A modern charango
|Other names||Quirquincho, Mulita, Tatu, Kirki|
(Composite chordophone sounded by the bare fingers)
|Developed||Early 18th century (perhaps earlier)|
|E4 - (G6)|
|Walaycho; Chillador; Ronroco; et al (see text)|
The charango is a small Andean stringed instrument of the lute family, which probably originated in the Quechua and Aymara populations in post-Columbian times, after European stringed instruments were introduced by the Spanish in the times of the colony. The instrument is widespread today throughout the Andean regions of Ecuador, Bolivia, Peru, northern Chile and northwestern Argentina, where it is a popular musical instrument which exists in many variant forms.
About 66 cm long, the charango was traditionally made with the shell from the back of an armadillo (quirquincho, mulita), but also it can be made of wood, which some believe to be a better resonator. Wood is more commonly used in modern instruments. Charangos for children may also be made from calabash. Many contemporary charangos are now made with different types of wood. It typically has 10 strings in five courses of 2 strings each, but many other variations exist.
The charango is primarily played in traditional Andean music, but is sometimes used by other Latin American musicians. A charango player is called a charanguista.
When the Spanish conquistadores came to South America, they brought the vihuela (an ancestor of the classical guitar) with them. It is not clear whether the charango is a direct descendent of a particular Spanish stringed instrument; it may have evolved from the vihuela, bandurria (mandolin), or the lute. Ernesto Cavour, charanguista, composer, and consulting music historian for many museums around the world, has noted characteristics of the charango in various vihuelas and guitars of the 16th century, and maintains the charango is the direct descendent of the vihuela.
There are many stories of how the charango came to be made with its distinctive diminutive soundbox of armadillo. One story says that the native musicians liked the sound the vihuela made, but lacked the technology to shape the wood in that manner. Another story says that the Spaniards prohibited natives from practicing their ancestral music, and that the charango was a successful attempt to make a lute that could be easily hidden under a garment such as a poncho.
There is no clear evidence that points to a specific location or momment in time for the birth of the charango but there are a number if theories being debated. One of those is that it is believed the charango came into its present form in the early part of the 18th century in the city of Potosi in the Royal Audiencia of Charcas part of the Viceroyalty of Peru (in what is present-day Bolivia), probably from Amerindian contact with Spanish settlers. Cavour presents evidence from Bolivian murals and sculptures as far back as 1744—in, for example, the Church of San Lorenzo of the city of Potos (Potosí), the facade of which depicts two mermaids playing what he believes to be charangos.
The first published historic information on the charango may be that gathered by Vega, going back to 1814, when a cleric from Tupiza documented that "the Indians used with much enthusiasm the guitarrillos mui fuis... around here in the Andes of Bolivia they called them Charangos". Turino mentions that he found carved sirens representing playing charangos in some Colonial churches in the highlands of Bolivia. One of the churches to which Turino refers may well be that mentioned by Cavour; construction on the San Lorenzo edifice began in 1547 and wasn't completed until 1744.
According to Eduardo Carrasco of Quilapayún, in the first week after the 1973 Chilean coup d'etat, the military organized a meeting with folk musicians where it was explained that the traditional instruments charango and quena were now banned.
The origin of the term "charango" is not entirely clear. One source suggests that the instrument took its name from its players, who were called charangeros, meaning "someone of questionable character and low morals". Another traces the term to the alteration of a Spanish term, charanga, which could refer to either a type of military music played on wind instruments, or an out-of-tune orchestra. Charanguista Alfredo Coca, offers yet a third theory: asserting that "charango" comes from a Spanish corruption of the Quechua word “Chajwaku”, which means joy, noisy, boisterous, referring directly to the sound of the charango. As support for this he points to the common practice of the Conquistadors appropriating local terminology.
Charanguista Ernesto Cavour disagrees, and tends to support the second origin, maintaining that the word “charango” comes from a mispronunciation of the Spanish word “charanga”, meaning "brass band" (a reasonable corollary to 'military music played on wind instruments').
One of the most complete contemporary statements on the origin of the term "charango" appears in the introduction to Duran and Pedrotti's, Charango Method, ostensibly the first complete, bilingual charango method to be published:
- "Charango" in an Ibero-American colonial term that refers to a series of Spanish-American cultural concepts related to "noise" and rustically constructed objects. The tern "charanga", for example, was ofter used to refer to a small instrumental band. "Charanguero", meanwhile, denoted something rough or rustic. In his book El charango, su vida, costumbres y desaventuras, Ernesto Cavour has collected a large amount of information regarding the etymology of the word "charango". As this author related:
- "In the rural areas of Andean Bolivia, the instruemnt is not only known by the name "charango", but by many others as well, including: mediana, guitarrilla, thalachi, quirqui, p'alta, khonkhota, aiquileno, guitarron, anzaldeno, etc. ..."
- An Uruguan publication from 1823 uses the term "changango" as a synonym for the Argentine "charango", and claims the same word was used during the eighteenth century to refer to old and poorly constructed guitars:
- "...In Argentina they speak of the Charango, a guitar with five doubled strings and a body made from the shell of an Armadillo. Nevertheless, the small Spanish-American guitar has been known by the name changango for more than one hundred years. In a footnote to his correspondence with Paulino Lucero regarding the Great War, Hilario Ascasubi explains this situation with indisputable clarity: "Changango: an old, poorly made guitar".
- (Excerpt from the newspaper "El Domador", Montecivideo, 19 March, 1823).
- Julio Mendivil engages in a similarly detailed discussion of this issue in his article La construccion de la historia: el charango en la memoria colectiva mestiza ayacuchana, Musicology Institut/University of Colonia."
Research and debate on this topic continues in scholarly circles.
Traditionally a charango was made with a dried armadillo shell for the back and wood for the soundbox top, neck etc. While still common, this is no longer the norm: rather they are now typically made of wood, with the bowled back merely imitating the shape of the armadillo shell. Unlike most wooden lutes, the body and neck are typically made of a single block of wood, carved into shape. The charango's ten strings require quite a large headstock, often approaching or even exceeding the size of its diminutive sound box. Aside from these visual distinctions, it resembles something between a bowl-backed mandolin and a small ukulele.
The overall length of a typical charango is about 66 cm, with a string scale length of about 37 cm. The number of frets ranges from five to eighteen. The most common form of the instrument has ten strings of nylon, gut, or (less commonly) metal. (Variant forms of the charango may have anywhere from four to fifteen strings, in various combinations of single, double, or triple courses.) The body generally has a narrowed waist, reminiscent of the guitar family, and not the pear-shape of the lute. There are many minor variations in the shape of the body and soundboard (top), and many different kinds of wood are used, although, like guitars, the preferred tone woods for the top come from the cedar or spruce families. Old instruments had friction-style tuning pegs (similar to those used on violins), but today a classical guitar style peghead with geared "machine" tuners is the norm, though these are occasionally positioned perpendicular to the headstock. Most instruments include some degree of ornamentation, which may range from simple purfling inlays around the perimeter of the top, to elaborately carved headstocks, and whole scenes engraved, carved, or burned into the back of the body. Strap buttons are sometimes added, as are position marker dots on the fingerboard.
Variations may include a separate glued-on neck, a two-piece top plate of contrasting woods, old-style friction tuning pegs in palisander or ebony, guitar-style box construction, or even a hollowed-out neck. The size, shape, and number of soundholes is highly variable and may be a single round or oval hole, dual crescents, or even multiple holes of varying arrangement. Another variant is a neck with two holes bored 3/4 of the way through, parallel to the fretboard and close to the headstock (an innovation said to color the instrument's tone).[dubious ]
More recently solid-body electric and hollow-body acoustic-electric charangos have become available. The solid-body instruments are built very much as miniature electric guitars, whereas the acoustic-electrics are usually a standard acoustic charango with the addition of a contact microphone or piezoelectric pickup to run the output of the instrument through an amplifier.
In his book The Motorcycle Diaries, Che Guevara describes an instrument that he identified as a charango while near Temuco, Chile, in 1952. It was "made with three or four wires some two meters in length stretched tightly across tins fixed to a board. The musician uses a kind of metal knuckle duster with which he plucks the wires producing a sound like a toy guitar."
The basic charango has five pairs (or courses) of strings, typically tuned GCEAE. This tuning, disregarding octaves, is similar to the typical C-tuning of the ukulele or the Venezuelan cuatro, with the addition of a second E-course. Unlike most other stringed instruments, all ten strings are tuned inside one octave. The five courses are pitched as follows (from 5th to 1st course): G4 G4 - C5 C5 - E5 E4 - A4 A4 -E5 E5. Some charanguistas use "octave" strings on other pairs in addition to the middle course. Note that the lowest pitch is the "E" string in the middle (3rd) course, preceded by the higher pitched "g" (5th) course and "c" (4th) course, and followed by still higher pitched "a" (2nd) course and "e" (1st) courses. This tuning pattern is known as a re-entrant pattern because the pitches of the strings do not rise steadily from one string or course to the next, but progress from high to low and then back to high pitch again.
The ramifications of the charango tuning are that there is a very narrow tonal range in most chords, often with many pitch duplications, which produces a surprisingly powerful sound from the small instrument. Seventh and ninth chords shimmer more than on a guitar due to the close harmonies. In terms of melody playing, the charanguista can create a harp-like sound with close intervals ringing out (i.e., like a piano with the sustain pedal engaged). With the close pitch spacing across strings (intervals like 2nds), a simple alternating finger-style pattern in the right hand can produce very rapid chromatic and diatonic runs with only minimal movement of the left hand on the fingerboard. This makes the charango an extremely agile melodic instrument, especially when compared to instruments traditionally played with a flat pick.
As with any stringed instrument, tunings for the charango may vary, but the "standardized" tunings most commonly used (for the 10-stringed, five-course version) are:
|5||G4 G4 (391.99 Hz, above middle C)||2nd lowest tone, nearest the face|
|4||C5 C5 (523.25 Hz)||"C" above Middle C|
|3||E5 E4 (659.26 Hz, 329.63 Hz)||Strings are tuned an octave apart|
|2||A4 A4 (440.00 Hz)||"A" above Middle C|
|1||E5 E5 (659.26 Hz)||Highest tone, nearest the floor|
G#m7 and Gm7 tunings are achieved by tuning a semitone or a full step down, respectively. Em7 is achieved by tuning down by a perfect fourth.
Variants: the charango family
There are metal string, nylon/gut string, and mixed-string charangos. Some metal-stringed versions have all strings at the same gauge. There are also solid-body electric charangos.
The Charango Family is a large one, and there are many variants on the charango, some of them quite recent. In many cases the variant is named for the town or region in which it originated, or in which it is most frequently seen (e.g., the Charango Ayquileño of Ayquile, Bolivia). The number of strings on these variant instruments ranges from 4 to 20, and courses may be single, double, triple, or quadruple strung. (The standard charango has 10 strings in 5 courses of 2 strings each.)
Common members of the charango family are:
- Walaycho (also hualaycho, maulincho, or kalampiador): a smaller relative, with a scale typically around 30 cm long. It has 10 strings (which may be of metal, nylon, or nylon fishing line) arranged in 5 courses of two strings each. Despite the short scale the headstock must still accommodate ten tuners, which increases the total length of the instrument by nearly a third (ca. 56 cm is typical). Usually tuned a fifth higher (sometimes a fourth higher) than the charango, strings in the 3rd (center) course may be either in unison or in octaves.
- Charangón: (also charangone) a larger relative, in effect, a tenor charango. About 75 cm long by 22 cm wide with a 42-51 cm scale. Tunings vary, with the most common being a fourth lower than the charango (Argentine tuning) or a fifth lower (Bolivian tuning). It is occasionally tuned an octave lower that the charango, but such lower pitches are more usually reserved for the ronroco.
- Ronroco (also ronrroco): a still larger relative, essentially a baritone or bass charango, about 80 cm long with a 46–50 cm scale. It was invented by Gonzalo Hermosa, of the group Los Kjarkas from Cochabamba, Bolivia, in the 1980s. Ten nylon strings are arranged in five double courses. As with the charangón tunings vary, and depending on region and use the ronroco may be tuned a fourth lower than the charango (Argentine tuning); a fifth lower (Bolivia; Chile); or an octave lower ("Bolivian tuning"). The octave lower tuning is better acoustically supported by the larger body of the ronroco, and is more common on this instrument than on the charangón. The strings of the 3rd (center) course are tuned an octave apart; strings in the other courses are usually tuned in unisons, though occasionally the 4th or 5th courses (or both) may be tuned in octaves. When courses 4 and 5 are doubled at the lower octave the ronroco is essentially no longer in reentrant tuning.
- Chillador: has a flat back; usually steel-strung. It exists in both 10- and 12-string forms. When strung with 10-strings (in 5 courses) it is tuned the same as a charango. With 12 strings, courses 2 and 4 are triple-strung, and the (reentrant) tuning is more like that of a charangone or ronroco in Argentine tuning.
- The Hatun Charango or "grand charango" is an extended-range charango developed in Peru in the modern era. It has either seven or eight strings, all set in single string courses except for the third course, which is double-strung. It is tuned (A3) • D4 • G4 • C5 • E5 E4 • A4 • E5
Other, less common members of the charango family include:
- Ayacucho: A small guitar-style charango (flat back) usually made of plywood, with 6 strings in 5 courses, strung 1-1-2-1-1. Smaller than the charango, but not as small as the walyacho, it is tuned like the charango, with the strings of the doubled course in octaves.
- Bajo charango: A large bass instrument, more guitar-like than charango-like, it was invented by luthier Mauro Nunez in the region of Cochabamba. It is about 1.5m long, with a scale of 87 cm, and the large resonating body is usually made of plywood. Six strings in five courses (1-1-2-1-1-) are typically tuned: B • E • B • G • D, with the 3rd (center) course in octaves. It sounds two octaves lower than the charango, and is written as a transposing instrument, with parts notated a 4th higher than they actually sound.
- Chango a larger member of the charango family, from 104 to 108 cm long with a scale of about 80–84 cm. It has 20 nylon strings set in ten courses, two strings to a course, and is tuned in fifths. Invented in Bolivia by the Shuarscovliente brothers, it has no frets; the strings are played open.
- Charango mediano or mediana ("medium" charango): a rural instrument that varies widely in size: from 50–95 cm, with scales ranging from 33–65 cm. It has 10 strings in 5 courses, and is usually tuned an octave below the charango.
- Khonkhota (also jitarron or pomputu): A rustic instrument of the rural regions of Cochabamba, Oruro, and Potosí. Its soundbox is made of plywood, and it has only 5 frets. The total length is 90 cm, with a 65 cm scale. It has 8 strings in 5 courses (2-2-1-1-2); the doubled courses are all unison doublings. Tunings vary, with a common choice being E-A-D-B-C.
- Moquegua: Charango with 20 strings arranged in five courses of four strings each. Tuning is like the standard charango with the third (central) course using octave doublings.
- Pampeno (also Arequipeño): Another rustic, guitar-style, plywood charango used in the Arequipa region of Peru. It's 15 metal strings, triple strung in 5 courses, are tuned: C# - F# - C# - A - E, with the third (middle) course in octaves.
- Shrieker: An instrument from the South of the Peru similar to the walaycho, made of wood or armadillo. Typically less than 30 cm long, it differs from the walaycho in having 12 (usually metal) strings in five courses; the second and fourth courses are triple-strung. Tuning is the same as for the walyacho.
- Sonko: A large heart-shaped instrument with 13 (and sometimes more) strings. It is a fairly recent development, first designed in the 1970s, by Gerardo Yañez. It has not yet acquired a standard tuning.
- Vallegrandino: Named for the town of its origin, Vallegrande, Bolivia, this charango is about 50 cm long, with a scale of 33 cm, and has 6 strings in four courses: 1 - 2 -2 -1. Tuning is A-E-C-G.
As one of the most popular stringed instruments in regions along the Andes, countless other regional variations of the charango exist, for example:
- charango Anzaldeño
- charango Ayquileño
- charango asimétrico
- charango diablo ("devil" charango)
- charango de juguete ("toy" charango)
- charango kirki
- charango Layme
- charango p´alta ("crushed" charango)
- charango de pukarillo ("chojllo-chojllo" charango)
- charango Sacabeño
- charango uñanchay
- guitarrilla ("chilin chilin")
- k´ullu charango
- maulincho (tilisito)
- muyu muyu
- putu charango
- Soncoy charango
- tajlachi (in three sizes)
Several hybrids of charango with other instruments have also been made, for example: charanquena (charango and quena); charansicu (charango and zampoña); and charango charanguita (charango and guitar).
The charango is known by different names in various regions of the Andes. A few include:
- Mulita and tatu (in Argentina)
- Kirkinchu (sometimes "quirquinchu") and kirki (in Bolivia and Peru)
- Quinquela in Bolivia
There are also may dialect variants of these terms.
- (Celestino Campos), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Bolivia
- (Adrian Aruquipa), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, La Paz, Bolivia*
- (Agustin Alonso), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, La paz, Bolivia
- (Julio Lavayen),Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Cochabamba, Bolivia (First charanguista of Los Kjarkas, father of modern playing
- (Gilmar Lopez), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, La Paz, Bolivia founder of "Kumara"Bolivian Music Ensemble
- (Alfredo Coca), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Cochabamba, Bolivia
- (Clark Orozco), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Bolivia, Co-Founder of Wara
- (Donato Espinoza), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Bolivia
- (Jorge Martinez), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Potosi, Bolivia
- (Bonny Alberto Terán), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Bolivia
- (Saúl Callejas), Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, La Paz, Bolivia
- (Javierito "Vichito" Mamani), Prodigy Child, Singer and Interpreter of "Diablo Temple", Bolivia
- Ernesto Cavour, charanguista and composer from La Paz, Bolivia
- Ernesto Centellas, charanguista and composer from Sucre, Bolivia
- Patricio Castillo, Chilean musician, Quilapayún member
- Horacio Duran, Chilean musician, Inti Illimani Historico member
- Roberto Gonzalez aka "Gurrumino", Mexican musician (Raza Obrera)
* Gonzalo Hermosa, Bolivian musician, Los Kjarkas co-founder, inventor of the ronroco
- Ulises Hermosa, Bolivian musician, Los Kjarkas co-founder
- Jorge Milchberg, Argentine musician, Urubamba member
- Mauro Núñez, Bolivian Master Charanguista, arranger, LUTHIER and composer, Bolivia, creator of many Bolivian-Charango types and stiles, father of modern playing
- Oscar Miranda, Argentine charanguista, composer and music leader, from Buenos Aires
* Gustavo Santaolalla, Argentine musician (Bolivian-Ronroco specialist)
- Federico Tarazona, Peruvian musician, Interpreter
- Jaime Torres, Argentine-Bolivian interpreter
- Ariel Villazón Torrico, Master Charanguista, arranger and composer, Bolivia
- Micah Nelson, American, Interpreter
- Freddy Torrealba Chilean interpreter and master soloist. Currently One the worlds top players.
In pop culture
- 3000 Leagues in Search of Mother (1976), Japanese TV anime series, uses charango and quena in its opening song, Sougen no Marco (Japanese: 草原のマルコ).
- Gian Marco Javier Zignago Alcóver, Peruvian pop singer/songwriter, features charango in many songs, including the 2004 hit single Lejos de Ti.
- Ólöf Arnalds, Icelandic folk singer, plays the charango extensively on her debut album Við og Við. Ólöf also plays charango on two tracks on Skúli Sverrisson's Sería album: Sungio E.g. Gaeti and Sería.
- Bruce Cockburn, Canadian guitarist and singer/songwriter, features the charango in Bone in My Ear from his 1994 "Dart to the Heart" CD.
- Danny Elfman played a charango in the 1995 Oingo Boingo Farewell concert, on the previously unreleased song, Water.
- The Gipsy Kings's CD Pasajero (2006) features a charango in several songs—most notably Café.
- Yehuda Glantz, Jewish-Latin musician, frequently performs with a charango. On the live album Granite he informs his sudience that he plays a charango from his native Argentina.
- honeybird of Italian/US trio "honeybird & the birdies" plays the charango, and in their song Don't Trust the Butcher sings : "I've got my PJs on and I pick up my charango, 'cause I don't wanna think about you." Their album will be released 24 October 2012 on Trovarobato. The album is produced by Enrico Gabrielli (musicista).
- Monsieur Periné, a Columbian group, features charango in many of their songs, mixing of Colombian folk rhythms with gypsy jazz.
- Morcheeba, an electronica group, has an album entitled Charango, which includes a song called Charango, featuring rapper, Pace Won.
- Tanya Nielsen, Canadian singer/songwriter, features the Charango in her songs Dreams and Escape on her album Firefly (2009).
- Andrew Reissiger of the world music group Dromedary features the charango on many songs. Reissiger has used the instrument in both the Americana/Folk tradition via Jonathan Byrd's The Sea and The Sky and on a Puerto Rican CD with Roy Brown, Tito Auger, and Tao Rodriguez-Seeger titled Que Vaya Bien.
- Gustavo Santaolalla, composer for several popular films (including Babel, 21 Grams & The Motorcycle Diaries) makes extensive use of the Charango and Ronroco in many of his compositions, and his album Ronroco (1998) highlights that instrument.
- Andean Masterpieces; Charango; Ans Records; B00000614U: 1998.
- Santaolalla, Gustavo; Ronroco; Nonesuch; B000005J4W: 1998.
- Cavour Aramayo, Ernesto (editor): Instrumentos musicales de Bolivia. La Paz (Bolivia): 1994, 1999; depósito legal 4-1-544-93.
- Cavour Aramayo, Ernesto: El charango: su vida, costumbres y desventuras. La Paz (Bolivia): Producciones CIMA, 1980, 2001; depósito legal 4-1-937-01.
- Richards, Tobe A. (2006). The Charango Chord Bible: GCEAE Standard Tuning 1,728 Chords. United Kingdom: Cabot Books. ISBN 0-9553944-1-4. — A comprehensive chord dictionary instructional guide.
- "ORIGEN DEL CHARANGO". charango.cl. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- "Todo acerca del Charango". charango.cl. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- "Familia de los charangos". jlfeijooi.en.eresmas.com. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- es:Ernesto Cavour
- Cavour, Ernesto A.; Historia del Charango; from "Second Congress of Charanguistas" and "First International Meeting of the Charango"; La Paz, Bolivia: October 2 - 11, 1997 Archived May 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- Mendoza, Z.S. (2008). Creating Our Own: Folklore, Performance, and Identity in Cuzco, Peru. Duke University Press. p. 97. ISBN 9780822341529. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- Op cit., Cavour, Ernesto Archived May 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- Historia musical de Bolivia. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- Broughton, S.; Ellingham, M.; Trillo, R. (1999). World Music: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific. Rough Guides. p. 278. ISBN 9781858286365. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- Op cit, Cavour, Ernesto Archived May 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine.
- Morris, Nancy. 1986. Canto Porque es Necesario Cantar: The New Song Movement in Chile, 1973–1983. Latin American Research Review, Vol. 21, pp. 117-136.
- Candaleria, Cordelia; Encyclopedia of Latino Popular culture, Volume I; Greenwood Publishing Group; Westport, Conn.: 2004. p.427
- Machpherson, A., ed.; Webster's Etymological Dictionary; Ulan Press; Rochester: 2012.
- Long Live the Charango!
- Duran, Horatio and Pedrotti, Italo; Charango Method; Mel Bay Publications, Inc.; Pacific, MO: 2010. 208 p.
- The Motorcycle Diaries: Notes on a Latin American Journey. by Ernesto Che Guevara. Ocean Press. 2003. ISBN 1-876175-70-2
- Asociación Internacional del Charango (Spanish)|"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-10-28.
- Rosa, Jose; The history of music from Cuba, the Caribbean, South America and the United States; Contemporary Latin Music Educators; Southwest Ranches, Florida: 2008. p.68
- A Guitarist's Choice To Play The Ronroco (baritone charango)
- "Charangoperu.com :: El portal del Charango Peruano". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- claire charberet. "Federico Tarazona - The Hatun charango". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Charangoperu.com :: Mapa del Charango Peruano". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Familia de los charangos". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "Charango". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "charango moquegua (charango de 20 cuerdas) - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- "Charangoperu.com :: El portal del Charango Peruano". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
- "CHARANGO AREQUIPEÑO(PAMPEÑO) - YouTube". youtube.com. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- Op Cit "Charango"
- "Sonko Charango - Gerardo Yañez Sarmiento". gerardoyanez.com. Retrieved 2014-10-16.
- Op Cit. "Charango"
- The Chagango Family (Spanish)
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