|4th Vicepresident of South Korea|
May 30, 1956 – April 24, 1960
|Preceded by||Ham Tae-young|
|Succeeded by||Lee Ki-bung|
|2nd Prime Minister of South Korea|
November 23, 1950 – April 24, 1952
|Preceded by||Heo Jeong|
|Succeeded by||Chang Do-yong|
|7th Prime Minister of South Korea|
August 18, 1960 – May 18, 1961
August 28, 1899|
Seoul, Korean Empire
|Died||June 4, 1966
Seoul, South Korea
|Revised Romanization||Jang Myeon|
Tamaoka Tsutomu (玉岡勉?)
Chang Myon (hangul:장면; hanja:張勉, August 28, 1899 – June 4, 1966) was a South Korean politician and educator, diplomat, journalist, social activist, and Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the fourth and last Vice President of the First Republic and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His nicknames were Unseok(운석, 雲石) and Chitae(지태, 志兌). His English name was John Myon Chang and Catholic name was Johan.
During Korea under Japanese rule he worked as a teacher. From 1919 to 1921 he was a teacher at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology school and 1931-1936 he taught at Dongsung commerce high School. From 1937 to 1944, he was principal of Hyehwa-dong Catholic church laying Hyehwa kindergarten. 1936 to December 1945 he was principal of Dongsung commerce high School, and from 1939 to 1942 plural offices principal of Gyesong elementary school.
From 1948 to 1949, he was dispatch of the UN General Assembly substitute of South Korea. He was also appointed as the first Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA. In 1950 he successfully appealed to the USA and UN to send military troops to the Korean War. In 1951 he was appointed to Prime Minister of South Korea. From 1956 to 1960 he was Vicepresident, and from 1960 to 1961 was the 7th Prime minister.
When Syngman Rhee's government was ousted by a student-led pro-democracy uprising, he was elected Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. In this post, he was not only head of government, but de facto chief executive as well; the country had adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee's abuse of presidential power. Chang Myon's government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful coup, which ended the Second Republic. ending the nation’s brief experimentation with the Cabinet form of government of South Korea.
- 1 Life
- 2 Family
- 3 Life style
- 4 Other
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Chang Myon was born 1899 in Incheon, the son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His father was a lower class revenue officer from South Pyongan and Incheon, Pusan. His first name was Jitae(지태;志兌) and he later changed his name to Myon(면;勉). Myon was the Korean language spelling of his name. His Roman Catholic name was Johan. Based on this, he determined his English name was John Myon Chang.
Chang Myon's family was Indong Chang Family(인동장씨;仁同張氏). His ancestor to Jukjong Chang Cham(죽정 장잠;竹亭 張潛), a famous Neo Confucianism philosopher. Later, his 9G-Grandfather was removal to Pyongannam-do Province (평안남도;平安南道) but his father moved to Incheon. his family was first Roman Catholic believer was his Great Greand mother Lady Park.
Chang Myon was genial and gentle in early times. so he was his parents' speech for narrow bones and absoluteness submit to 50 years aged. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parknun primary school(인천 박문 소학교;仁川博文小學校) where he graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang elementary school(인천 공립 심상소학교, 仁川公立尋常小學校), graduating in 1914. He then entered Suwon agriculture high school(수원농업고등학교, 水原農業高等學校), from which he graduated on 25 May 1917. In March 1916, he was married to Kim Ok-Yun (also Kim Yok-yun). That time, Chang was married, so he was not meet to his preparation wife, before marry day. They had six sons and three daughters. On 25 March 1917 he graduated from Suwon agriculture high school.
Study abroad to United States
He was guard station to Liberal, but he was attacking to more Communist and Fascists. In September 1918, he was register to YMCA club village school, 1919 he began teaching at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology school(천주교 용산소신학교, 天主敎龍山小神學校). On March 1 that year he participated in March 1 Movements. However Chang escaped arrest.
For two years he was teaching at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology schools.
In January 1921 he studied abroad in the US with his younger brother Chang Bal, backed by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. He studied at Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America laying Bernard high school where he graduated that August. In September he entered Manhattan College. In 1924 he had one year's vacation from college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he was presence of Secular Franciscan Order. In July 1925, he graduated from Manhattan College. He then went to Italy on 30 July. He was go to beatification of Korean Joseon Catholic martyr 79 peoples. He was also received by the pope Pius XII. In August he returned to Korea.
Religious belief and education movements
On December 2, 1925, he was appointed as Marynoll Center school's professor of Korean language and transaction. He was also servicing the Pyungyang archdiocese, Chang was a leader of laypersons. In February 11, 1927, he was service to Pyungyang Catholic church. October, 1929 he was service, chief of superintendent's office Seopho railway of Pyonyang parish(평양대교구 서포역전 관리사무소). That November, he was translator to Roman Catholic Latin terms to Korean language, The Summary of Religious Terms. In 1930, he was publication to way of seeker of truth(구도자의 길;求道者之路). On September 15 he published Simples Joseon Catholic History (조선천주교공교회약사, 朝鮮天主敎公敎會略史).
In March 18, 1931, he was refusal to Affairs of Pyonyang parish (평양대교구;平壤大敎區) and moved to Seoul. April 1, 1931 he was appointed as teacher of Dongsung Commerce High School (동성상업고등학교;東星商業高等學校), he was responsibility to English language and Rhetoric subject teacher. In July 10, he was publish the first issue to Miscellaneous news Catholic Youngman News(가톨릭 청년지;天主敎靑年紙), with Jeong Ji-yong.
In 1935 he was Manager of Affairs of Dongsung Commerce High School. In April 1, 1937, he was plural offices to principal of Hyehwa-dong Catholic church (혜화동 성당) laying Hyehwa kindergarten (혜화유치원, 惠化幼稚園). In November 19, 1936 he was Assumption of principal of Dongsung Commerce High School (동성상업고등학교 교장;東星商業高等學校 校長). In April 1939, he was plural offices to principal of Gyesong elementary school (계성국민학교;啓星國民學校), Jongro in Seoul. That September, he was appointed to chairman of Seoul Catholic Youngman society (경성가톨릭청년회, 京城天主敎靑年會). In August 1942, he was refusal to principal of Gyesong elementary school. In July 4, 1944 he was publish to Cardinal Gibbons, the Faith of Our Fathers (교부들의 신앙)s Korean Language hanguls translator.
In October 15, 1945, The Japanese defected and Korean was freedom. In addition, he was Entrance exhort to Korean Democratic Party (한국민주당;韓國民主黨), but he was to withdraw. that December, reception and meet to a minister of Provisional Government of Korea(대한민국임시정부;大韓民國臨時政府), in Seoul. That time he was nearest secretary of Syngman Rhee. theys continuity expectation that years to 1954. In February 11, 1946, he was appoint to a member of Democraic Conference(민주의원 의원, 民主議院議員) and a Representative of Emergency peoples conference (비상국민회의 대의원, 非常國民會議 代議員). That August, he was elected to South Korean Provisional National Assembly (남조선과도입법위원회 의원, 南朝鮮過渡立法委員會議員). That time he was emerging an into politics major figure of the emergence by Syngman Rhee's sponsorship.
In May 10, 1948 he was running for first congressman of South Korean National Assembly at Jongro local in Seoul, also elected in May 30. that years October 11, he was appoint to thrith UN General Assembly substitute of South Korean, In December 12, he was UN's approval to South Korean Government. he was persuaded, actively to help protect the freedom of religion. that he was refuse, congressman of South Korean National Assembly, because approval to South Korean Government Work concentration of mind. In 1949 he was visit to Roman Vatican. The Vatican was actively sponsored by Chang's diplomatic activities.
In December 1949, he was appoint to Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA. Chang Myon was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio.
In April 1950, he was appointed special messenger of South Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. July 1950, Korean War, he was fight a war and solicitation urgent request for America.[clarification needed] Also he was go to UN. Chang was a suit of solicitation, because South Korean liberals and Democratic.[clarification needed]
2nd prime minister of South Korea
In November 1950, he was appointed Prime Minister of South Korea. First, Chang was refuse, but Syngman Rhee's earnest request because Prime Minister assumption of office, In October 1951 to April 29, 1952. he was despatch to 6th UN General Assembly, go to Paris, France. April 9, he was return to his country. also April 29, he was refusal to Prime minister, so discord trouble of Syngman Rhee and ather stand by Syngman Rhee. after, he was participation to the Kyunghyang News (경향신문;京鄕新聞) editorial commissioner and adviser.
The involvement of the Catholic Church with democratic opposition first began in the 1950s. In the initial stage it probably had more to do with factional politics than with principles. The foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, was a Catholic, and he had good relations with Ro Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul from the early 1940s (yes, he got in his position with the tacit approval of the colonial authorities). Ro soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Rhee.
In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party of South Korea lawmakers was Attempt of Constitution Amendment. they was Syngman Rhee was treated opponents as if they were enemies of the state, to Cabinet of Liability. when assemblymen voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that an assemblyman called Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the Assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. by the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when he was overthrown by a popular revolution, Chang Myon became the country’s prime minister, that is, its chief executive.
4th Vice president
In 1954 he was cave[clarification needed] for Liberal Party. Also in November 30, 1954, he was participation to Hoheon friends club(호헌동지회, 護憲同志會). In September 18, 1955, he was participation, to Democratic Party (민주당, 民主黨) of South Korea. that he was make an attempt to Democratic Party's candidate for the presidency but he was defeated by a narrow margin to Shin Ik-hee, so he was nominated as candidate for vice-presidency for running mate of Shin Ik-hee. Candidate for the presidency Shin Ik-hee died suddenly in May 5, 1956. Myon he was alone election. In May 30, 1956 he was elected Vice President of South Korea.
In September 28, 1956 he participated in the Democratic party's national convention to Sigong building (시공관, 市公館), Jongro in Seoul, that time he was snipe of a Killer to penetrating wound of wrist. but he was coolly come down wave one's hand to spill blood. assassin was immediately arrest. That, he was request for favorable arrangements of own's assassin. They were influenced by Chang Myon's heart to love and pity. Also one sniper Mr. Kim is later, become a believer of Christian religion.
Vice presidency, he was check of Liberal Party and Lee Ki-bung, influential person of Liberal Party. Because President to be a reason for reasonableness, vice president to that calling advance article. Lee Ki-bung and some Liberal Party member was some spiess to despatch vice president official residence in Seoul, some spys was surveillance to his one's every move.
In 1959, he was appoint to member of the supreme council of Democratic Party of South Korea. also that years November, he was elect to Democratic Party's candidate for vice-presidency also running mate of candidate for the presidency Cho Byong-ok. he was make an attempt to candidate for the presidency, that time, he was also defeat by a narrow margin to Cho Byong-ok, so he was nominate to candidate for vice-presidency for running mate of Cho Byong-ok. In November, he was reelected to member of the supreme council of Democratic Party.
5th congressman of South Korea
In March 15, 1960, South Korean President and Vice President election. that election conclusion, Lee Ki-bung was defeated for him. Liberal Party's vice presidential candidate, Lee Ki-poong, defeated the Democratic Party candidate and former ambassador to the US, Chang Myon, by such a suspiciously large margin that protestors took to the streets alleging fraud. In the early evening of March 15, 1960, 1,000 residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan. The police started shooting and protestors responded by throwing rocks. One month later, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had disappeared during the protests, was found on the beach. cause it was 4.19 movement demonstration.
In May 1960, he was candidacy and elected of 5th congressman of South Korean National assembly. that he was leading to New Group in Democratic Partys(민주당 신파, 民主黨 新派).
October 12, he was Naming to Prime Minister of South Korea, nomination to president Yun Bo-seon. that time Kim Du-han was Anti-Chang Myon active and demonstration. Kim Du-han was said, Chang's Prime minister approval time, explosion for National Assembly of South Korea. but agreement to large number of National Assembly of South Korea. also he appoint to 7th Prime minister. when Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960, for his Liberal party government and Li Ki-bung's mismanagement of state affairs and a string of corruption incidents, the government led by a figurehead President Yun Po-son and Prime Minister Chang Myon faced political and economic difficulties.
After the Korean war, newcomer politicians Kim Dae-jung and Lee Chol-seung, they became drawn to politics, but they were unsuccessfully for office. they was go to Chang Myon. Chang was political sponsored by Lee Chol-seung and Kim Dae-jung.
7th Prime ministers of South Korea
7th Prime ministers early time, he was discord trouble to President Yun Bo-seon, he was one leader of old Group of Democratic Party (민주당 구파, 民主黨 舊派). one years theys trouble was continue. result that August 20, old Group of Democratic Party was defection, create to New Peoples Party(신민당, 新民黨). Chang Myon government was staffed by men with the same background, attitudes and programs as their predecessors in the Rhee administration. the failing administration of the Chang regime convinced many Koreans that changing the government from one headed by the Liberal Party to one led by the Democratic Party would achieve nothing.
Chang Myon was enforcement to succor program of unemployed peoples. he was help a person to find employment of more unemployed peoples. also other enforcement to program for land planning(국토건설사업, 國土建設事業). it was more unemployed peoples of Graduation college and universities. he was high-education Young unemployed peoples leaving alone, they was generate electricity to newly-antisocial powerful of South Korea. In December, he was establishment to land planning school, they attendee was technique architecture, civil engineering for process for 3,4 month.
On the other hand, some scholars asked why democracy was short-lived after the April 19 movement, Prof. Gottfried-Karl Kindermann of the University of Munich, Germany, told The Korea Times that the student activists instigating the uprising were not organized and that they were unable to rule the nation. they said to "But they were able to provide an opportunity for Chang Myon and other democrats so that they could get a new start. Unfortunately the new group failed to manage the state effectively," he observed.
In August 1960, he was introduction of election to local self-government, that December, he was enforcement to Mayor and Governor elected. In early 1961, extreme right and extreme left Korean persons was attempt of political change and demo. but Continuation blast one's hopes. January, he was prevent prices from rising more than one percent and control of the rice price and freeze. also he was guard station of guarantee freedom of expression, political freedom and political organization freedom and political irony right.
Retirement and death
In 1961, Chang Myon government attempted to resume talks, and 8 articles of claims were discussed. However, talks with Japanese Government came to a halt because of the military coup d'état on May 16. In April 24, he was elected to Chairman of Democratic Party. May 16, Park Chung-hee and Chang Do-young other some South Korean. Chang escaped secretly to Carmelite monastery(카르멜 수도원) in Seoul. On May 20, 1961 he was refused the position of Prime Minister. Chang Myon government was innocent, vulnerable, and victimized by a coup. A military coup d'état under Army General Park Chung-hee ended the Chang government in less than one year. Park was the masterminded of topple the government of the then-Prime Minister Chang Myon in 1961, long time preparation. Park's overthrow of the government by force lacked legitimacy.
In March 30, 1962, Military Government prohibited political activity and detained him. In October, Military Government was apprehension and demand a public death sentence, But on August, he was set on bail to be released. In July 1, 1962, he was publish to F. I. Remler, "Why Must I suffer?"(나는 왜 고통을 받아야 하나?), Korean Language transaction. In January 27, 1966 he was enter a holy mother hospital(성모병원, 聖母病院) in Seoul, for hepatitis. that years May 14, Cancellation to prohibit political activity and detention. On June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age67.
He was buried at Chonbo mountin(천보산;天寶山), tomb of Hehwa Catholic which is located at Pocheon in Gyeonggi Province. In October 27, 1999, he was posthumous honors to first class rank, Order of Merit for National Foundation, Republic of Korea Medal(대한민국 건국공로훈장 대한민국장;大韓民國 建國功勞勳章 大韓民國章), given by President of South Korea, Kim Dae-jun.
His son John Chang-yik is the Roman Catholic bishop of Chuncheon and a former president of the South Korean Conference of Catholic Bishops. His other son Chang Chin was a teacher. His one brother Chang Bal was an artist.
Chang Myon was violence liberals also extremely hate to Communist and Fascist, Nazi, Socialist, Feminists and they ideology. He was for strong detest of totalitarianism and authoritarianism. He was rugged individualist and very strict non-drinking, non-smoking.
- April 1919 Yongsan Teaching with little theological lecturer
- April 1, 1930 Seoul DongSung Commercial High School teacher
- 1931 DongSung Commercial High School chief of administration
- November 9, 1936 DongSung Commercial High School Principal
- April 1939 - August 1942 GyeSeong elementary school 3rd Principal
- September 1948 UN mission on behalf of the Republic of Korea
- 1950 2nd Korea Prime Minister
- 1956 4th Vice-President of the Republic of Korea
- April 23, 1960 retired
- August 18, 1960 8dr Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea
- Democratic Party of Korea
- Park Chung-hee
- Syngman Rhee
- Yun Bo-Seon
- Yun Chi-ho
- Yun Chi-Young
- Jang Jun-ha
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- Khaled, Mortuza. "Park Chung-hee’s Industrialization Policy and its Lessons for Developing Countries". University of Rajshahi. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
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- (Korean) Unsuk Chang Myon Memorial Society(Korean)
- (Korean) Profile from the Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs
- (Korean) Chang Myon
- (Korean) Chang Myon
|Vice President of South Korea
|Prime Minister of South Korea
|Prime Minister of South Korea
(after the position was restored)
(Provisional Government of Korea Ambassador to U.S.A)
|Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA