||This article needs attention from an expert in China or Military history. (April 2008)|
A portrait of Chang Yuchun in a 1921 Chinese publication
|General of the Ming dynasty|
|Died||1369 (aged 38–39)|
|Courtesy name||Boren (Chinese: 伯仁; pinyin: Bórén; Wade–Giles: Po-jen)|
|Other names||Yanheng (Chinese: 燕衡; pinyin: Yànhéng; Wade–Giles: Yen-heng) (art name)|
Chang Yuchun (1330–1369),the han people courtesy name Boren and art name Yanheng, was a Chinese military general. He was a follower of Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor), the founder of the Ming dynasty, and contributed heavily to the establishment of the Ming Empire. He was famous for his bravery and formidable prowess in battle, which earned him the nickname of "Chang Ten Thousand", because he alone was said to be as effective as a force of 10,000 troops.
Chang was born in Huaiyuan County, Anhui. He joined the Red Turban Rebellion in 1355 to overthrow the Mongol-ruled Yuan dynasty in China. In the sixth month of that year, he followed Zhu Yuanzhang on a battle with the Yuan army that took place at Caishi (near present-day southern Ma'anshan, eastern bank of the Yangtze River). The rebel forces emerged victorious in that battle and Chang became famous. He was subsequently promoted to the rank of yuanshuai (equivalent of marshal).
Chang participated in major battles against Zhu Yuanzhang's rivals, Chen Youliang and Zhang Shicheng, helped Zhu eliminate them and secure his rule over China and laid the foundation for the Ming dynasty. He was granted the title "Duke of E" (鄂國公) by Zhu in 1366. In 1367, Chang followed Xu Da on a military campaign north and conquered the Yuan capital, Khanbaliq, in the following year, thereby ending Mongol rule in China.
In 1369, Chang died of illness on the return journey to Nanjing in the west of present-day Longguan County, Hebei. When Zhu Yuanzhang heard of Chang's death, he wrote a poem mourning Chang and posthumously granted Chang the title "Prince of Kaiping" (開平王) and the posthumous name "Zhongwu" (忠武). Chang Yuchun had two sons, Chang Mao (常茂) and Chang Sheng (常升).
Chang appears as a minor character in Louis Cha's wuxia novel The Heaven Sword and Dragon Saber. In the novel, he is a member of the Ming Cult, a rebel movement seeking to overthrow the Yuan dynasty. He is wounded in a fight with some Yuan soldiers but is saved by Zhang Sanfeng. He agrees to bring Zhang Wuji (the protagonist) with him to Butterfly Valley to seek treatment from the eccentric physician, Hu Qingniu. Several years later, Chang becomes Zhang Wuji's subordinate after Zhang becomes the cult's leader for his heroics in saving the cult from destruction. He participates in various battles against Yuan forces and eventually helps Zhu Yuanzhang establish the Ming dynasty.
Chang Yuchun is said to be the creator of the martial art "Kaiping spear method".
Discourse on Chang Yuchun's religion and ethnicity
Chang's religion and ethnic background is a controversial issue in Chinese historian circles. According to Bai Shouyi, Fu Tongxian, Jin Jitang, Ma Yiyu and Qiu Shusen (they are all Hui people except Qiu), Chang was from the Hui ethnic group. Tan Ta Sen and Dru C. Gladney also identified him as Hui or Muslim. Wen Yong-ning argued that Chang might not be Hui, based on Chang's family traditions and offspring and the status of the Semu in the Yuan dynasty. In a later paper, Li Jianbiao mentioned that Wen's work was speculative and not convincing.
- based on the Lunar Calendar
- Tan Ta Sen, Dasheng Chen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 170. ISBN 981-230-837-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Jonathan Lipman, Familiar Strangers, a history of Muslims in Northwest China, 39
- Dru C. Gladney (1991). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic (2, illustrated, reprint ed.). Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. p. 198. ISBN 0-674-59495-9. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
- Yong-ning, WEN (2009). "On Chang Yu-chun's Religious Belief and Forebears". Tangdu Journal. 25 (3).
- Jian-biao, Li (2001). "CHANG Ya-chun's Belief and Ethnicity——Discussion with Mr.WEN Yong-ning". Tangdu Journal. 27 (2): 86–91.