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Charles Cutler Torrey

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Charles Cutler Torrey (20 December 1863 – 12 November 1956)[1] was an American historian, archaeologist and scholar.



He is known for, presenting through his books, manuscript evidence supporting alternate views on the origins of Christian and Islamic religious texts. He founded the American School of Archaeology at Jerusalem in 1901.[2]

Torrey taught Semitic languages at the Andover Theological Seminary (1892–1900) and Yale University (1900–32). He countered certain parts of the Biblical interpretation of Catholic theologian, Albert Condamin, of the Book of Jeremiah.[3]

Some of Torrey's studies are included in The Origins of The Koran: Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book, edited by Ibn Warraq.


  • The Mohammedan Conquest of Egypt and North Africa (1901), based on the Arabic work of Ibn 'Abd al-Hakam, of which he subsequently published an edition (1922).
  • The Jewish Foundation of Islam (1933).
  • The Composition and Historical Value of Ezra-Nehemiah (1896)
  • Ezra Studies (1910)
  • The Chronicler's History of Israel (1954).
  • In The Second Isaiah: A New Interpretation (1928), he argued that Isa. 34–35 and 40–66 should be dated c. 400 BC.
  • Original Prophecy (1930) presents his theory that the canonical book of Ezekiel is a revision of a 3rd-century pseudepigraphon.
  • The Translations Made from the Original Aramaic Gospels (1912)
  • The Four Gospels: A New Translation (1933)[4]
  • Our Translated Gospels (1936), Torrey held that the four Gospels were Greek translations from Aramaic originals.
  • Apocalypse of John (1958) argues that Revelation was a translation of an Aramaic original written in AD 68.


  1. ^ "Subjects of Biographies". Dictionary of American Biography. Vol. Comprehensive Index. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1990.
  2. ^ "Charles Cutler Torrey | American biblical scholar". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
  3. ^ Torrey, Charles C. “The Background of Jeremiah 1-10.” Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 56, no. 3, 1937, pp. 193–216. JSTOR website Retrieved 5 June 2023.
  4. ^ Torrey, Charles Cutler (1933). The four Gospels: a new translation. Harper.