419Z. doi:10.1002/2016je005247. ISSN 2169-9097.
  13. ^ Wöhler, C.; Lena, R.; Pau, K. C. (March 12–16, 2007). "The Lunar Dome Complex Mons Rümker: Morphometry, Rheology, and Mode of Emplacement" (PDF). Proceedings Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII. League City, Texas: Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  14. ^ a b c "Chang'e 5 test mission". Spaceflight101.com. 2017. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  15. ^ China well prepared to launch Chang e-5 lunar probe in 2017: top scientist. China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). 25 October 2016.
  16. ^ "Chinese Long March Rocket successfully launches Lunar Return Demonstrator". Spaceflight101. Oct 23, 2014. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
  17. ^ "China launches test return orbiter for lunar mission". Xinhuanet. Oct 24, 2014.
  18. ^ "Chang'e 5 Test Mission Updates". Spaceflight 101. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
  19. ^ "ESA tracks Chang'e-5 Moon mission". www.esa.int. European Space Agency. Retrieved 19 November 2020.