Chapacuran languages

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Chapacuran
Chapacura–Wanham
Linguistic classificationWamo–Chapakúra
  • Chapacuran
Subdivisions
  • Madeira
  • Guapore
Glottologchap1271[1]
Chapakuran languages.png

The Chapacuran languages are a nearly extinct Native American language family of South America. There are three living Chapacuran languages which are spoken in the southeastern Amazon Basin of Brazil and Bolivia.

The Chapacuran languages appear to be related to the extinct Wamo language. Almost all Chapacuran languages are extinct, and the four that are extant are moribund.

Languages[edit]

Birchall et al. (2013) classify the dozen known Chapacuran languages as follows:[2]

All languages are rather closely related. Rocorona appears closest to Torá and Moré (Itene), but those do not cluster together in the classification above.

Extinct languages for which Loukotka says 'nothing' is known, but which may have been Chapacuran, include Cujuna, Mataua, Urunumaca, and Herisobocono. Similarities with Mure appear to be loans.[1]

Vocabulary[edit]

Loukotka (1968) lists the following basic vocabulary items for the Chapacuran languages.[3]

gloss Chapacura Itene Itoreauhip Quitemo Nape Wañám Abitana Kumaná Pacahanovo Urupá Yarú Torá
eye tuku-chi to ku-chi tukichuː tükesi tekisí tokú
tooth yati-chi yía iyadi-che yitinchi yititai yatiti yetisi itisí yatí
tongue tapuitaka-chi kapaya kapikaka-che kabíkachu kapiyakati kapiyakati kapiakasi kapiakasí képiat
water akum komo ako akon kúm kum kum kom kom
fire ise iche ise isze iché itsä icha isé iseː ixé
sun huapiito napito mapito papuito mapiito gwapiru mapirú mapitó kumém komém apuetó
star huiüiyao pipiyo pil'ahu pipiáo útin piú pipiyó upiú upió upiú pipiyó
maize xadö mapa kal'ao kal'ao map mapaːk mapaːk mapág mapá mapák
jaguar kiñam ine orahuiko kiñam kiñó kinam kinam kinám komen wakara
bow parami pari pari pani parú pari etsmen mapíp mapip parí

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Chapacuran". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Birchall, Joshua and Dunn, Michael and Greenhill, Simon (2013) An internal classification of the Chapacuran language family.
  3. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: UCLA Latin American Center.