Changzhi

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Changzhi
长治市
Ch'ang-chih
长治八一广场北侧-2007 - panoramio.jpg
Location of Changzhi City jurisdiction in Shanxi
Location of Changzhi City jurisdiction in Shanxi
Changzhi is located in Shanxi
Changzhi
Changzhi
Location of the city center in Shanxi
Coordinates (Changzhi government): 36°11′42″N 113°07′01″E / 36.195°N 113.117°E / 36.195; 113.117Coordinates: 36°11′42″N 113°07′01″E / 36.195°N 113.117°E / 36.195; 113.117
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShanxi
County-level divisions13
Incorporated (city)1945.10
Municipal seatChengqu (Urban District)
Government
 • TypePrefecture-level city
 • Communist Party Committee Secretary of Changzhi CityMa, Tianrong (马天荣)
 • MayorXi, Xiaojun (席小军)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city13,976 km2 (5,396 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,619 km2 (1,011 sq mi)
 • Metro
818 km2 (316 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city3,180,884
 • Density230/km2 (590/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,687,952
 • Urban density640/km2 (1,700/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,214,940
 • Metro density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
046000
Area code(s)0355
ISO 3166 codeCN-SX-04
Licence Plate Prefix晋D
Administrative division code140400
WebsiteOfficial website

Changzhi (simplified Chinese: 长治; traditional Chinese: 長治; pinyin: Chángzhì; lit. 'long rule') is a prefecture-level city in the southeast of Shanxi Province, China, bordering the provinces of Hebei and Henan to the northeast and east, respectively. Historically, the city was one of the 36 administrative areas (see Administrative Divisions of Qin Dynasty) extant under the reign of the first emperor of a unified China (see Qin Shi Huang).

Nowadays, Changzhi is a transportation centre in Shanxi. Transportations is facilitated by: four controlled-access highways, (Taiyuan-Changzhi, Changzhi-Jincheng, Changzhi-Linfen, and Changzhi-Handan); two railways, (Taiyuan–Jiaozuo Railway and Handan–Changzhi Railway ); three national highways, China National Highway 207, 208 and 309; and Changzhi Wangcun Airport (ITAT Code: CIH, ICAO Code: ZBCZ). Internal transportation also includes a bus and taxi network.

The city is a rising commercial and industrial centre in the southeastern area of Shanxi. In 2011, its GDP ranked 1st out of 11 prefecture-level cities in the province.[2] According to the latest census, in 2020 the city was home to 3,180,884 residents whom 1,214,940 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Luzhou and Shangdang Districts. The other 2 urban districts Tunliu and Lucheng are not conurbated yet.

History[edit]

In ancient times the area around Changzhi (Including Jincheng) was known as Shangdang.[3] Changzhi was the site of the Shangdang Campaign, the first battle between the Kuomintang and the People's Liberation Army after the end of World War II. The campaign began in August 1945 and lasted until October. It began when the local Shanxi warlord, Yan Xishan, attempted to retake the region from Communist forces. Yan's forces were eventually defeated by an army led by Liu Bocheng, who was later named one of China's Ten Great Marshals. Liu's political commissar was Deng Xiaoping, who later became China's "paramount leader". The campaign ended with the complete destruction of Yan's army (Jingsui army, 晋绥军), most of which joined the Communists after surrendering. Following the Shangdang Campaign, the Communists remained in control of the region until they won the civil war in 1949.[3]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Map including Changzhi (labeled as CH'ANG-CHIH (LUAN) (walled) 長治) (AMS, 1955)

The area under the control of People's Government of Changzhi City is divided into 12 county-level administration zone. They are 4 districts Luzhou, Lucheng, Shangdang, and Tunliu; and 8 counties Xiangyuan County, Pingshun County, Licheng County, Huguan County, Zhangzi County, Wuxiang County, Qin County, and Qinyuan County.

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Luzhou District 潞州区 Lùzhōu Qū 706,000 340.6 2072.8
Lucheng District 潞城区 Lùchéng Qū 210,000 615 341
Shangdang District 上党区 Shàngdǎng Qū 320,000 483 663
Tunliu District 屯留区 Túnliú Qū 240,000 1,042 230
Xiangyuan County 襄垣县 Xiāngyuán Xiàn 250,000 1,158 216
Pingshun County 平顺县 Píngshùn Xiàn 160,000 1,550 103
Licheng County 黎城县 Líchéng Xiàn 160,000 1,166 137
Huguan County 壶关县 Húguān Xiàn 280,000 1,013 276
Zhangzi County 长子县 Zhǎngzǐ Xiàn 340,000 1,029 330
Wuxiang County 武乡县 Wǔxiāng Xiàn 210,000 1,610 130
Qin County 沁县 Qìn Xiàn 170,000 1,297 131
Qinyuan County 沁源县 Qìnyuán Xiàn 150,000 2,556 59
  • Defunct - Jiao District (Chinese: 郊区; pinyin: Jiāoqū) is largely made up of suburban surround the city center of the metropolitan area.

Geography[edit]

A view of the Taihang Mountains in Changzhi

Changzhi is located in southeastern Shanxi province, along the southern section of the Taihang Mountains.[4] The majority of the city's area is mountainous, and much of the remaining geography is hilly in nature.[4] The average elevation in the city is approximately 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) above sea level, with prominent peaks including Liyu Mountain (Chinese: 历峪山; pinyin: Lìyù Shān) and Shigao Mountain (Chinese: 石膏山; pinyin: Shígāo Shān), reaching 2,012 metres (6,601 ft) and 2,541 metres (8,337 ft) above sea level, respectively.[4]

Climate[edit]

Changzhi has a rather dry, monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa),[5] with cold and very dry winters, and very warm, somewhat humid summers. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −4.7 °C (23.5 °F) in January to 22.5 °C (72.5 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 9.89 °C (49.8 °F). Typifying the influence of the East Asian Monsoon, a majority of the annual 547 millimetres (21.5 in) of precipitation occurs from June to August.

Climate data for Changzhi (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
5.3
(41.5)
10.9
(51.6)
19.0
(66.2)
24.1
(75.4)
27.6
(81.7)
28.2
(82.8)
26.7
(80.1)
22.7
(72.9)
17.2
(63.0)
10.0
(50.0)
3.7
(38.7)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.7
(23.5)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.2
(39.6)
11.9
(53.4)
17.3
(63.1)
21.1
(70.0)
22.5
(72.5)
20.8
(69.4)
16.2
(61.2)
10.5
(50.9)
3.3
(37.9)
−3.0
(26.6)
9.9
(49.8)
Average low °C (°F) −9.9
(14.2)
−6.4
(20.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.7
(42.3)
11.1
(52.0)
15.1
(59.2)
17.6
(63.7)
16.2
(61.2)
10.9
(51.6)
4.8
(40.6)
−2.0
(28.4)
−8.0
(17.6)
4.5
(40.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.2
(0.20)
9.0
(0.35)
18.2
(0.72)
24.7
(0.97)
52.9
(2.08)
72.1
(2.84)
123.2
(4.85)
119.0
(4.69)
65.1
(2.56)
35.9
(1.41)
16.0
(0.63)
5.9
(0.23)
547.2
(21.53)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.3 4.4 6.7 5.3 8.8 10.5 13.8 12.1 6.7 6.3 4.5 3.1 85.5
Average relative humidity (%) 53 54 53 49 55 61 76 79 74 65 58 54 61
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[6]
Source 2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971–2000)[7]

Pollution[edit]

Changzhi's air quality index is monitored by China's Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP)[8] and city government. A record of daily air quality is published by the local government.[9]

In 2013, a major chemical spill occurred at a fertilizer plant in Changzhi operated by Tianji Coal Chemical Industry Group, polluting major waterways in the region, and impacting areas downstream, such as the city of Handan.[10] Government officials in Handan blamed the city government of Changzhi for covering up the spill for five days, and remaining silent on the spill for the subsequent two months.[10] In February 2013, the Xinhua News Agency announced the results of an official investigation into the spill, resulting in the punishment of 39 people, including then-mayor of Changzhi, Zhang Bao, who was removed from his position.[10]

In 2019, officials from the Shanxi Provincial Government publicly reprimanded officials from seven cities within the province, including Changzhi, following a noticeable spike in pollution.[11]

Education[edit]

Higher education[edit]

High schools[edit]

  • Changzhi No.1 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.2 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.3 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.4 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.5 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.6 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.7 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.8 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.9 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.10 Middle School
  • Changzhi Experimental Middle School
  • Changzhi No.12 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.13 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.14 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.15 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.16 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.17 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.18 Middle School
  • Changzhi No.19 Middle School
  • Tai-Hang Middle School (Subsidiary Middle School of Changzhi College)

Transportation[edit]

Expressways[edit]

Portions of three National Highways run through Changzhi: China National Highway 207, China National Highway 208, and China National Highway 309.[4] National Highways 207 and 208 run along a north-south axis, while National Highway 309 runs along a west-east axis.[4]

Other major expressways which run through Changzhi include the Changzhi-Handan Expressway [zh], and expressways which link the city to Handan, Jincheng, and Taiyuan.[4] The Changzhi-Linfen Expressway [zh] also runs through the city.[12]

Railway[edit]

Airport[edit]

External links[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "China: Shānxī (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ Statistics Report of Changzhi Economy in 2011 (In Chinese)
  3. ^ a b Lew, Christopher R. The Third Chinese Revolutionary War, 1945-1949: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership. The USA and Canada: Routelage. 2009, p.22–23. ISBN 0-415-77730-5
  4. ^ a b c d e f 地理位置 [Geographic Position] (in Chinese). Changzhi Municipal People's Government. 2013-12-18. Archived from the original on 2017-06-06. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
  5. ^ Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., and McMahon, T. A.: Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1633-1644, doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007, 2007.
  6. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2018-11-09.
  7. ^ 长治城市介绍以及气候背景分析. weather.com.cn (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  8. ^ "Air Quality Database of Key Cities in China, in Chinese". Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
  9. ^ Changzhi City Environmental Protection Archived 2013-12-30 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ a b c Wong, Edward (2013-03-02). "Spill in China Underlines Environmental Concerns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2021-06-03. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
  11. ^ "China coal hub Shanxi slams seven cities for pollution spike in 2019". Reuters. 2019-06-21. Archived from the original on 2021-06-03. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
  12. ^ 山西里程最长的高速公路长临高速预计10月全线通车 [Shanxi’s longest expressway, Changlin Expressway, is expected to open to traffic in October]. The Paper (in Chinese). 2018-08-06. Archived from the original on 2021-06-03. Retrieved 2021-06-02.