Changes in the taxonomy of gastropods since 2005

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This overview lists proposed changes in the taxonomy of gastropods at the family level and above since 2005, when the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005) was published. In other words, these are recent updates in the way various groups of snails and slugs are classified.

Changes in subfamilies are outlined in the respective articles about each particular family. Unchanged taxa are not listed here.

In one of the largest recent changes (affecting the most species of gastropods), Klussmann-Kolb et al. (2008)[1] showed that the traditional classification of the Euthyneura needed to be reconsidered. The change was subsequently made by Jörger et al. (2010),[2] who redefined the major groups within the Heterobranchia.

A great number of major changes have been made within the classification of the Conoidea since 2011.

Helcionelloida (not gastropods)[edit]

It has become clear that the fossil taxon Helcionelloida does not belong to the class Gastropoda; it is now a separate class within the Mollusca. P. Yu. Parkhaev (2006, 2007)[3][4] created the class Helcionelloida, whose members were previously treated as "Paleozoic molluscs of uncertain systematic position" sensu Bouchet & Rocroi.

Subclass Archaeobranchia Parkhaev, 2001

Subclass Divasibranchia Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975

Subclass Dextrobranchia Minichev & Starobogatov, 1975


This revised taxonomy of the Patellogastropoda (the true limpets) is based on research by Nakano & Ozawa (2007).[5] The Acmaeidae is treated as a synonym of Lottiidae; the subfamily Pectinodontinae is elevated to Pectinodontidae; a new family Eoacmaeidae with the new type genus Eoacmaea is established. The remaining three families (Neolepetopsidae, Daminilidae, Lepetopsidae) are moved into the Lottioidea, like this:


Geiger (2009)[6] elevated the subfamily Depressizoninae to family level as Depressizonidae. Also two subfamilies (the Larocheinae from the Scissurellidae, and the Temnocinclinae from the Sutilizonidae) were upgraded to family level as the Larocheidae and the Temnocinclidae.[6]

The superfamily Trochoidea was redefined by Williams et al. (2008)[7] and the superfamily Turbinoidea is no longer used. Phasianelloidea and Angarioidea were created as new superfamilies.[7]





The superfamily Neomphaloidea was previously regarded as belonging within the clade Vetigastropoda. Molecular phylogeny has shown however that it belongs in its own clade, Neomphalina, which is endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitat. The clade Neomphalina appears to be basal to the Vetigastropoda.[8] Neomphalina is a monophyletic clade, however, its exact relationship among the gastropods is uncertain.[9]


Bandel (2007)[10] described four new families within the Neritopsoidea. He classified Neritopsoidea in the order Neritoina within the superorder Cycloneritimorpha and within the subclass Neritimorpha.[10] Bandel (2007) recognizes Natisopsinae (in Neritopsidae by Bouchet & Rocrois 2005) at the family level, as Naticopsidae. Bandel's classification looks like this:

superfamily Neritopsoidea


The family Provannidae was moved to the superfamily Abyssochrysoidea Tomlin, 1927.[11] In addition, a new family Hokkaidoconchidae Kaim, Jenkins & Warén, 2008[11][12] was named.

The subfamily Semisulcospirinae, within the Pleuroceridae, was elevated to the family level Semisulcospiridae by Strong & Köhler (2009).[13]

Bandel (2006)[14] made numerous changes in the following clades: Cerithimorpha/Cerithioidea, Turritellimorpha/Turritelloidea, Murchisonimorpha/Orthonematoidea, Campanilimorpha/Campaniloidea and Ampullinoidea, Vermetimorpha/Vermetoidea.

Fehse (2007)[15] elevated both the subfamily Pediculariinae and the tribe Eocypraeini (which were previously in the family Ovulidae) to family level, based on both morphological research and molecular phylogeny research.[15] Families within Cypraeoidea are now as follows:

Within the Tonnoidea, Beu (2008) raised the subfamily Cassinae to the rank of family: Cassidae Latreille, 1825.[16]

Bouchet et al. (2011)[17] updated the taxonomy of the superfamily Conoidea:

In 2012, within the Conoidea, a new family Bouchetispiridae Kantor, Strong & Puillandre, 2012 that includes one genus Bouchetispira Kantor, Strong & Puillandre, 2012 and one species Bouchetispira vitrea Kantor, Strong & Puillandre, 2012, was discovered.[18]

In 2015, in the Journal of Molluscan Studies, Puillandre, Duda, Meyer, Olivera & Bouchet presented a new classification for the old genus Conus. Using 329 species, the authors carried out molecular phylogenetic analyses. The results suggested that the authors should place all cone snails in a single family, Conidae, containing four genera: Conus, Conasprella, Profundiconus and Californiconus. The authors group 85% of all known cone snail species under Conus, They recognize 57 subgenera within Conus, and 11 subgenera within the genus Conasprella. .[19]


Janssen (2005)[20] established a new family, Praecuvierinidae.

Gosliner et al. (2007)[21] elevated the subfamily Babakininae to the family level as Babakinidae.

Golding et al. (2007)[22] established new families within the Amphiboloidea:

Uit de Weerd (2008)[23] moved two families Urocoptidae and Cerionidae to the newly established superfamily Urocoptoidea, based on molecular phylogeny research as follows:[23]

superfamily Urocoptoidea

Other authors also made numerous taxonomic changes within Orthalicoidea in 2009-2012.

Schrödl & Neusser (2010)[24] rearranged the taxonomy of the Acochlidiacea.

Swennen & Buatip (2009)[25] described a new family Aitengidae, which was later moved to Acochlidiacea by Jörger et al. (2010).[2]

Malaquias et al. (2009)[26] rearranged the taxonomy of the Cephalaspidea sensu lato: reinstated Architectibranchia, reinstated Runcinacea, reinstated Scaphandridae as a valid family, but they did not use superfamilies.[26]

Subsequently Malaquias (2010)[27] moved Bullacta exarata (formerly the only member of Bullactidae) into the family Haminoeidae.[27]

Sutcharit et al. (2010)[28] established a new family Diapheridae within the Streptaxoidea in 2010.

Jörger et al. (2010)[2] redefined major groups of Heterobranchia and created the new clades Euopisthobranchia and Panpulmonata.[2]

Maeda et al. (2010)[29] confirmed the placement of Cylindrobulla within the Sacoglossa.[29]

Thompson (2010)[30] redefined subfamilies in Spiraxidae, moving Euglandininae and Streptostylinae (from where they had been in the Oleacinidae per Bouchet & Rocroi (2005)) so that they became subfamilies of Spiraxidae.

Johnson (2011)[31] resurrected the family Cadlinidae.

Thompson (2012)[32] established a new family, Epirobiidae.

Thompson & Naranjo-García (2012)[33] described a new family Echinichidae within Xanthonychoidea.

Prestonellinae was formally described as a new subfamily within Bothriembryontidae in 2016.[34]

Proposals and research[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Klussmann-Kolb, Annette; Dinapoli, Angela; Kuhn, Kerstin; Streit, Bruno; Albrecht, Christian (2008). "From sea to land and beyond – New insights into the evolution of euthyneuran Gastropoda (Mollusca)". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-57. 
  2. ^ a b c d Jörger, Katharina M; Stöger, Isabella; Kano, Yasunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Knebelsberger, Thomas; Schrödl, Michael (2010). "On the origin of Acochlidia and other enigmatic euthyneuran gastropods, with implications for the systematics of Heterobranchia". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10: 323. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-323. PMC 3087543Freely accessible. PMID 20973994. 
  3. ^ P. Yu. Parkhaev (2006) "Adaptive radiation of the Cambrian helcionelloid mollusks (Gastropoda, Archaeobranchia)." In: S.V. Rozhnov (ed.) "Evolution of the biosphere and biodiversity. Towards the 70th anniversary of A. Y. Rozanov". 2006. Moscow, pp. 282-296.
  4. ^ P. Yu. Parkhaev (2007). "The Cambrian 'basement' of gastropod evolution". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 286: 415–421. doi:10.1144/SP286.31. ISBN 978-1-86239-233-5. 
  5. ^ Nakano, T.; Ozawa, T. (2007). "Worldwide phylogeography of limpets of the order Patellogastropoda: Molecular, morphological and palaeontological evidence". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 73: 79. doi:10.1093/mollus/eym001. 
  6. ^ a b Geiger D. L. (8 May 2009) "A new species of Depressizona and the family rank of Depressizonidae". Zootaxa 2059: 57-59. abstract, full article.
  7. ^ a b Williams S. T.; Karube S.; Ozawa T. (2008). "Molecular systematics of Vetigastropoda: Trochidae, Turbinidae and Trochoidea redefined". Zoologica Scripta. 37 (5): 483–506. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00341.x. 
  8. ^ W. F. Ponder, D. R. Lindberg, Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 119, 83–265 (1997).
  9. ^ A. G. McArthur, B. F. Koop, Molecular Phylogenet. Evol. 13, 255–274 (1999).
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bandel, K. (2007). "Description and classification of Late Triassic Neritimorpha (Gastropoda, Mollusca) from the St Cassian Formation, Italian Alps". Bulletin of Geosciences: 215. doi:10.3140/bull.geosci.2007.03.215. 
  11. ^ a b Kaim, A., Jenkins, R.G. & Warén, A. (2008). "Provannid and provannid−like gastropods from Late Cretaceous cold seeps of Hokkaido (Japan) and the fossil record of the Provannidae (Gastropoda: Abyssochrysoidea)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 154 (3): 421–436. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2008.00431.x. 
  12. ^ Kiel S.; Campbell K.A.; Elder W.P.; Little C.T.S. (2008). "Jurassic and Cretaceous gastropods from hydrocarbon seeps in forearc basin and accretionary prism settings, California" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 53 (4): 679–703. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0412. 
  13. ^ Strong, Ellen E.; Köhler, Frank (2009). "Morphological and molecular analysis of 'Melania' jacquetiDautzenberg and Fischer, 1906: From anonymous orphan to critical basal offshoot of the Semisulcospiridae (Gastropoda: Cerithioidea)". Zoologica Scripta. 38 (5): 483. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00385.x. 
  14. ^ Bandel K. (2006). "Families of the Cerithioidea and related superfamilies (Palaeo-Caenogastropoda; Mollusca) from the Triassic to the Recent characterized by protoconch morphology - including the description of new taxa". Freiberger Forschungshefte C 511: 59-138. PDF[permanent dead link].
  15. ^ a b Fehse D. (2007). "Contributions to the knowledge of the Ovulidae. XVI. The higher systematics". Spixiana 30(1): 121-125. PDF.
  16. ^ Beu A.G. (2008). "Recent deep-water Cassidae of the world. A revision of Galeodea, Oocorys, Sconsia, Echinophoria and related taxa, with new genera and species (Mollusca, Gastropoda)". In> Héros V., Cowie R. H. & Bouchet P. (eds.). Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos 25. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 196: 269-387.
  17. ^ a b c d Bouchet, P.; Kantor, Y. I.; Sysoev, A.; Puillandre, N. (2011). "A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda)". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 77 (3): 273. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr017. 
  18. ^ Kantor Y.I., Strong E.E. & Puillandre N. (2012) A new lineage of Conoidea (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) revealed by morphological and molecular data. Journal of Molluscan Studies 78: 246–255
  19. ^ Puillandre N., Duda T.F., Meyer C., Olivera B.M. & Bouchet P. (2015). One, four or 100 genera? A new classification of the cone snails. Journal of Molluscan Studies. 81: 1-23
  20. ^ Janssen A. W. (2005). "Development of Cuvierinidae (Mollusca, Euthecosomata, Cavolinioidea) during the Cainozoic: a non-cladistic approach with a re-interpretation of Recent taxa". Basteria. 69 (1–3): 25–72. 
  21. ^ Gosliner, Terrence M.; González-Duarte, Manuel M.; Cervera, Juan Lucas (2007). "Revision of the systematics of Babakina Roller, 1973 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) with the description of a new species and a phylogenetic analysis". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 151 (4): 671. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00331.x. 
  22. ^ a b c Golding R. E., Ponder W. F. & Byrne M. (2007). "Taxonomy and anatomy of Amphiboloidea (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Archaeopulmonata)". Zootaxa 1476: 1-50. abstract.
  23. ^ a b Uit De Weerd, D. R. (2008). "Delimitation and phylogenetics of the diverse land-snail family Urocoptidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) based on 28S rRNA sequence data: A reunion with Cerion". Journal of Molluscan Studies. 74 (4): 317. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyn023. 
  24. ^ Schrödl, Michael; Neusser, Timea P. (2010). "Towards a phylogeny and evolution of Acochlidia (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 158: 124. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00544.x. 
  25. ^ Swennen C. & Buatip S. "Aiteng ater, new genus, new species, an amphibious and insectivorous sea slug that is difficult to classify [Mollusca: Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia: Sacoglossa(?): Aitengidae, new family]". The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57(2): 495–500. PDF.
  26. ^ a b Malaquias, Manuel António E; Mackenzie-Dodds, Jacqueline; Bouchet, Philippe; Gosliner, Terrence; Reid, David G (2009). "A molecular phylogeny of the Cephalaspideasensu lato(Gastropoda: Euthyneura): Architectibranchia redefined and Runcinacea reinstated". Zoologica Scripta. 38: 23. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00354.x. 
  27. ^ a b Malaquias, Manuel António E. (2010). "Systematics, phylogeny, and natural history ofBullacta exarata(Philippi, 1849): An endemic cephalaspidean gastropod from the China Sea". Journal of Natural History. 44 (33–34): 2015. doi:10.1080/00222933.2010.487574. 
  28. ^ Sutcharit C.; Naggs F.; Wade C. M.; Fontanilla I.; Panha S. (2010). "The new family Diapheridae, a new species of Diaphera Albers from Thailand, and the position of the Diapheridae within a molecular phylogeny of the Streptaxoidea (Pulmonata: Stylommatophora)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 160: 1–16. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00598.x. 
  29. ^ a b Maeda T., Kajita T., Maruyama T. & Hirano Y. (2010). "Molecular Phylogeny of the Sacoglossa, With a Discussion of Gain and Loss of Kleptoplasty in the Evolution of the Group". Biological Bulletin 219(1): 17-26. abstract.
  30. ^ Thompson, FG (2010). "Four species of land snails from Costa Rica and Panama (Pulmonata: Spiraxidae)" (PDF). Revista de Biología Tropical. 58 (1): 195–202. PMID 20411717. 
  31. ^ Johnson, Rebecca F. (2010). "Breaking family ties: Taxon sampling and molecular phylogeny of chromodorid nudibranchs (Mollusca, Gastropoda)". Zoologica Scripta: no. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2010.00457.x. 
  32. ^ Thompson F. G. (2012). "The land snail genus Epirobia and allied genera in México and Central America, with the description of a new family, the Epirobiidae (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, Urocoptoidea)". Bulletin Florida Museum of Natural History 51: 167-215. PDF.
  33. ^ Thompson, Fred G.; Naranjo-García, Edna (2012). "Echinichidae, a new family of dart-bearing helicoid slugs from Mexico, with the description of a new genus and three new species
    (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Xanthonychoidea)"
    (PDF). Archiv für Molluskenkunde. 141 (2): 197. doi:10.1127/arch.moll/1869-0963/141/197-208.
  34. ^ Bruggen A. C. van, Herbert D. G. & Breure A. S. H. (2016). "Prestonellinae – validation of the name as a new subfamily of Bothriembryontidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Orthalicoidea)". Zootaxa 4084: 590–592.
  35. ^ Grande C.; Templado J.; Zardoya R. (2008). "Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8: 61. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-61. PMC 2291457Freely accessible. PMID 18302768. 
  36. ^ Wagner P. J. (2008). "Paleozoic Gastropod, Monoplacophoran and Rostroconch Database".[dead link]
  37. ^ a b c "Cyrtonellidae" The Paleobiology Database. Accessed 26 February 2010.

Further reading[edit]