Channel 4

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This article is about the British television station. For other uses, see Channel 4 (disambiguation).
Channel 4
Channel 4 logo 2015.svg
Launched 2 November 1982; 33 years ago (1982-11-02)
Owned by Channel Four Television Corporation
Picture format 576i (SDTV 16:9)
1080i (HDTV 16:9)
Audience share 4.55%
0.77% (+1) (September 2015 (2015-09), BARB)
Country United Kingdom
Sister channel(s) 4seven
Film4
E4
More4
4Music
Box Upfront
The Box
Box Hits
Kerrang!
Kiss
Magic
Timeshift service Channel 4 +1
Channel 4 +1 HD
Website www.channel4.com
Availability
Terrestrial
Freeview Channel 4
Channel 7 (Wales)
Channel 13 (+1)
Channel 104 (HD)
Channel 109 (+1 HD)
Satellite
Freesat Channel 104 (SD)
Channel 120 (Wales)
Channel 121 (+1)
Channel 126 (HD)
Sky (UK) Channel 104 (SD)
Channel 117 (Wales)
Channel 135 (+1)
Channel 227 (HD)
Sky (Ireland) Channel 135
Channel 136 (+1)
Astra 2E 10714 H 22000 5/6
10729 V 22000 5/6 (+1)
Astra 2F 11127 V 22000 5/6 (HD)
Cable
Virgin Media (UK) Channel 104 (SD)
Channel 143 (+1)
Channel 142 (HD)
Virgin Media (Ireland) Channel 111
Channel 142 (HD)
Cablecom
(Switzerland)
Channel 163 (CH-D)
WightFibre Channel 4
IPTV
Swisscom TV
(Switzerland)
Channel arbitrary
Streaming media
All 4 Watch live
TVPlayer Watch live (UK only)
Sky Go
Watch live (UK and Ireland only)
Virgin TV Anywhere Watch live (UK only)
Watch live (+1, UK only)
C4 Headline (typeface used by Channel 4)

Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although largely commercially self-funded, it is ultimately publicly owned; originally a subsidiary of the Independent Broadcasting Authority (IBA),[1] the station is now owned and operated by Channel Four Television Corporation, a public corporation of the Department for Culture, Media & Sport,[2] which was established in 1990 and came into operation in 1993. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time.

The channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC's two services and the single commercial broadcasting network, ITV.

History[edit]

Conception[edit]

Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, and ITV. The Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, and Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982.

The notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955; the idea of an "ITV2" was long expected and pushed for. Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare channel called "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 finally became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take. It was most likely politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of almost three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality.[3] With what can crudely be summed up as a clash of ideologies between an expansion of ITV's commercial ethos and a public service approach more akin to the BBC, it was ultimately something of a compromise that eventually led to the formation of Channel 4 as launched in 1982.

One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had already been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was highly anticipated.[3] This led to very good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions; a stark contrast to the problems associated with Channel 5's launch fourteen and a half years later[citation needed].

Wales[edit]

Main article: S4C

At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes, then only catered for at 'off peak' times on BBC Wales and HTV. The campaign was taken so seriously by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans.[4]

The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru (S4C) (Channel Four Wales). Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC, or independent companies. Initially limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010.

Since then, carriage on digital cable, satellite and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available.

Launch and IBA control[edit]

The first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia, who intoned, "Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you: Welcome to Channel Four", before heading into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by Lord David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; it is still running to this day. The first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Carol Vorderman and was a lexicographer only ever identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words "As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins." On its first day, Channel 4 also broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003.

On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.

In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period, especially under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives,[5] which it premiered over several episodes in 1984. The channel often did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 for many years had a poorer quality signal compared to other channels.[where?][citation needed]

Channel 4 also began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time.

In 1992, Channel 4 also faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in the documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife.[6]

Channel Four Television Corporation[edit]

Channel 4 headquarters in London.

After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Company to the Channel Four Television Corporation in 1993, a shift in broadcasting style took place. Instead of aiming for the fringes of society, it began to focus on the edges of the mainstream, and the centre of the mass market itself.[citation needed] It began to show many US programmes in peak viewing time, far more than it had previously done. It gave such shows as Friends and ER their UK premières.

In the early 2000s, Channel 4 began broadcasting reality formats such as Big Brother and obtained the rights to broadcast mass appeal sporting events like cricket and horse racing. This new direction increased ratings and revenues.

In addition, the corporation launched a number of new television channels through its new 4Ventures offshoot, including Film4, At the Races, E4 and More4.

Partially in reaction to its new 'populist' direction, the Communications Act 2003 directed the channel to demonstrate innovation, experimentation and creativity, appeal to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society and to include programmes of an educational nature which exhibit a distinctive character.[7]

On 31 December 2004, Channel 4 launched a new look and new idents in which the logo is disguised as different objects and the 4 can be seen in an angle.

Under the leadership of Freeview founder Andy Duncan, 2005 saw a change of direction for Channel 4's digital channels. Channel 4 made E4 free-to-air on digital terrestrial television, and launched a new free-to-air digital channel called More4. By October, Channel 4 had joined the Freeview consortium.[8] By July 2006, Film4 had also become a 'free to air' and restarted broadcasting on digital terrestrial.[9]

Venturing into radio broadcasting, 2005 saw Channel 4 purchase 51 per cent of shares in the now defunct Oneword radio station with UBC Media holding on to the remaining shares. New programmes such as the weekly, half-hour The Morning Report news programme were among some of the new content Channel 4 provided for the station, with the name 4Radio being used. As of early 2009, however, Channel 4's future involvement in radio remained uncertain.

On 2 November 2007, the station celebrated its twenty-fifth birthday. It showed the first episode of Countdown, an anniversary Countdown special, as well as a special edition of The Big Fat Quiz and using the original multicoloured 1982–1996 blocks logo on presentation and idents using the Fourscore jingle throughout the day.

In November 2009, Channel 4 launched a week of 3D television, broadcasting selected programmes each night using stereoscopic ColorCode 3D technology. The accompanying 3D glasses were distributed through Sainsbury's supermarkets.[10]

On 29 September 2015, Channel 4 revamped its presentation for a fifth time; the new branding downplays the "4" logo from most on-air usage, and instead utilizes various variations of the shapes which comprise the logo.[11] The full logo is still occasionally used, but primarily for print advertising. Four new idents, filmed by Jonathan Glazer, are used to introduce programmes and feature various elements of the blocks within them. A fifth ident, in which hundreds of the blocks form what appears to be a clock face, is used to introduce the Channel 4 News.[12]

Future[edit]

Channel 4 has raised concerns over how it might finance its public service obligations after digital switch-over. However, some certainty lies in the announcement in April 2006 that Channel 4's digital switch-over costs would be paid for by licence fee revenues.[13]

On 28 March 2007, Channel 4 announced plans to launch a music channel "4Music" as a joint venture with British media company EMAP which would include carriage on the Freeview platform. On 15 August 2008, 4Music was launched across the UK.[14] Recently[when?], Channel 4 have announced interest in launching a high-definition version of Film4 on Freeview, to coincide with the launch of Channel 4 HD,[15][16] however the fourth HD slot was given to Channel 5 instead.[17] Channel 4 has since acquired a 50% stake in EMAP's TV business for a reported £28 million.[18]

Channel 4 was considered for privatisation by the governments of Margaret Thatcher, John Major and Tony Blair.[19] As of 2016 the future of the channel is again being looked into by the government, with analysts suggesting several options for the channel's future.[19]

Public service remit[edit]

Channel 4 was established with, and continues to hold, a remit of public service obligations which it must fulfil. The remit changes periodically, as dictated by various broadcasting and communications acts, and is regulated by the various authorities Channel 4 has been answerable to; originally the IBA, then the ITC and now Ofcom.

The preamble of the remit as per the Communications Act 2003 states that:

"The public service remit for Channel 4 is the provision of a broad range of high quality and diverse programming which, in particular:

  • demonstrates innovation, experiment and creativity in the form and content of programmes;
  • appeals to the tastes and interests of a culturally diverse society;
  • makes a significant contribution to meeting the need for the licensed public service channels to include programmes of an educational nature and other programmes of educative value; and
  • exhibits a distinctive character."[7][20]

The remit also involves an obligation to provide programming for schools,[21] and a substantial amount of programming produced outside of Greater London.[22]

Carriage[edit]

Channel 4 was carried from its beginning on analogue terrestrial, which was practically the only means of television broadcast in the United Kingdom at the time. It continued to be broadcast through these means until the changeover to digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom was complete. Since 1998, it has been universally available on digital terrestrial, and the Sky platform (initially encrypted, though encryption was dropped on 14 April 2008 and is now free of charge and available on the Freesat platform) as well as having been available from various times in various areas, on analogue and digital cable networks.

Due to its special status as a public service broadcaster with a specific remit, it is afforded free carriage on the terrestrial platforms,[23] in contrast with other broadcasters such as ITV.[24]

Channel 4 is also available outside the United Kingdom where it is widely available in Ireland, Switzerland[25] and Belgium. Here viewers receive the channel either on basic cable subscription services or premium services.

Channel 4 Ulster has been available in large parts of Ireland, especially border counties which have been able to receive terrestrial transmissions from Northern Ireland. Channel 4 Ulster has been carried on Irish cable networks since the station went on the air in 1982. S4C has been available as a terrestrial transmission from Wales in southern counties such as Cork, Waterford, Wexford and Wicklow.

From 4 December 2006 Channel 4 was officially available to Sky viewers in Ireland; some programmes, mainly imports, are not aired on this channel variant, due to Channel 4 not owning the relevant broadcast rights within the country.

Channel 4 allowed Internet users in the United Kingdom to watch Channel 4 live on the Internet.[citation needed] However some programmes (mostly international imports) were not shown and this service no longer exists. Channel 4 is also provided by Virgin Mobile's DAB mobile TV service which has the same restrictions as the Internet live stream had. Channel 4 is also carried by the Internet TV service TVCatchup[26] and was previously carried by Zattoo until the operator removed the channel from its platform.[27]

Channel 4 also makes some of its programming available "on demand" via cable and the Internet through All 4.

Funding[edit]

During the station's formative years, funding came from the ITV companies in return for their right to sell advertisements in their region on the fourth channel.

Nowadays it pays for itself in much the same way as most privately run commercial stations, i.e. through the sale of on-air advertising, programme sponsorship, and the sale of any programme content and merchandising rights it owns, such as overseas sales and video sales. For example, as of 2012 its total revenues were £925 million with 91% derived from sale of advertising.[28] It also has the ability to subsidise the main network through any profits made on the corporation's other endeavours, which have in the past included subscription fees from stations such as E4 and Film4 (now no longer subscription services) and its 'video-on-demand' sales. In practice, however, these other activities are loss-making, and are subsidised by the main network. According to Channel 4's last published accounts, for 2005, the extent of this cross-subsidy was some £30 million.[29]

The change in funding came about under the Broadcasting Act 1990 when the new corporation was afforded the ability to fund itself. Originally this arrangement left a 'safety net' guaranteed minimum income should the revenue fall too low, funded by large insurance payments made to the ITV companies. Such a subsidy was never required, however, and these premiums were phased out by the government in 1998. After the link with ITV was cut, the cross-promotion which had existed between ITV and Channel 4 also ended.

In 2007 due to severe funding difficulties, the channel sought government help and was granted a payment of £14 million over a six-year period. The money would have come from the television licence fee and would have been the first time that money from the licence fee had been given to any broadcaster other than the BBC.[30] The plan was scrapped by The Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Andy Burnham, ahead of "broader decisions about the future framework of public service broadcasting".[31] The broadcasting regulator Ofcom released their review in January 2009 in which they suggested that Channel 4 would preferably be funded by "partnerships, joint ventures or mergers".[32]

Programming[edit]

Channel 4 is a "publisher-broadcaster", meaning that it commissions or "buys" all of its programming from companies independent of itself, and was the first broadcaster in the United Kingdom to do so on any significant scale; such commissioning is a stipulation which is included in its licence to broadcast.[21] This had the consequence of starting an industry of production companies that did not have to rely on owning an ITV licence to see their programmes air, though since Channel 4, external commissioning has become regular practise on the numerous stations that have launched since, as well as on the BBC and in ITV (where a quota of 25% minimum of total output has been imposed since the 1990 Broadcasting Act came into force). Ironically, having been the first British broadcaster to completely commission its programmes from third parties, Channel 4 was the last terrestrial broadcaster to outsource its transmission and playout operations (to Red Bee Media), after 25 years in-house.[33]

The requirement to obtain all content externally is stipulated in its licence.[20] Additionally, Channel 4 also began a trend of owning the copyright and distribution rights of the programmes it aired, in a manner that is similar to the major Hollywood studios' ownership of television programs that they did not directly produce[citation needed]. Thus, although Channel 4 does not produce programmes, many are seen as belonging to it.

It was established with a specific intention of providing programming to groups of minority interests, not catered for by its competitors, which at the time were only the BBC and ITV.[3]

Channel 4 also pioneered the concept of stranded programming, where seasons of programmes following a common theme would be aired and promoted together. Some would be very specific, and run for a fixed period of time; the 4 Mation season, for example, showed innovative animation. Other, less specific strands, were (and still are) run regularly, such as T4, a strand of programming aimed at teenagers, on weekend mornings (and weekdays during school/college holidays); Friday Night Comedy, a slot where the channel would pioneer its style of comedy commissions, 4Music (now a separate channel) and 4Later, an eclectic collection of offbeat programmes transmitted to a cult audience in the early hours of the morning.

In its earlier years, Red Triangle was the name given to the airing of certain risqué art-house films due to the use of a red triangle DOG in the upper right of the screen, dubbed as being pornographic by many of Channel 4's critics, while general broadcasting of films on the station for many years came under the banner of Film on Four prior to the launch of the FilmFour brand and station in the late 1990s.

The station's critically acclaimed news service, Channel 4 News, is supplied by ITN while its long-standing investigative documentary, Dispatches, causes perennial media attention. It was also one of the first broadcasters to put its name on the introduction or end credits of programmes that it did not produce, a practice that is now widespread.

Most watched programmes[edit]

The following is a list of the ten most watched shows on Channel 4 since launch, based on Live +7 data supplied by BARB,[34] and archival data published by Channel 4.[35]

Rank Series title Viewers (millions) Date
1 A Woman of Substance 13.9 1 April 1985
2 Four Weddings and a Funeral 12.4 15 November 1995
3 Gregory's Girl 10.75 8 January 1985
4 Big Brother 10.01 26 July 2002
5 Big Fat Gypsy Weddings 9.71 8 February 2011
6 Friends 9.64 28 May 2004
7 Big Brother 9.45 15 September 2000
8 Nuns on the Run 9.20 18 April 1993
9 Big Brother 8.98 6 August 2004
10 The Grand National 2013 8.98 6 April 2013

Comedy[edit]

During the station's early days screenings of innovative short one-off comedy films produced by a rotating line-up of alternative comedians went under the title of The Comic Strip Presents. The Tube and Friday Night Live also launched the careers of a number of comedians and writers. Channel 4 broadcast a number of popular American imports including Roseanne, Friends, Sex and the City, South Park and Will & Grace. Other significant US acquisitions include The Simpsons, for which the station was reported to have paid £700,000 per episode for the terrestrial television rights.[citation needed]

In April 2010, Channel 4 became the first UK broadcaster to adapt the American comedy institution of roasting to British television, with A Comedy Roast.[36][37]

In 2010, Channel 4 organised Channel 4's Comedy Gala, a comedy benefit show in aid of Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital. With over 25 comedians appearing, it billed it as "the biggest live stand up show in United Kingdom history". Filmed live on 30 March in front of 14,000 at The O2 Arena in London, it was broadcast on 5 April.[38] This has continued to 2016.

Factual and current affairs[edit]

Channel 4 has a strong reputation for history programmes and real-life documentaries. It has also courted controversy, for example by broadcasting live the first public autopsy in the UK for 170 years, carried out by Gunther von Hagens in 2002, or the 2003 one-off stunt Derren Brown Plays Russian Roulette Live.

Its critically acclaimed news service, Channel 4 News, is supplied by ITN whilst its long-standing investigative documentary, Dispatches, attracts perennial media attention.

FourDocs[edit]

FourDocs is an online documentary site provided by Channel 4. It allows viewers to upload their own documentaries to the site for others to view. It focuses on documentaries of between 3 and 5 minutes. The website also includes an archive of classic documentaries, interviews with documentary filmmakers and short educational guides to documentary-making. It won a Peabody Award in 2006.[39] The site also includes a strand for documentaries of under 59 seconds, called 'Microdocs'.

Schools programming[edit]

Channel 4 is obliged to carry schools programming as part of its remit and licence.[21]

ITV Schools on Channel 4[edit]

Since 1957 ITV had produced schools programming, which became an obligation.[40] In 1987, five years after the station was launched, the IBA afforded ITV free carriage of these programmes during Channel 4's then-unused weekday morning hours. This arrangement allowed the ITV companies to fulfil their obligation to provide schools programming, whilst allowing ITV itself to broadcast regular programs complete with advertisements. During the times in which schools programmes were aired, Channel 4 was effectively operated by ITV, with Central Television providing most of the continuity, and play-out originating from Birmingham.[41]

Channel 4 Schools/4Learning[edit]

After the restructuring of the station in 1993, ITV's obligations to provide such programming on Channel 4's airtime passed to Channel 4 itself, and the new service became Channel 4 Schools, with the new corporation administering the service and commissioning its programmes, some still from ITV, others from independent producers.[42]

In 2000, the service was renamed 4Learning, and in April 2007, the commercial arm and rights exploitation of its programmes and support materials was sold to Espresso Education and the business renamed Channel 4 Learning. Today, the service has diversified into pre-school and adult programmes, with much of its content also available in text and video form via the Internet, or through DVD sales. Its programming runs to around 400 hours per annum. One of its well known programmes is The Hoobs.[citation needed]

In March 2008, the 4Leaning interactive new media commission slabovia.tv was launched. The Slabplayer[dead link] online media player showing TV shows for teenagers was launched on 26 May 2008.

See also: Channel 4 Learning site.

The schools programming has always had elements different to its normal presentational package. In 1993, the Channel 4 Schools idents featured famous people in one category, with light shining on them in front of an industrial looking setting supplemented by instrumental calming music. This changed in 1996 with the circles look to numerous children touching the screen, forming circles of information then picked up by other children. The last child would produce the channel 4 logo in the form of three vertical circles, with another in the middle and to the left containing the Channel 4 logo.

A present feature of presentation was a countdown sequence featuring, in 1993 a slide with the programme name, and afterwards an extended sequence matching the channel branding. In 1996, this was an extended ident with timer in top left corner, and in 1999 following the adoption of the squares look, featured a square with timer slowly make its way across the right of the screen with people learning and having fun while doing so passing across the screen. It finished with the Channel 4 logo box on the right of the screen and the name 'Channel 4 Schools' being shown. This was adapted in 2000 when the services name was changed to '4Learning'. In 2001, this was altered to various scenes from classrooms around the world and different parts of school life. The countdown now flips over from the top, right, bottom and left with each second, and ends with four coloured squares, three of which are aligned vertically to the left of the Channel 4 logo, with is contained inside the fourth box. The tag 'Learning' is located directly beneath the logo. The final countdown sequence lasted between 2004 and 2005 and featured a background video of current controversial issues, overlaid with upcoming programming information. the video features people in the style of graffiti enacting the overuse of CCTV cameras, fox hunting, computer viruses and pirate videos, relationships, pollution of the seas and violent lifestyles. Following 2005, no branded section has been used for school programmes.

Film[edit]

Numerous genres of film-making – such as comedy, drama, documentary, adventure/action, romance and horror/thriller – are represented in the channel's schedule. From the launch of Channel 4 until 1998, film presentations on C4 would often be broadcast under the "Film on Four" banner.

[citation needed] In March 2005, Channel 4 screened the uncut Lars von Trier film The Idiots, which includes unsimulated sexual intercourse, making it the first UK terrestrial channel to do so. The channel had previously screened other films with similar material but censored and with warnings. The broadcast after midnight only raised one complaint and has been taken as an indication of how far audience values have changed since the channel began.

Since 1 November 1998, Channel 4 has had a digital subsidiary channel dedicated to the screening of films. This channel launched as a paid subscription channel under the name "FilmFour", and was relaunched in July 2006 as a free-to-air channel under the current name of "Film4". The Film4 channel carries a wide range of film productions, including acquired and Film4-produced projects. Channel 4's general entertainment channels E4 and More4 also screen feature films at certain points in the schedule as part of their content mix.

Wank Week[edit]

Main article: Wank Week

A season of television programmes about masturbation, called Wank Week, was to be broadcast in the United Kingdom by Channel 4 in March 2007. The first show was about a Masturbate-a-thon, a public mass masturbation event, organised to raise money for the sexual health charity Marie Stopes International. Another film would have focused on compulsive male masturbators and a third was to feature the sex educator Dr Betty Dodson.

The series came under public attack from senior television figures, and was pulled amid claims of declining editorial standards and controversy over the channel's public service broadcasting credentials.[43] However, the films it was meant to showcase may yet be broadcast by the channel at a later date.

Global warming[edit]

On 8 March 2007 Channel 4 screened the highly controversial documentary The Great Global Warming Swindle. The programme states that global warming is "a lie" and "the biggest scam of modern times".[citation needed] The programme's accuracy has been disputed on multiple points and several commentators have criticised it for being one-sided, noting that the mainstream position on global warming is supported by the scientific academies of the major industrialised nations[44] There were 246 complaints to Ofcom as of 25 April 2007,[45] including the complaints that the programme falsified data.[46] The programme has been criticised by scientists and scientific organisations and various scientists which participated in the documentary claimed their views had been distorted.

Against Nature: An earlier controversial Channel 4 programme made by Martin Durkin which was also critical of the environmental movement and was charged by the Independent Television Commission of the UK for misrepresenting and distorting the views of interviewees by selective editing.

The Greenhouse Conspiracy: An earlier Channel 4 documentary broadcast on 12 August 1990, as part of the Equinox series, in which similar claims were made. Three of the people interviewed (Lindzen, Michaels and Spencer) were also interviewed in The Great Global Warming Swindle.

Ahmadinejad's Christmas speech[edit]

In the Christmas address of 2008, a Channel 4 tradition since 1993, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad made a thinly veiled attack on the United States by claiming that Christ would have been against "bullying, ill-tempered and expansionist powers".

A spokeswoman for the FCO said: “President Ahmadinejad has, during his time in office, made a series of appalling anti-Semitic statements. The British media are rightly free to make their own editorial choices, but this invitation will cause offence and bemusement not just at home but among friendly countries abroad.”[47]

Crazy About One Direction[edit]

On 15 August 2013, Channel 4 aired a 45-minute documentary on One Direction and their fans dubbed as "Directioners".[48] Following the airing, fans from all over the world, tweeted in rage against the documentary arguing that this was not them.[49][50]

4Talent[edit]

4Talent is an editorial branch of Channel 4's commissioning wing, which co-ordinates Channel 4's various talent development schemes for film, television, radio, new media and other platforms and provides a showcasing platform for new talent.

There are bases in London, Birmingham, Glasgow and Belfast, serving editorial hubs known respectively as 4Talent National, 4Talent Central England, 4Talent Scotland and 4Talent Northern Ireland. These four sites include features, profiles and interviews in text, audio and video formats, divided into five zones: TV, Film, Radio, New Media and Extras, which covers other arts such as theatre, music and design. 4Talent also collates networking, showcasing and professional development opportunities, and runs workshops, masterclasses, seminars and showcasing events across the UK.

4Talent has an active presence on social networking site Facebook.

See also 4Talent.

4Talent Magazine[edit]

4Talent magazine is the creative industries magazine from 4Talent, which launched in 2005 (originally titled TEN4 magazine) under the editorship of Dan Jones. 4Talent Magazine is currently edited by Nick Carson. Other staff include deputy editor Catherine Bray and production editor Helen Byrne. The magazine covers rising and established figures of interest in the creative industries, a remit including film, radio, TV, comedy, music, new media and design.

Subjects are usually UK-based, with contributing editors based in Northern Ireland, Scotland, London and Birmingham, but the publication has been known to source international content from Australia, America, continental Europe and the Middle East. The magazine is frequently organised around a theme for the issue, for instance giving half of November 2007's pages over to profiling winners of the annual 4Talent Awards.

An unusual feature of the magazine's credits is the equal prominence given to the names of writers, photographers, designers and illustrators, contradicting standard industry practice of more prominent writer bylines. It is also recognisable for its 'wraparound' covers, which use the front and back as a continuous canvas – often produced by guest artists.

Although 4Talent Magazine is technically a newsstand title, a significant proportion of its readers are subscribers. It started life as a quarterly 100-page title, but has since doubled in size and is now published bi-annually.

Regions[edit]

Channel 4 has, since its inception, broadcast identical programmes and continuity throughout the United Kingdom (excluding Wales where it did not operate on analogue transmitters). At launch this made it unique, as both the BBC and ITV had long established traditions of providing regional variations in their programming and announcements between transmitters in different areas of the country (although in the case of BBC2, variations have by and large tended to be limited to national idents as opposed to regional ones). In ITV's case, this was a consequence of its inherent federal structure (see ITV companies). Since the launch of subsequent British television channels, Channel 4 has become typical in its lack of variations of this nature.

A few exceptions exist to this rule for programming and continuity: Ireland has a dedicated variant broadcast on Sky Ireland which omits programmes for which broadcast rights are not held in Ireland. For example, the series Glee is not available on Channel 4 on Sky in Ireland.

Some of Channel 4's schools' programming (1980s/early '90s) were regionalised due to differences in curricula between different regions.[41]

Part of Channel 4's remit covers the commissioning of programmes from outside London. Channel 4 has a dedicated director of nations and regions, Stuart Cosgrove, who is based in a regional office in Glasgow. As his job title suggests, it is his responsibility to foster relations with independent producers based in areas of the United Kingdom (including Wales) outside London.

Advertising on Channel 4 does contain regular variation: prior to 1993, when ITV was responsible for selling Channel 4's advertising, each regional ITV company would provide the content of advertising breaks, covering the same transmitter area as themselves, and these breaks were often unique to that area. After Channel 4 became responsible for its own advertising, it continued to offer advertisers the ability to target particular audiences and divided its coverage area into six regions: London, South, Midlands, North, Northern Ireland and Scotland.[51]

At present, Wales does not have its own advertising region, instead its viewers receive the southern region on digital platforms intentionally broadcast to the area, or the neighbouring region where terrestrial transmissions spill over into Wales. The Republic of Ireland shares its advertising region with Northern Ireland (referred to by Channel 4 as the 'Ulster Macro') with many advertisers selling products for Ireland here.[52] E4 has an advertising variant for Ireland, although Northern Ireland receives the UK version of E4.[52] The six regions are also carried on satellite, cable and Digital Terrestrial.

Channel 5 and ITV Breakfast use a similar model to Channel 4 for providing their own advertising regions, despite also having a single national output of programming.

Future possibility of regional news[edit]

With ITV plc pushing for much looser requirements on the amount of regional news and other programming it is obliged to broadcast in its ITV regions, the idea of Channel 4 taking on a regional news commitment has been considered, with the corporation in talks with Ofcom and ITV over the matter.[53] Channel 4 believe that a scaling-back of such operations on ITV's part would be detrimental to Channel 4's national news operation, which shares much of its resources with ITV through their shared news contractor ITN. At the same time, Channel 4 also believe that such an additional public service commitment would bode well in on-going negotiations with Ofcom in securing additional funding for its other public service commitments.[53]

Channel 4 HD[edit]

Channel 4HD Logo.svg

Previously, in the summer of 2006, Channel 4 ran a six-month closed trial of HDTV, as part of the wider Freeview HD experiment via the Crystal Palace transmitter to London and parts of the home counties,[54] including the use of Lost and Desperate Housewives as part of the experiment, as US broadcasters such as ABC already have an HDTV back catalogue.

On 10 December 2007, Channel 4 launched a high definition television simulcast of Channel 4 on Sky's digital satellite platform, after Sky agreed to contribute toward the channel's satellite distribution costs. It was the first full-time high definition channel from a terrestrial UK broadcaster.[55]

On 31 July 2009, Virgin Media added Channel 4 HD on channel 146 (now on channel 142) as a part of the M pack.[56] On 25 March 2010 Channel 4 HD appeared on Freeview channel 52 with a placeholding caption, ahead of a commercial launch on 30 March 2010, coinciding with the commercial launch of Freeview HD.[57][58] On 19 April 2011, Channel 4 HD was added to Freesat on channel 126.[59] As a consequence, the channel moved from being free-to-view to free-to-air on satellite during March 2011. With the closure of S4C Clirlun in Wales on 1 December 2012, on Freeview, Channel 4 HD launched in Wales on 2 December 2012.[60]

The channel carries the same schedule as Channel 4, broadcasting programmes in HD when available, acting as a simulcast. Therefore, SD programming is broadcast upscaled to HD.

On 1 July 2014, Channel 4 +1 HD, a timeshift of Channel 4 HD, launched on Freeview channel 110.

All 4[edit]

Main article: All 4

All 4 is a video on demand service from Channel 4, launched in November 2006 as 4oD. The service offers a variety of programmes recently shown on Channel 4, E4, More4 or from their archives, though some programmes and movies are not available due to rights issues.

Teletext services[edit]

4-Tel/FourText[edit]

Channel 4 originally licensed an ancillary teletext service to provide schedules, programme information and features. The original service was called 4-Tel, and was produced by Intelfax, a company set up especially for the purpose. It was carried in the 400s on Oracle.[61] In 1993, with Oracle losing its franchise to Teletext Ltd, 4-Tel found a new home in the 300s, and had its name shown in the header row. Intelfax continued to produce the service [61] and in 2002 it was renamed FourText.

Teletext on 4[edit]

In 2003, Channel 4 awarded Teletext Ltd a ten-year contract to run the channel's ancillary teletext service, named Teletext on 4.[62] This has now ceased and Teletext is no longer available on Channel 4, ITV and Channel 5.

Awards and nominations[edit]

In January 2015, Channel 4 was nominated for the Responsible Media of the Year award at the British Muslim Awards.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Channel 4". Gov.uk. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c Russ J Graham (11 September 2005). "Yes it's no". transdiffusion.org. seefour by Electromusications. Retrieved 23 March 2007.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "tbsseefour" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  4. ^ Dafydd Hancock (11 September 2005). "A Channel for Wales". transdiffusion.org. seefour by Electromusications. Retrieved 23 March 2007. 
  5. ^ Robert Ashley-Perfect Lives[dead link]
  6. ^ "BBC News – UK – Victims of the 'silver fox'". 29 August 2000. Retrieved 20 August 2007. 
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  9. ^ "CHANNEL4SALES : NEWS". Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  10. ^ 3D Week – Channel 4
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  12. ^ Cockroft, Steph (1 October 2015). "Missing something? Channel 4 rebrand splits iconic 33-year-old logo into 'elemental blocks' - but, er, where's the '4'?". Daily Mail Online. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  13. ^ Plunkett, John (26 April 2006). "Media registration promo – Media – MediaGuardian.co.uk". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 April 2007. 
  14. ^ Music News | New Music Videos | Celebrity News | Music | 4Music
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  32. ^ Ofcom | Ofcom's Second Public Service Broadcasting Review: Putting Viewers First
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  36. ^ Armstrong, Stephen (5 April 2010). "Channel 4 launches comedy roast shows". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  37. ^ "A Comedy Roast – Series & Episodes". www.channel4.com/programmes/a-comedy-roast/episode-guide. Channel 4. n.d. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
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  39. ^ 66th Annual Peabody Awards, May 2007.
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  41. ^ a b schoolsTV.com History of ITV Schools on Channel 4. Retrieved at the Internet Archive on 16 February 2008 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "itvschools" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
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External links[edit]