Changi Airport Skytrain

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Changi Airport Skytrain
Changi Airport Skytrain Exterior.jpg
Changi Airport SkyTrain with special exterior design as part of SG50 celebrations.
Overview
TypeAutomated people mover (APM)
StatusOperational
LocaleSingapore Changi Airport serving Singapore
Stations7
Services5
Operation
Opened1990
OwnerChangi Airport Group
Operator(s)Changi Airport Group
Rolling stockMitsubishi Heavy Industries Crystal Mover
Adtranz C-100 (withdrawn)
Technical
Line length6.4 km (4.0 mi)
Track gauge1,850 mm (6 ft 2732 in) broad gauge
Electrification750 V DC third rail
Route map

Terminal 1
Station C
Station D
Station B
Station E
Terminal 3
Terminal 2
Station A
Station F
Station A South

The Changi Airport Skytrain is an automated people mover (APM) that connects Terminals 1, 2 and 3 at Singapore Changi Airport. Opened in 1990, it was the first driverless and automated system of its kind in Asia (though predated nine years by the Port Liner line in Japan).[1] The Changi Airport Skytrain operates from 0500 to 0230 daily.[2] Traveling on the Skytrain is free and an inter-terminal journey takes approximately four minutes.

Since 2006, the trains operating on all Skytrain lines are Crystal Movers manufactured by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. All stations are equipped with platform screen doors, are air-conditioned and have plasma displays indicating the arrival time of the next train.

With the opening of the Changi Airport MRT Station on 27 February 2002, the Skytrain is able to connect passengers at Terminal 1 to the MRT station entrances located at Terminals 2 and 3.[3]

Rolling stock[edit]

Adtranz C-100[edit]

Interior of a C-100 car on the Skytrain, as seen in the 90s.

Initially, the Skytrain rolling stock consisted of Adtranz C-100s, jointly built by Westinghouse and Adtranz (acquired by Bombardier). Although stations were designed to accommodate two-car trains, the C-100 trains operated in single units, without a second carriage per train, and the two innermost platform screen doors of each station were for emergency purposes (the trains stopped at the outer half of each station, with two doors on each half).

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Crystal Mover[edit]

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Crystal Mover
In serviceMarch 2006–present
ManufacturerMitsubishi Heavy Industries
Family nameCrystal Mover
ReplacedAdtranz C-100
Constructed2002 – 2006
2016 – 2019 (Expansion)
Entered service2006
Number under construction6 vehicles (6 trainsets)
Number built22 vehicles (22 trainsets)
Number in service16 vehicles (16 trainsets)
Formation1 – 3 per trainset
Fleet numbers01 – 22
Capacity8 seated, 107 standing
Operator(s)Changi Airport Group
Depot(s)Terminal 1 Depot
Line(s) servedChangi Airport Skytrain
Specifications
Car body constructionWelded aluminium
Car length11.84 m (38.8 ft)
Width2.8 m (9.2 ft)
Height2.0 m (6.6 ft)
Doors4 per car
Maximum speed60 km/h (37 mph) (design)
50 km/h (31 mph) (service)
Weight15,000 kg (33,000 lb) per car
Traction systemMitsubishi IGBT-VVVF inverter vector control
Traction motorsThree phase AC induction motor 80 kW (110 hp)
Power output160 kW (210 hp)
Acceleration1.0 m/s2 (3.3 ft/s2)
Deceleration1.0 m/s2 (3.3 ft/s2) (service)
1.3 m/s2 (4.3 ft/s2) (emergency)
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Braking system(s)Electric command pneumatic brake with regenerative brake with stand-by brake and parking brake (with variable load control and wheel slide prevention control)
Safety system(s)ATC, ATP and ATO
Coupling systemBergische Stahl Industrie
Track gaugeSide-mounted guideway with rubber tires

In 2002, work began on a new S$135 million Mitsubishi Crystal Mover-based system to accommodate the planned opening of Changi Airport Terminal 3 and the projected increase in demand as the airport expanded.[4] Among the changes, the third rail, formerly at the centre of the track, was moved to the side, and the platform screen doors were fitted with full-height glass panels, which made it easier for passengers to be able to see when the train is arriving. The new system, now with two carriages per train, opened in March 2006 between Terminals 1 and 2; the connection to Terminal 3 opened in November 2007 during Terminal 3's open house.

Exterior design[edit]

The top of the train is painted black, with the bottom of the train painted grey. The side-mounted headlights have a larger surface area, compared to the ones operating on Sengkang LRT Lines and Punggol LRT Lines. The Changi Airport Logo is pasted on the side of each train carriage, with the train fleet number on the middle of each carriage.

Interior design[edit]

Interior of a Crystal Mover carriage

The color of the interior is light-yellow. LCD screens are placed at the end of every car, similar to the unused LCD screens on the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Crystal Mover C810. Unlike all other trains on Singapore's LRT network, it does not have seating in the middle, and only has seating at the end of each train. This is done to allow more floor space for the passenger's luggage, and also for passengers to stand, when the train is crowded. The train that can be boarded, depends on which area one is in. For example, if you were to board from the Public Area, the interior seating color is blue (Sets 01–10), while the Transit Area has an orange color scheme on the seats (Sets 11–16).

In the Public Area, 6 trains will be deployed for service while the 2 trains remain at the depot at Terminal 1 while the other 2 trains will be parked at one of the Terminal 1 Transit Area Station D platforms.

In the Transit Area, 5 trains will be deployed for service while the remaining 1 train remains at the depot at Terminal 3 at Station A South or terminate at one of the Station A platforms.

Train formation[edit]

The configuration of a Mitubishi Crystal Mover in revenue service is M in single car mode and M-M in dual car mode

Cars of Mitubishi Crystal Mover
car type Motor Collector Shoe car length
mm ft in
M 12,550 41 ft 2.1 in|

Redevelopment works[edit]

In 2015, one portion of the Changi Airport Skytrain system connecting Station B and E was suspended due to construction works for the upcoming Jewel Changi Airport. Passengers in the public area will have to use the mezzanine level bridge along Changi Airport MRT Station, and the Skytrain operating between Station A and F in the transit area.[5]

Future expansion[edit]

Plans are in place for future expansions of the system. To increase the system capacity of the Skytrain, six new train cars have been purchased and will be rolled out to the system by 2019. The existing shuttle between Terminals 2 and 3 will be upgraded to a three-car system, whereas the shuttle between Terminal 3 and 3 South will be upgraded to a two-car system.[6]

Terminal 4, opened in 2017, is not served by the Skytrain. However, the future Terminal 5 will have a Skytrain-style underground train system.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Singapore Changi Airport I, II, III". CPG Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  2. ^ "Transfer Between Terminals". www.changiairport.com.
  3. ^ "Changi International Airport". National Library Board. 2001. Archived from the original on 22 April 2007.
  4. ^ "Milestones of Changi Airport". Changi Airport. Archived from the original on 3 January 2007.
  5. ^ "Getting between Terminal 2 & Terminal 3".
  6. ^ "Skytrain at Changi Airport to get systems upgrade, more cabins". Retrieved 2016-05-03.
  7. ^ https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/transport/decades-of-groundwork-for-t5-to-take-flight

External links[edit]