Charles Frédéric Gerhardt
|Charles Frédéric Gerhardt|
Charles Frédéric Gerhardt
21 August 1816|
19 August 1856 (aged 39)|
Notation for chemical formulas|
Charles Frédéric Gerhardt (21 August 1816 – 19 August 1856) was a French chemist.
He was born in Strasbourg, which is where he attended the gymnasium (an advanced academic secondary school). He then studied at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, where Friedrich Walchner's lectures first stimulated his interest in chemistry. Next he attended the school of commerce in Leipzig, where he studied chemistry under Otto Linné Erdmann, who further developed his interest into a passion for questions of speculative chemistry.
Returning home in 1834, he entered his father’s white lead factory, but soon found that business was not to his liking, and after a sharp disagreement with his father in his 20th year he enlisted in a cavalry regiment. In a few months military life became equally distasteful, and he purchased his discharge with the assistance of the German chemist Justus von Liebig. After a short period of living in Dresden, he went to the University of Giessen in central Germany in 1836 to study and work in Liebig's laboratory. His stay at Giessen lasted 18 months, and in 1837 he re-entered the factory. Again, however, he quarrelled with his father, and in 1838 he went to Paris with introductions from Liebig.
In Paris, he attended Jean Baptiste Dumas’ lectures and worked with Auguste Cahours (1813–1891) on essential oils, especially cumin, in Michel Eugène Chevreul’s laboratory at the Jardin des Plantes, meanwhile earning a precarious living by teaching and making translations of some of Liebig’s writings. In 1841, through the influence of Dumas, he was charged with the duties of chemistry professor at the Montpellier faculty of sciences, becoming titular professor in 1844.
In 1842 he annoyed his friends in Paris by the matter and manner of a paper on the classification of organic compounds. Later, he published Précis de chimie organique (1844–1845). In 1845 he and his opinions were the subject of an attack by Liebig, unjustifiable in its personalities but not altogether surprising in view of his wayward disregard of his patron’s advice. The two were reconciled in 1850, but his faculty for disagreeing with his friends did not make it easier for him to get another appointment after resigning the chair at Montpellier in 1851, especially as he was unwilling to go into the provinces.
He obtained leave of absence from Montpellier in 1848 so that he could pursue without interruption his special investigations, and from that year until 1855 he resided in Paris. During that period he established an École de chimie pratique ("School for practical chemistry") for which he had great hopes. However, these hopes were disappointed, and in 1855, after refusing the offer of a chair of chemistry at the new Zürich Polytechnic in 1854, he accepted the professorships of chemistry at the Faculty of Sciences and the École Polytechnique at Strassburg, where he died the following year, having just completed checking the proofs for Traité de chimie organique (4 vols., Paris, 1853–56), his magnum opus. This latter work embodies all his ideas and his discoveries.
Gerhardt is known for his work on reforming the notation for chemical formulas (1843–1846). He also worked on acid anhydrides, and synthesized acetylsalicylic acid, albeit in an unstable and impure form.
Gerhardt is usually linked with his contemporary, Auguste Laurent, with whom he shared a strong and influential interest in chemical combination.
He died on August 19, 1856, two days short of his birthday, after being poisoned by his own chemicals during laboratory work. He was 39 years old.
This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (May 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- Gilman, D. C.; Peck, H. T.; Colby, F. M., eds. (1906). "Gerhardt, Karl Friedrich". New International Encyclopedia (1st ed.). New York: Dodd, Mead.
- Charlot, Colette (July 2007). "[Charles Frédéric Gerhardt at Montpellier from 1841 to 1848]". Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie. 55 (354): 197–208. doi:10.3406/pharm.2007.6333. PMID 18175527.
- Viel, Claude (July 2007). "[The financial distress of the Charles Gerhardt's widow]". Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie. 55 (354): 189–96. PMID 18175526.
- Lafont, O (1996). "[Clarification on publications concerning the synthesis of acetylsalicylic acid]". Revue d'histoire de la pharmacie. 43 (310): 269–73. PMID 11624864.
- Dickerson, Jimmy (1985). "Charles Gerhardt and the Theory of Organic Combination". Journal of Chemical Education. 62 (4): 323–325. Bibcode:1985JChEd..62..323D. doi:10.1021/ed062p323.
- Grimaux. M.; Gerhardt, M. C. (1900). Charles Gerhardt, sa Vie, son Oeuvre, sa Correspondance. Paris: Masson.
- Moore, F. J. (1918). A History of Chemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill.- See Chapter 6, "Gerhardt and the Chemical Reformation - Williamson".
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gerhardt, Charles Frédéric". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Tiffeneau, Marc (1917). "[Le centenaire de Charles Gerhardt: Charles Gerhardt et la Revue scientifique du Dr Quesneville]". Moniteur scientifique. 7: 5–42.
- Tiffeneau, Marc (ed.) (1918). Correspondance de Charles Gerhardt, Tome 1, Auguste Laurent et Charles Gerhardt. Paris: Masson & Cie.
- Tiffeneau, Marc (1921). "Wurtz". Revue scientifique. 59: 576–584.
- Tiffeneau, Marc (ed.) (1925). Correspondance de Charles Gerhardt, Tome 2, Gerhardt et les savants français. Paris: Masson & Cie.
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