The Changkya Khutukhtu (Mongolian script: Janggiy-a qutuγ-tu, Cyrillic Mongolian: Зангиа Хутагт Zangia Hutagt; Tibetan: ལྕང་སྐྱ་ཧོ་ཐོག་ཐུ།, lcang-skya ho-thog-thu; Chinese: 章嘉呼圖克圖, Zhāngjiā Hūtúkètú) was the title held by the spiritual head of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Mongolia during the Qing dynasty.
The most important lama of this series was the Third Changkya, Rolpai Dorje, who was preceptor to the Qianlong emperor of China, and chief representative of Tibetan Buddhism at the Qing court. He and his successors, mostly based in Beijing, were considered to be the senior Tibetan lamas in China proper and Inner Mongolia. The Seventh Changkya accompanied the Nationalist government to Taiwan in 1949 and died there in 1957.
List of lCang-skya Khutukhtu
Note: In some enumerations, the second Changkya, Ngawang Losang Chöden is counted as the first, the third Rölpé Dorjé as the second, and so on.
- 1607-1641: Changkya Dragpa Öser (lcang skya grags pa 'od zer) 禪克朗塞拉 扎巴俄色 (哲巴鄂色爾)
- 1642-1714: Changkya Ngawang Losang Chöden (lcang skya ngag dbang bLo bzang chos ldan) 阿班羅桑曲殿
- 1717-1786: Changkya Rölpé Dorjé (lcang skya rol pa'i rdo rje) (業西丹畢蓉梅)
- 1787-1846: Changkya Yéshé Tenpé Gyeltsen (lcang skya ye shes bstan pa'i rgyal mtshan) 伊希丹畢堅贊 (業西丹畢鑒贊)
- 1849-1875: Changkya Yéshé Tenpé Nyima (lcang skya ye shes bstan pa'i nyi ma) 葉熙丹壁尼瑪 (業西丹畢呢瑪)
- 1878-1888: Changkya Lozang Tendzin Gyeltsen (lcang skya blo bzang bstan 'dzin rgyal mtshan) 羅藏丹森嘉索
- 1891-1957: Changkya Lozang Penden Tenpé Drönmé (lcang skya blo bzang dpal ldan bstan pa'i sgron me) 靂迎葉錫道爾濟 or 丹貝仲美 (業西丹畢嘉蘇, 羅桑般殿丹畢蓉梅)
- 1980- : Changkya Tendzin Dönyö Yéshé Gyatso (bstan 'dzin don yod ye shes rgya mtsho)
Previous lCang-skya Khutukhtu, named Lozang Penden Tenpé Drönmé, went to Taiwan in 1949. He was reborn in 1980 in Tsongkha region, was ordained at an early age and came to India as a refugee in 1998. He was formally recognized by Dalai Lama on 11 August 1998 and now is residing in the re-established Drepung Monastery, in India.
There also seems to have been another government-endorsed rebirth in the People’s Republic of China.
List of claimed previous incarnations
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This is a list of some of the claimed precursors to, or previous reincarnations of, the Changkya Khutukhtu. The first of these previous incarnations is Channa the charioteer of Prince Sidhartha who later became his student after he had become the Buddha Sakyamuni.
- Channa 尊達
- Samuel, Geoffrey (2012). Introducing Tibetan Buddhism. Introducing World Religions. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-415-45664-7.
- grags pa 'od zer
- ngag dbang blo bzang chos ldan
- The Third Changkya, Rolpai Dorje
- Dalai Lama about Rolpe Dorje Archived October 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- Rölpai Dorje — Teacher of the Empire
- Traditional Guidelines for Translating Buddhist Texts
- rol pa'i rdo rje
- ye shes bstan pa'i rgyal mtshan
- ye shes bstan pa'i nyi ma
- blo bzang bstan 'dzin rgyal mtshan
- blo bzang dpal ldan bstan pa'i sgron me
- bstan 'dzin don yod ye shes rgya mtsho
- 藏傳佛教在台灣的發展 Archived July 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Lcang skya rin po che'i sku phreng rim byon gyi ngo sprod rags bsdus // Bod kyi dus bab, 20 October 1998:3. See Kevin Garratt, "Biography by installment: Tibetan language reportage on the lives of reincarnate lamas", 1995-99; in P. Christiaan Klieger, Tibet, self, and the Tibetan diaspora: voices of difference ; PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: proceedings of the ninth seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies (Leiden 2000). P. 89-90.
- Smith, E. Gene (2001). 'The Life of Lcang skya Rol pa'i rdo rje' in Among Tibetan Texts Boston. Somerville: Wisdom Publications. pp. 133–146. ISBN 0-86171-179-3.
- Sullivan, Brenton (2013). The Mother of All Monasteries: Gönlung Jampa Ling and the Rise of Mega Monasteries in Northeastern Tibet (Ph.D.). University of Virginia.