History and origin
After the accession of Chach of Alor all the four outlying provinces which Hieun Tsang saw as parts of Sind, declared independence. Since he saw a Sudra ruling Sind, Chach may have ascended the throne after 640 A.D. and the four provinces rebelled on his usurpation. Among the tribes, which raised this rebellion, Chachnama mentions Sama, Sahta, Channa, Lohana and Jats. It seems that the rebellion was subdued by winning over Buddhist priests (Shamanis), as Arabs saw most of forts held by them in 711 CE. The powerful Governor of Bahmanabad, Agham Lohana, was defeated and killed. The Jat, the Lohana, the Sama, Sahta and the Channa tribes who were mainly Buddhists refused to acknowledge the over lordship of the Hindu Raja.
- Panhwar, M. H. (1983). Chronological Dictionary of Sindh. Islamabad, Pakistan: Institute of Sindhlogy, University of Sind Jamshoro, in collaboration with Academy of Letters, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Education. p. 703.
- Bukhari, Mastoor Fatima (2010). "Development of Buddhism and its Cultural Influence on the Religious Beliefs and Practices of Successive Periods in Sindh" (PDF). Department of General History / University of Karachi, Karachi. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
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