Singapore Changi Airport

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Singapore Changi Airport
Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura
新加坡樟宜机场
(Xīnjiāpō Zhāngyí Jīchǎng)

சிங்கப்பூர் சாங்கி
சர்வதேச விமானநிலையம் 

(Ciṅkappūr Cāṅki Vimana Nilaiyam)
Singapore Changi Airport logo.svg
Airport of Singapore, Crowne Plaza.JPG
Summary
Airport type Public / Military
Owner Government of Singapore[1]
Operator
Serves Singapore
Location Changi, Singapore
Opened 1 July 1981 (operational)
29 December 1981 (official)
Hub for
Time zone SST (UTC+08:00)
Elevation AMSL 6.66 m / 22 ft
Coordinates 01°21′33.16″N 103°59′21.5″E / 1.3592111°N 103.989306°E / 1.3592111; 103.989306Coordinates: 01°21′33.16″N 103°59′21.5″E / 1.3592111°N 103.989306°E / 1.3592111; 103.989306
Website www.changiairport.com
Map
SIN/WSSS is located in Singapore
SIN/WSSS
SIN/WSSS
Location in Singapore
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
02L/20R[N 1] 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
02C/20C 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
02R/20L[N 2] 2,750 9,022 Asphalt
Statistics (2016)
Passenger Movements Increase 58,698,039
Air Freight Movements (tons) Increase 1,969,434
Aircraft Movements Increase 360,490

Singapore Changi Airport (IATA: SINICAO: WSSS), or simply Changi Airport, is the primary civilian airport for Singapore, and one of the largest transportation hubs in Southeast Asia. It is currently rated the World's Best Airport by Skytrax,[4] for the fifth consecutive year (Skytrax's World's Best Airport 2013–2017)[5] and is one of the world's busiest airports by international passenger and cargo traffic. The airport is located in Changi, at the eastern end of Singapore, approximately 17.2 kilometres (10.7 mi) northeast[6] from Marina Bay (Singapore's Downtown Core), on a 13-square-kilometre (5.0 sq mi) site. It is operated by Changi Airport Group and it is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Scoot, Jetstar Asia Airways and BOC Aviation.

Overview of Changi Airport[edit]

Changi Airport serves more than 100 airlines flying to 380 cities in around 90 countries and territories worldwide. Each week, about 7,000 flights land or depart from Changi, or, about one every 90 seconds.

For the 2016 full year figures published by the airport, the airport handled 58,698,039 passengers (a 5.9% increase over the previous year), the most in its 35-year history.[3] This made it the sixth busiest airport by international passenger traffic in the world and the second busiest in Asia. In December 2016, Changi Airport registered a total of 5.68 million passenger movements, the highest the airport has ever achieved in a month since it opened in 1981. Its daily traffic movement record was also broken on 23 December 2016, with more than 202,000 passengers passing through during that day. In addition to being an important passenger hub, the airport is also one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 1.97 million tonnes of cargo in 2016. The total number of commercial aircraft movements increased by 4.1% from the previous year to 360,490 in 2016.[3] In April 2017, the airport handled more than a billion passengers for the first time.[7][8]

The airport has won over 533 awards since its opening, including 26 "Best Airport" awards in 2016 alone.[9] Changi Airport's efforts to mitigate the effects of ageing infrastructure include continual physical upgrades to its existing terminals and building new facilities to maintain its high standards in airport service quality.[10]

Passenger Terminals[edit]

Changi Airport has four main passenger terminals arranged in an elongated inverted 'U' shape. Currently, the airport has a designed total annual handling capacity of 66 million passengers.

  • Terminal 1, opened in 1981, is located at the northern end.
  • Terminal 2, opened in 1990, is located to the eastern end.
  • Terminal 3, opened in 2008, is located to the western end.
  • Terminal 4, opened on 31 October 2017, is located on the southern side, near the site of the former budget terminal.

There is also a privately run luxury terminal called the JetQuay CIP Terminal. It is similar to the Lufthansa First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport, but is open to all passengers travelling in all classes on all airlines with an access fee.

Former Terminal[edit]

The short-lived Budget Terminal was opened on 26 March 2006 and closed on 25 September 2012 to make way for a larger Terminal 4, which opened in 2017.[11]

Future Terminals and projects[edit]

  • Terminal 5 is set to be ready in the mid 2020s. It is expected to handle 50 million passenger movements per annum.[12] The airport terminal structure is projected to be larger than all the previous terminals combined. It will be built on reclaimed land to the east of the present terminals.
  • Jewel Changi Airport, set to open in early 2019, is a multi-use structure interconnecting Terminals 1, 2 and 3. Part of this project will help expand Terminal 1 to handle 28 million passengers per year.

Operations[edit]

Terminal 2 Check-in area
Terminal 3 airside area
Aerial view of Singapore Changi Airport. The forested area to the right of the airfield has since been cleared for Terminal 5.

Passenger operations[edit]

As the airport only handles international passenger traffic, all terminals in operation are equipped with immigration-processing facilities for international travel.

After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001 and the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic, which hit the 30-million mark for the first time in 2004. In March 2008, prior to the full effect of the financial crisis of 2007–2010 on the global economy, the airport was predicted to handle 50 million passengers by 2012[13] due to the opening of casinos in Singapore and the phased liberalisation of the Asean aviation sector. As predicted, the airport surpassed the 50-million mark in 2012.[10]

Cargo operations[edit]

The Air Cargo Division of the Changi Airport Group (CAG) manages the Changi Airfreight Centre[14] located in the north of the airport premises.[15] The airport handled 1.81 million tonnes of air cargo in 2012, making it the 7th busiest airfreight hub in the world and the fifth busiest in Asia.[16] Due to Singapore's large electronics sector, electrical components constitute a significant part of the total cargo traffic handled at the airport. Changi airport has initiated attempts to expand into the perishable air cargo market. In 2015, Changi Airport handled 1,853,087 tonnes of air freight. Air Cargo World awarded the 2013 Air Cargo Excellence Award to Changi Airport for handling more than 1,000,000 tonnes of cargo in Asia.[17]

Key markets and destinations[edit]

In 2016, Indonesia was the largest market for Singapore Changi Airport, followed by Malaysia, China, Thailand, Australia, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Philippines and Vietnam. Jakarta was the top destination for travellers in Singapore Changi Airport, followed by Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Manila, Tokyo, Denpasar, Ho Chi Minh City, Taipei and Sydney.[18]

Safety and security[edit]

The Changi Airport Group (CAG) manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAG manages the customer aspects of the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Unit oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, and manages AVSEC-related projects.[15] The airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division.[19] The Airport Emergency Services handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters. It operates from two main fire stations (Station 1 by Runway 1 along West Perimeter Road and Station 2 by Runway 2 along Changi Coast Road), one sub-station (Domestic Fire Station), and one sea rescue base near the airport.[20]

The airport's security comes under the regulatory purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force (SPF). The day to day discharge of security functions at the airport are performed by auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services. Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Dnata and Singapore Changi Airport Terminal Services respectively.[21] On 29 April 2008, CAAS signed its then biggest single security contract for all airport related security services by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Singapore Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre.[22] It involves the deployment of about 2,600 Certis Cisco personnel, including armed Auxiliary Police Officers and unarmed aviation security officers to perform tasks such as screening checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.[23]

Since the 11 September 2001 attacks and the naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been tightened. Singapore Armed Force and Singapore Police Force officers, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, has been deployed to patrol the terminals at random intervals.[24] Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also dispatched to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge", imposed since 2002.[25]

In 2005, an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done before check-in within public view. The screening of carry-on luggage and travellers are mostly conducted at individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. A perimeter intrusion detection system for Changi Airport's perimeter fence has also been put in place to further strengthen security of the airfield, while a biometric access control system for staff movement has been put in place since 2006.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

Airlines Destinations
Air China Beijing–Capital, Chengdu
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
Air India Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai
Air India Express Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirappalli
Air Mauritius Mauritius[Note 1]
Air New Zealand Auckland
Air Niugini Port Moresby
AirAsia Bintulu (begins 26 December 2017),[26] Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching, Langkawi, Miri, Penang
All Nippon Airways Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Incheon
Bangkok Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Koh Samui
Batik Air Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Biman Bangladesh Airlines Dhaka
British Airways London–Heathrow, Sydney
Cathay Pacific Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hong Kong
Cebu Pacific Cebu, Clark, Davao, Iloilo, Manila
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Surabaya, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Eastern Airlines Fuzhou,[27] Hangzhou,[28] Kunming, Quanzhou,[28][29] Shanghai–Pudong
China Southern Airlines Guangzhou, Shenyang
Delta Air Lines Tokyo–Narita
Druk Air Kolkata, Paro
Emirates Brisbane, Colombo, Dubai–International, Melbourne
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa, Kuala Lumpur–International
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan
Fiji Airways Nadi
Finnair Helsinki
Firefly Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur–Subang, Kuantan
Garuda Indonesia Amsterdam,[Note 2] Denpasar, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Medan, Surabaya
Charter: Silangit[30]
Hebei Airlines Hangzhou, Shijiazhuang
IndiGo Bangalore, Chennai
Indonesia AirAsia Bandung, Denpasar, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Medan (resumes 9 February 2018),[31] Padang (begins 9 February 2018),[31] Semarang, Yogyakarta
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita
Jet Airways Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai
Jetstar Airways Denpasar, Melbourne, Perth
Jetstar Asia Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Clark (begins 28 November 2017),[32] Da Nang, Darwin, Denpasar, Guiyang, Haikou, Hat Yai,[33] Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Kuala Lumpur–International, Manila, Medan, Naha , Osaka–Kansai, Palembang, Pekanbaru, Penang, Perth, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Sanya, Shantou, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Taipei–Taoyuan, Yangon
Jetstar Pacific Airlines Ho Chi Minh City
KLM Amsterdam, Denpasar
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon
Lao Airlines Luang Prabang, Vientiane
Lion Air Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
LOT Polish Airlines Warsaw–Chopin (resumes 17 May 2018)[34][35]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich (resumes 27 March 2018)[36][37]
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuching, Miri
Malindo Air Kuala Lumpur–International, Penang
Myanmar Airways International Yangon
Myanmar National Airlines Yangon
Norwegian Air Shuttle
operated by Norwegian Air UK
London–Gatwick[38][39]
Philippine Airlines Cebu,[40] Manila
Philippines AirAsia Cebu
Qantas Brisbane, London–Heathrow (resumes 25 March 2018),[41] Melbourne, Perth, Sydney
Qatar Airways Doha
Regent Airways Dhaka
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan
Saudia Jeddah
Scoot Amritsar, Athens, Bangalore, Bangkok–Don Mueang, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Cebu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Clark, Dalian, Denpasar, Dhaka, Gold Coast, Guangzhou, Haikou, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbin (begins 1 December 2017),[42] Hat Yai, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Honolulu (begins 19 December 2017),[43] Hyderabad, Ipoh, Jaipur, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Jeddah, Jinan, Kalibo, Kaohsiung, Kochi, Krabi, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kuantan (begins 2 February 2018),[44] Kuching, Langkawi, Lucknow, Macau, Malé, Manila, Melbourne, Nanjing, Nanning, Ningbo, Osaka–Kansai, Palembang (begins 23 November 2017),[45] Penang, Perth, Phuket, Qingdao, Quanzhou, Sapporo–Chitose, Seoul–Incheon, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tiruchirapalli, Tokyo–Narita, Wuxi, Xi'an, Zhengzhou
Shenzhen Airlines Shenzhen
Siam Air Bangkok–Don Mueang
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu
SilkAir Balikpapan, Bandung, Bangalore, Cairns, Cebu, Changsha, Chengdu, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Coimbatore, Colombo, Da Nang, Darwin, Davao, Denpasar, Fuzhou, Hanoi, Hiroshima, Hyderabad, Kalibo, Kathmandu, Kochi, Koh Samui, Kolkata, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur–International, Kunming, Langkawi, Lombok, Luang Prabang, Makassar, Malé, Manado, Mandalay, Medan, Palembang (ends 20 November 2017),[45] Pekanbaru, Penang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Semarang, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Surabaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Vientiane, Visakhapatnam, Wuhan, Xiamen, Yangon, Yogyakarta
Seasonal Charter: Naha
SilkAir
operated for Air Timor
Dili
SilkAir
operated for Singapore Airlines
Bandar Seri Begawan
Singapore Airlines Adelaide, Ahmedabad, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Barcelona, Beijing–Capital, Brisbane, Bandar Seri Begawan, Canberra, Cape Town, Chennai, Christchurch, Colombo, Copenhagen, Delhi, Denpasar, Dhaka, Dubai–International, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Houston–Intercontinental, Ho Chi Minh City, Istanbul–Atatürk, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Johannesburg–O.R. Tambo, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur–International, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Malé, Manchester, Manila, Melbourne, Milan–Malpensa, Moscow–Domodedovo, Mumbai, Munich, Nagoya–Centrair, New York–JFK, Osaka–Kansai, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Perth, Rome–Fiumicino, San Francisco, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Stockholm–Arlanda, Surabaya, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Wellington, Yangon, Zürich
Seasonal: Sapporo–Chitose
Spring Airlines Guangzhou, Shanghai–Pudong
SriLankan Airlines Colombo
Sriwijaya Air Charter: Tanjung Pandan (begins 15 December 2017; ends 5 January 2018)[46]
Swiss International Air Lines
operated by Swiss Global Air Lines
Zürich
Thai AirAsia Bangkok–Don Mueang, Krabi, Phuket
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi
Thai Lion Air Bangkok–Don Mueang
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk
United Airlines Los Angeles, San Francisco
US-Bangla Airlines Dhaka
Uzbekistan Airways Kuala Lumpur–International, Tashkent
VietJet Air Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
West Air Chongqing, Urumqi
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Xiamen
  1. ^ Air Mauritius flight continues on to Kuala Lumpur. However, Air Mauritius does not have Fifth freedom rights to carry passengers solely between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur.
  2. ^ Garuda Indonesia operates some outbound flights from Jakarta to Amsterdam via Singapore due to runway restrictions in Jakarta, but all return flights are nonstop.

Cargo[edit]

Airlines Destinations
AirBridgeCargo Hong Kong, Moscow–Sheremetyevo, Phnom Penh[47][48]
Air Hong Kong Hong Kong[49]
ANA Cargo Hong Kong, Naha,[50] Tokyo–Narita
Asiana Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège, Shanghai–Pudong
Cardig Air Balikpapan, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta[51]
Cargolux Anchorage, Baku, Chicago–O'Hare, Doha, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur–International, Luxembourg
Cathay Pacific Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Penang
China Airlines Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Manila, Penang, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Chengdu, Shanghai–Pudong
DHL Aviation
operated by AeroLogic
Bangalore, Leipzig/Halle[52]
DHL Aviation
operated by Polar Air Cargo
Anchorage, Cincinnati, Hong Kong, Seoul–Incheon[53]
Emirates SkyCargo Dubai–Al Maktoum,[54] Melbourne, Sydney
Etihad Cargo[55][56] Abu Dhabi, Brisbane, Sydney
EVA Air Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Penang, Taipei–Taoyuan[57]
FedEx Express Anchorage, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Memphis, Osaka–Kansai, Penang, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Garuda Indonesia Cargo Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Medan, Surabaya
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong[58]
Korean Air Cargo Hanoi, Penang, Seoul–Incheon
K-Mile Air Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi[59]
My Indo Airlines Balikpapan, Jakarta–Halim Perdanakusuma, Surabaya[60]
Neptune Air Kuala Lumpur-International[61]
Nippon Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Osaka–Kansai, Tokyo–Narita
Singapore Airlines Cargo Adelaide, Amsterdam, Auckland, Bangalore, Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Brussels, Chennai, Coimbatore, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Hanoi,[62] Hong Kong, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Johannesburg–OR Tambo, London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Medan, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nairobi–Jomo Kenyatta, Nanjing, Sharjah, Sydney
Silk Way West Airlines Baku,[63] Dubai–Al Maktoum[64]
Transmile Air Services Kuala Lumpur–International, Labuan
Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines Balikpapan, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Turkish Airlines Cargo Istanbul–Atatürk, Karachi
UPS Airlines Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Sydney, Taipei–Taoyuan

Operational statistics[edit]

Singapore Changi Airport - Passenger Movements (1998–2015)
Singapore Changi Airport - Airfreight Movements (1998–2015)
Singapore Changi Airport - Aircraft Movements (1998–2015)
Operational statistics
Year Passenger
movements
Passenger %
Change Over
Previous Year
Airfreight
movements
(tonnes)
Airfreight %
Change Over
Previous Year
Aircraft
movements
Aircraft %
Change Over
Previous Year
1998 23,803,180 Steady 0.00% 1,283,660 Steady 0.00% 165,242 Steady 0.00%
1999 26,064,645 Increase 9.50% 1,500,393 Increase 16.8% 165,961 Increase 0.43%
2000 28,618,200 Increase 9.79% 1,682,489 Increase 12.1% 173,947 Increase 4.81%
2001 28,093,759 Decrease 1.83% 1,507,062 Decrease 11.6% 179,359 Increase 3.11%
2002 28,979,344 Increase 3.15% 1,637,797 Increase 8.67% 174,820 Decrease 2.53%
2003 24,664,137 Decrease 14.9% 1,611,407 Decrease 1.63% 154,346 Decrease 11.7%
2004 30,353,565 Increase 23.0% 1,775,092 Increase 10.1% 184,932 Increase 19.8%
2005 32,430,856 Increase 6.81% 1,833,721 Increase 3.30% 204,138 Increase 10.3%
2006 35,033,083 Increase 8.02% 1,931,881 Increase 5.35% 214,000 Increase 4.83%
2007 36,701,556 Increase 4.76% 1,918,159 Decrease 0.69% 221,000 Increase 3.27%
2008 37,694,824 Increase 2.70% 1,883,894 Decrease 1.81% 232,000 Increase 4.97%
2009 37,203,978 Decrease 1.30% 1,633,791 Decrease 15.3% 240,360 Increase 3.60%
2010 42,038,777 Increase 13.0% 1,813,809 Increase 11.0% 263,593 Increase 9.66%
2011 46,500,000 Increase 10.6% 1,870,000 Increase 3.14% 301,700 Increase 14.4%
2012 51,181,804 Increase 10.0% 1,806,225 Decrease 3.41% 324,722 Increase 7.63%
2013 53,726,087 Increase 4.97% 1,850,233 Increase 2.43% 343,800 Increase 5.87%
2014 54,093,070 Increase 0.75% 1,843,799 Decrease 0.34% 341,386 Decrease 0.70%
2015 55,448,964 Increase 2.50% 1,853,087 Increase 0.50% 346,334 Increase 1.44%
2016 58,698,039 Increase 5.85% 1,969,434 Increase 6.28% 360,490 Increase 4.09%
Sources:[65][66][67][68][69][70]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 26 March 1991, Singapore Airlines Flight 117, operated by an Airbus A310, was hijacked by four Pakistani terrorists. The flight landed in Changi Airport at 22:15. The Singapore Special Operations Force stormed the plane, on the morning of 27 March. All four hijackers were killed, with no fatalities among the 123 passengers and crew that were held hostage for more than eight hours.
  • On 4 November 2010, Qantas Flight 32, operated by an Airbus A380-800, suffered an uncontained engine failure and made an emergency landing in Changi Airport. Upon landing, one of the engines could not be shut down due to ruptured control cables and had to be doused for three hours by airport firefighters to forcefully shut it down. There were no crew or passenger injuries, and all 469 people on board survived this incident.
  • On 27 June 2016, Singapore Airlines Flight 368, operated by a Boeing 777-300ER, suffered an engine problem while flying from Singapore to Milan. During the diversionary landing in Singapore, the right engine and wing caught fire. The fire was quickly extinguished by airport fire services. There were no injuries among the 241 people on board.
  • On 16 May 2017, a fire broke out at the departure hall in Terminal 2.[71] The fire caused 40 flights at Terminal 2 to be delayed and diverted to Terminal 3.[72] Terminal 2 was closed from 17:30 to 22:45.

Ground transportation[edit]

Changi Airport was built with ground-transportation considerations in mind from the onset, with the East Coast Parkway built and opened in tandem with the airport, providing a direct link to the city-centre. At a distance of about 20 km (12 mi), the expressway was built almost entirely on reclaimed land, thus minimising disruptions to the existing road network in Singapore's East Coast.

Despite the three main passenger terminal buildings being relatively close to each other, the CAAS (Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore) decided to build the Changi Airport Skytrain people-mover system to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers between the terminals for travellers. The system was upgraded in 2007 to with new technologies supplied by Mitsubishi, connecting to Terminal 3 and separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks.

Inter-Terminal Transportation[edit]

The Changi Airport Skytrain operates between Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with a total of seven stations. Trains operate on separate tracks between stations in the airside (transit) areas and in landside (public) areas. This is to segregate passengers who have cleared immigration from public passengers.

External connections[edit]

Mass Rapid Transit[edit]

The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network via a two-stop branch of the East West Line from Tanah Merah MRT Station, consisting of two stations: Expo, serving the nearby Singapore Expo site; and Changi Airport, located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 and directly accessible from both terminals. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002. This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Tanah Merah and Changi Airport via Expo on 22 July 2003,[73] when it was found that passenger demand for this route was low. Passengers need to transfer at Tanah Merah station for train service towards the city or Pasir Ris.

Bus[edit]

Buses were one of the main methods of transport for passengers and staff until the opening of Changi Airport station. Services operated by SBS Transit, SMRT Buses and Go-Ahead Group uses the bus terminals in the basement level of the three main terminals, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminals 1, and 2, and back to their destination of origin. With effect from 22 October 2017, four bus services will call at Terminal 4.[74]

Coaches to and from Johor Bahru are also available. Operated by Transtar Travel, the service will start at coach stands at Terminals 1, 2, 3 and end at Larkin Terminal.

There is also a free shuttle bus service plying between Changi Airport (T3) and Changi Business Park. This service is a 9-stop route, running from Mondays to Fridays, except public holidays.[75]

Taxi[edit]

Taxis are available at taxi stands located in the arrival halls of each terminal. Limousine services are also available.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Runway 02L is 4,000 m (13,000 ft) and 20R is 3,260 m (10,700 ft) with a displaced threshold of 740 m (2,430 ft). Thus aircraft landing on 20R will have to avoid touching down on the displaced threshold but may use it for departures.
  2. ^ Runway 02R/20L is currently closed for development works.[2] Previously, it was restricted to the Republic of Singapore Air Force (see Changi Air Base). It is being extended to 4,000 m (13,000 ft) for commercial use in the future.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ The Official Site of. Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  2. ^ "LOCATION OF RUNWAY 02R/20L IN RELATION TO RUNWAY 02L/20R AND RUNWAY 02C/20C" (PDF). AIP Singapore. Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore. 15 September 2016. p. AD-2-WSSS-ADC-1. 
  3. ^ a b c "Passenger, airfreight & aircraft movements statistics for 2016". Changi Airport Group. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  4. ^ "Singapore Changi Airport named as the World's Best Airport in 2016". Skytrax. 16 March 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  5. ^ "http://www.airlinequality.com/news/best-airports-of-2017-unveiled-at-world-airport-awards/". www.airlinequality.com. Retrieved 15 March 2017.  External link in |title= (help)
  6. ^ "Regulations" (PDF). Caas.gov.sg. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  7. ^ "A billion passengers on, Changi Airport aims higher". The Straits Times. 29 May 2017. 
  8. ^ "Changi Airport reaches 1 billion passengers milestone". Channel NewsAsia. 
  9. ^ "accolades — Changi Airport Group". Changi Airport. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  10. ^ a b "A record 51 million passengers for Changi Airport in 2012" (PDF). Changaiairportgroup.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017. 
  11. ^ "Changi Airport to open Terminal 4 on Oct 31; 9 airlines to operate from new terminal". The Straits Times. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017. 
  12. ^ "Changi Airport's Terminal 5 ready in mid-2020s". Yahoo News Singapore. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  13. ^ "Changi poised to handle 50 million passengers a year by 2012". Channelnewsasia.com. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "changi airfreight center". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  15. ^ a b "Our Divisions". Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS). Archived from the original on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2006. 
  16. ^ Year to date International Freight Traffic. aci.aero
  17. ^ "2013 Awards". Air Cargo World. 2013. Retrieved 9 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Top 10 Changi City Links in 2016". Changi Airport Group. Changi Airport Group. 30 January 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  19. ^ Changi Airport Group Annual Report 2009/10. (PDF) . Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  20. ^ "civil fire stations". Changi Airport Group. Retrieved 12 June 2011. 
  21. ^ "Changi Airport's third ground handling licence awarded to ASIG". Channel NewsAsia. 9 June 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
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Bibliography[edit]

  • Winchester, Clarence, ed. (1938), "Singapore's great airport", Wonders of World Aviation, pp. 128–130 , illustrated description of the newly opened Singapore Airport

External links[edit]

Media related to Singapore Changi Airport at Wikimedia Commons