Changbai Mountains

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Changbai Mountains
Mount Paektu5.jpg
View from Mount Paektu, the highest peak in the range
Highest point
Peak Mount Paektu
Elevation 2,744 m (9,003 ft)
Prominence 2,593 m (8,507 ft)

The Changbai Mountain Range is a mountain range on the border between China and North Korea (41°41' to 42°51'N; 127°43' to 128°16'E). It is also referred to as the Šanggiyan, Jangbaek, or Ohnan mountains.

The range extends from the Northeast Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning to the North Korean provinces of Ryanggang and Chagang. Most peaks exceed 2,000 metres (6,600 feet) in height, with the highest mountain being Paektu Mountain.


The range represents the mythical birthplace of Bukūri Yongšon, ancestor of Nurhaci and the Aisin Gioro imperial family, who were the founders of the Manchu state and the Qing dynasty of China. The Chinese name literally means "Perpetually-White Mountain Region".[1]

Sanjiaolong Crater Lake in the Longwanqun National Forest Park, Huinan County
Changbai Mountains
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 长白山
Traditional Chinese 長白山
Literal meaning Perpetually White Mountain Region
Korean name
Chosŏn'gŭl 장백산맥
Hancha 長白山脈
Manchu name
Manchu script Changbai mnc.png
Romanization Golmin šanggiyan alin

Geography and climate[edit]

The mountains are the source of the Songhua, Tumen, and Yalu Rivers.[2]

The Changbai Mountains are characterized by long and cold winters. Precipitation is low in the winter but higher in the summer and autumn with annual averages reaching as high as 1,400 millimetres (55 inches).[3]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Painting from the Manchu Veritable Records

The vegetation of the mountain slopes is divided into several different zones. At the top, above 2,000 metres, tundra predominates. From 1,700 to 2,000 metres, vegetation is dominated by mountain birch and larch. Below this zone, and down to 1,100 metres, the dominant trees are spruce, fir, and Korean pine. From 600 to 1,100 metres, the landscape is dominated by mixed forest, consisting of Amur linden, Korean pine, maple, and elm. Further down, a temperate hardwood forest is found, dominated by second-growth poplar and birch.[4]

Protected areas[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Crossley, Pamela Kyle (February 2000). A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. University of California Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780520234246. 
  2. ^ "Changbai Mountains -- Scenic Wonderland". Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  3. ^ "Changbai Mountains mixed forests (PA0414)". WildWorld Ecoregion Profile, National Geographic Society. World Wildlife Fund. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Liu, Q.J., Takamura, T., Takeuchi, N., Shao, G. (2002). Mapping of boreal vegetation of a temperate mountain in China by multitemporal LANDSAT imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23(17), p. 3388

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°43′59″N 128°04′01″E / 41.733°N 128.067°E / 41.733; 128.067