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Age (Ma)
Triassic Lower/
Induan younger
Permian Lopingian Changhsingian 252.2–254.1
Wuchiapingian 254.1–259.8
Guadalupian Capitanian 259.8–265.1
Wordian 265.1–268.8
Roadian 268.8–272.3
Cisuralian Kungurian 272.3–283.5
Artinskian 283.5–290.1
Sakmarian 290.1–295.0
Asselian 295.0–298.9
Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Gzhelian older
Subdivision of the Permian system
according to the ICS (Geologic Time Scale 2013).[1]

In the geologic time scale, the Changhsingian or Changxingian is the latest age or uppermost stage of the Permian. It is also the upper or latest of two subdivisions of the Lopingian epoch or series. The Changhsingian lasted from 254.14 to 252.17 million years ago (Ma). It was preceded by the Wuchiapingian and followed by the Induan.[2]

The greatest mass extinction event in the Phanerozoic eon occurred during this age. The extinction rate peaked about a million years before the end of this stage.

Stratigraphic definitions[edit]

The Changhsingian is named after Changxing (Chinese: 长兴; pinyin: Chángxìng; Wade–Giles: Ch’ang-hsing) in northern Zhejiang, China. The stage was named for the Changhsing Limestone.[3] The name was first used for a stage in 1970[4] and was anchored in the international timescale in 1981.[5]

The base of the Changhsingian stage is at the first appearance of conodont species Clarkina wangi. The global reference profile is profile D at Meishan, in the type area in Changxing.[5] The top of the Changhsingian (the base of the Induan stage and the Triassic system is at the first appearance of conodont species Hindeodus parvus.

The Changhsingian stage contains only one ammonite biozone: that of the genus Iranites.


The Changhsingian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event when both global biodiversity and alpha diversity (community-level diversity) were devastated.[6] The world after the extinction was almost lifeless, deserted, hot, and dry. Ammonites, fishes, insects, and the tetrapods (cynodonts, amphibians, reptiles, etc.) remained rare and terrestrial ecosystems did not recover for 30 million years.[6]



  1. ^ "Chronostratigraphic chart 2013". ICS. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  2. ^ See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed geologic timescale
  3. ^ The Changhsing Limestone was named by Grabau (1923)
  4. ^ By Furnish & Glenister (1970); see also Furnish & Glenister (1973)
  5. ^ a b The Changhsingian stage and its GSSP were described by Jin et al. (1981)
  6. ^ a b Sahney, S.; Benton, M.J. (2008). "Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time" (PDF). Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological. 275 (1636): 759–65. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1370. PMC 2596898Freely accessible. PMID 18198148. [permanent dead link]


  • Furnish, W.M. & Glenister, B.F.; 1970: Permian ammonite Cyclolobus from the Salt Range, West Pakistan, in: Kummel, B. & Teichert, G. (eds.): Stratigraphic boundary problems, Permian and Triassic of west Pakistan, Geological Department of Kansas University, Special Publication 4, pp 158–176.
  • Furnish, W.M. & Glenister, B.F.; 1973: Permian stages names, in: Logan, A. & Hills, L.V.: The Permian and Triassic systems and their mutual boundary, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists Memoir 2, pp 522–548.
  • Grabau, A.W.; 1923: Stratigraphy of China, Part 1: Palaeozoic and lower, Geological Survey of China, 529 pp.
  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
  • Jin, Y.; Wang, Y.; Henderson, C.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Shen, S. & Cao, C.; 2006: The Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of Changhsingian Stage (Upper Permian) Episodes 29(3), p. 175-182, PDF.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 31°04′55″N 119°42′23″E / 31.0819°N 119.7064°E / 31.0819; 119.7064