Charles E. King

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Charles E. King
Charles E. King (vol. 2, 1921).jpg
King, prior 1921
Background information
Birth name Charles Edward King
Born (1874-01-29)January 29, 1874
Estate of Queen Emma of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
Died February 27, 1950(1950-02-27) (aged 76)
United States
Occupation(s) Songwriter, composer, legislator, educator
Associated acts Royal Hawaiian Band

Charles Edward King (January 29, 1874 – February 27, 1950) was an educator, Hawaii territorial legislator, and a songwriter who is most widely known as the composer of "Ke Kali Nei Au". King was inducted into the Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame in 1995.[1]

Teaching and legislative career[edit]

Charles E. King (standing second from right) with the first graduating class of the Kamehameha School for Boys, 1891

Charles E. King was born of part Hawaiian ancestry, at the Nuʻuanu Valley estate of Queen Emma of Hawaii, in Honolulu, to Walter and Mary Ann Brash. He was adopted by his maternal grandfather John Lewis King after the death of his mother, and was christened by his godmother Queen Emma at St. Andrew's Cathedral.[1][2][3] King was educated in public schools in Hawaii and the Kamehameha School for Boys.[2] Following his 1891 graduation from Kamehameha School, Charles Reed Bishop, husband of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, paid his tuition at Oswego Primary Teachers Training School in New York. He returned to Hawaii, teaching music in the Kailua-Kona school district, and also at Kamehameha School for Boys.[4] In 1914, Kamehameha alumni circulated a petition requesting that King be named school principal, but Ernest C. Webster was chosen instead.[5]

When Bishop Estate trustee Samuel Mills Damon resigned in 1916, the trustees named former teacher William Williamson, a white man, to fill the vacancy. As established by the original trust deed, any trustee appointment had to be approved by the Supreme Court of the Hawaiian Islands. With his post-teaching success in business, Williamson's nomination easily received that approval. The nomination ran into trouble with Judge C. W. Ashford of the probate court that was charged with overseeing trusts. Ashford decreed that the slot should be filled by someone of Hawaiian ancestry, and therefore representative of the very people for whom the trust was established. He appointed alumnus King, who had spoken openly about his concerns that the school was under-performing academically and not adequately preparing its graduates for career or economic success. Ashford's appointment of King was overturned on appeal in the ninth circuit court, which ruled in favor of the original Williamson appointment having been in strict accordance with the trust deed.[6]

After considering a run for various elected offices in 1917, King successfully ran on the Republican ticket in 1918 for a seat in the Territory of Hawaii senate.[7] The College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts of the Territory of Hawaii was authorized by the legislature in 1907 and first began operating in 1908 on Young Street in Honolulu. The institution's name was changed in 1911 to College of Hawaii and relocated to the Manoa valley. A community need to expand the school's curriculum and offer university-level degrees, led to King's introducing Senate Bill 76 in 1919, creating the legislation to establish the University of Hawaii at Manoa. While still serving in the legislature, he also led campus song concerts at the university.[8]

Music career[edit]

He grew up surrounded by traditional Hawaiian mele style of music and was a musical protégé of Liliuokalani.[1] King began pursuing songwriting sometime in mid-life, publishing his first two books of sheet music when he was 42 years old.

"Kamehameha Waltz" was penned by King as a paean to his alma mater and to Bernice Pauahi Bishop who created the trust fund that established the school, "Majestic stands Kamehameha/My home of education"..."For you, O great Pauahi, high chiefess/Our exclamations of joy".[9] The song was performed in 1914 by the King Glee Club as part of The Woods of Hawaii musical presentation at the Honolulu Opera House, sponsored by the Christian youth organization Young People's League.[10] It was first recorded on May 18, 1928 by the Charles E. King Male Chorus on the Columbia Records label.[11] Since then, it has become a standard at the school's annual song contest.

His compositions were favored by Hawaiian lap steel guitarist Sol Hoʻopiʻi who, along with Glenwood Leslie and Lani McIntyre as Sol Hoopii's Novelty Trio, recorded 17 of King's songs from 1927–1931.[12]

Catafalque of Liliuokalani being carried out of ʻIolani Palace

The most famous song associated with King, "Ke Kali Nei Au" (Waiting For Thee), is known to today's audiences as the Hawaiian Wedding Song. Recorded by numerous modern-day artists, King's original lyrics[13] are not the same as the 1958 translation by Al Hoffman and Dick Manning. King's version was not a wedding song but one of several tunes written for his Hawaiian-language opera The Prince of Hawaii. At its May 4, 1925 premiere, Ray Kinney starred in the lead of Prince Kauikalu, with Rose Tribe as Queen Kamaka, and Joseph Kamakau as King Kalani.[14] The production toured the mainland United States with King in 1926.[15] "Ke Kali Nei Au" was first recorded in Honolulu on May 22, 1928 on the Columbia Records label as a duet with Helen Desha Beamer and Sam Kapu Sr. accompanied by the Don Barrientos Hawaiia n Orchestra.[16]

At the 1917 state funeral of his musical mentor Liliuokalani, King led the Young People's League in singing her composition "Aloha ʻOe" on the balcony of ʻIolani Palace as her catafalque was carried out to take her casket for entombment in the Kalākaua Crypt of the Royal Mausoleum of Mauna ʻAla.[17]

He served as conductor of the Royal Hawaiian Band for two non-sequential periods, 1932–1934 and 1939–1941.[18]

Personal life[edit]

In 1911, King's wife Jean Bates died of cancer and was buried at Kawaiahaʻo Church cemetery.[19]

Through his musical work with the Young People's League, he became acquainted with Emma Liftee of Kona. The couple was married by Rev. Akaiko Akana on July 26, 1915.[20]

When the United States entered World War II, King relocated to Elmhurst, New York, with his last wife Regina P. Hughes and began pursuing his music publishing interests. He died on February 27, 1950.[21]

Publications[edit]

  • King's Book of Hawaiian Melodies (in Hawaiian and English). 1915. LCCN unk84134220. 
  • Song of the Islands, as sung in "The Woods of Hawaii". 1915. LCCN unk84214415. 
  • Na lei o Hawaii; ukulele solo. 1916. LCCN unk84212590. 
  • Songs of Honolulu. 1917. LCCN unk84112974. 
  • The Latest Hawaiian Hulas. 1917. LCCN unk84129393. 
  • The Prince of Hawaii. 1925. LCCN unk84074733. 
  • Favorites from The Prince of Hawaii. 1926. LCCN unk84070988. 
  • King's Songs of Hawaii: a companion to King's Book of Hawaiian Melodies (in Hawaiian and English). 1942. LCCN 43011014. 
  • Hawaiian favorites, for the piano. 1945. LCCN unk84202781. 
  • Ke kali nei au. The Hawaiian wedding song: Hawaiian lyric and music by Charles E. King. English lyric by Al Hoffman [and] Dick Manning. 1958. LCCN unk84211379. 

Compositions[edit]

Partial listing. Sources: DAHR, UC Santa Barbara[22] and huapala.org

  • "Aloha Oe E Kuu Lei"
  • "An Island Serenade"
  • "Elue, Mikimiki"
  • "Hawaii"
  • "Hawaiʻi Kuʻu Home"
  • "Hawaii Nei"
  • "Hawaiian Mother's Lullaby" (co-wrote with Frances H. Gerber)
  • "He Nohea Oe I Kuu Maka"
  • "He Olu Ia No'u"
  • "Hi‘ipoe Like I Ke Aloha"
  • "Honolulu Maids"
  • "Honolulu, You're the Home of the Moon"
  • "Hoʻokahi No Pua Lawa Kuʻu Lei"
  • "Hoohihi Oe Ke Ike Mai"
  • "Huehue"
  • "Imi Au Ia Oe" (from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "Imua Kamehameha" (from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "Kaala"
  • "Ka ʻAnoʻi"
  • "Ka Ipo Poina Ole"
  • "Ka Hana Ia A Ke Aloha"
  • "Kaimana Hilo"
  • "Kalena Kai" (Liholiho chant set to music by King)
  • "Kamaile Waltz"
  • "Kamehameha March"
  • "Kamehameha Waltz"
  • "Ka Ulua"
  • "Ke Kali Nei Au" (from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "King's Serenade"
  • "Ku‘u ‘I‘ini"
  • "Kuu Leialoha"
  • "Kuʻu Lei Lehua"
  • "Kuu Lei Mokihana" (from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "Kuu Lei Pikake"
  • "Lehua"
  • "Lei Aloha Lei Makamae"
  • "Lei Gardenia"
  • "Lei Ilima"
  • "Leilani"
  • "Leilehua" (from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "Leilehua-ahula"
  • "Lei Leihua O Pana ʻewa"
  • "Lei Lokelani"
  • "Maile Laulii"
  • "Mai Nuha Mai ʻOe "
  • "Maui Ka' Oeoe"
  • "Mauna Loa"
  • "May Day is Lei Day Too"
  • "Mi Nei"
  • "Momi O Ka Pākīpika"
  • "My Dear Hawaiʻi"
  • "Na Lei O Hawaii" (aka "Song of the Islands" from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "Na Moku O Hawai`i"
  • "Neʻeneʻe Mai A Pili"
  • "Nênê Hanu `A`ala" (co-wrote with Mary Jane Montan)
  • "O Oe Ka'u"
  • "Paahau Waltz"
  • "Pa`au`au Hula" (co-wrote with John U. Iosepa)[FN 1]
  • "Pehea Ho`i Au"
  • "Palolo"
  • "Pauoa Liko Lehua"
  • "Pidgin English Hula"
  • "Pô Mahina"
  • "Pua Onaona"
  • "Pua Roselani" (from The Prince of Hawaii)
  • "Pulupe Nei Ili"
  • "Uheuhene"
  • "Wahiikaahuula" (co-wrote with Ruth Lilikalani)

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "This song was dedicated to Hon. John F. Colburn, cousin of Lahilahi Webb, whose home was called Pa`au`au in remembrance of the pool in Ewa.""Pa`au`au Hula". huapala.org. Retrieved November 5, 2016. 

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Charles E. King". Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 27, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Siddall 1921, p. 237
  3. ^ "The Music of Charles E. King." Concert Program, City and County of Honolulu, July 20, 1978
  4. ^ "King Hurt But Injury is Slight: Educator in Bad Fall". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. April 5, 1913. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  5. ^ "Charles E. King May Take Place of Pres. Horne". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. March 25, 1914. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "Reception at Kamehamena Honoring Two New Principals". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. November 3, 1915. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  6. ^ King, Roth (2006), pp. 45–47; "Defend Naming of King Before Supreme Court". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, HI. August 29, 1916. Retrieved October 26, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "King to Appeal From Decision of High Court". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, HI. February 7, 1917. Retrieved October 26, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  7. ^ "King May Make Race for Mayor". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, HI. February 10, 1917. Retrieved October 30, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "On The Other Islands". The Maui News. Wailuku, Maui. July 19, 1918. Retrieved October 30, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "Report Favors $10,000 for Maui Fair Building". The Maui News. Wailuku, Maui. August 25, 1919. Retrieved October 30, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  8. ^ Kamins & Potter 1998, pp. 6–18, 215; "Roster of the Legislature". The Maui News. Wailuku, Maui. November 19, 1920. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "Napoleon Kalolii Pukui supporting Charles E. King for delegate to Congress, 1922". Nupepa. Retrieved October 8, 2016. ; "Pick Your Men". The Maui News. Wailuku, Maui. September 12, 1922. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  9. ^ "Kamehameha Waltz by Charles E. King". huapala.org. Retrieved October 28, 2016. 
  10. ^ "Rev. Ebersole Delivers Sermon at Y. P. League". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. April 20, 1914. Retrieved October 28, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "Big Program by the Young People's League". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. July 3, 1914. Retrieved October 28, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  11. ^ "Columbia matrix 146655. Kamehameha waltz / Charles E. King's Male Chorus". Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. University of California at Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 28, 2016. 
  12. ^ "Sol Hoopii's Novelty Trio (Musical group)". Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. University of California at Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 29, 2016. 
  13. ^ "Ke Kali Nei Au (Waiting For Thee)". huapala.org. Retrieved October 28, 2016. 
  14. ^ "Opera Will Be Given Tonight". Honolulu Star-Bulletin at Newspapers.com. May 4, 1925. p. 17. Retrieved June 18, 2018. Free to read
  15. ^ Tranquada & King 2012, p. 130
  16. ^ "Columbia matrix 146670. Ke kali nei au / Helen D. Beamer ; Don Barrientos Hawaiian Orchestra ; Sam Kapu". Discography of American Historical Recordings, s.v. University of California at Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 28, 2016. 
  17. ^ ""Aloha ʻOe" of Queen's Own Song Goes With Her Into Resting-Place". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii. November 19, 1917. Retrieved October 7, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. ; "Funeral is Held in the Throne Room". The Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii. November 20, 1917. Retrieved October 7, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  18. ^ "Charles E. King". Royal Hawaiian Band. City and County of Honolulu. Retrieved October 28, 2016. 
  19. ^ "Jean Bates King obituary". The Hawaiian Star. Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands. September 18, 1911. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  20. ^ "Young People's League Makes a Tryst for Cupid". The Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Honolulu, Hawaii. July 27, 1915. Retrieved October 31, 2016 – via Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Lib. of Congress. 
  21. ^ "Charles E. King" (PDF). Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved October 28, 2016. 
  22. ^ "Charles E. King (composer)". DAHR: Discography of American Historical Recordings. University of California at Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 27, 2016. 

References[edit]