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Characterology (from Greek χαρακτήρ "character" and -λογία, -logia) is a method of character reading that attempted to combine revised physiognomy, reconstructed phrenology and amplified pathognomy, with ethnology, sociology and anthropology. Developed by L. Hamilton McCormick in the 1920s, characterology was an attempt to produce a scientific, objective system to assess an individual's character.

Characterology attempted to resolve flaws in the phrenological systems of Dr. Francis Joseph Gall and Johann Spurzheim. McCormick tried to distance himself from those earlier systems, and wrote extensively about how his ideas improved upon them.

McCormick suggested possible applications for characterology, e.g., advice for parents and educators, guidance in military officer promotions, evaluating thinking patterns (i.e., reason-oriented or memory-oriented ), assessing business associates and competitors, career counseling, and selecting marital partners.

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