Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey
|Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey|
The Earl Grey.
23 October 1729|
Northumberland, Great Britain
|Died||14 November 1807(aged 78)|
|Years of service||1744–1799|
|Relations||Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey,
Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet
|Other work||Governor of Guernsey|
Charles Grey, 1st Earl Grey KB PC (circa 23 October 1729 – 14 November 1807) served as a British general in the 18th century. A distinguished soldier in a generation of exceptionally capable military and naval personnel, he served in the Seven Years' War of 1756-1763, taking part in the defeat of France. He later served in the American War of Independence (1775–1783) and in the early campaigns against France during the French Revolutionary War. Following the Battle of Paoli in Pennsylvania in 1777 he became known as "No-flint Grey" for ordering his men to extract the flints from their muskets during a night approach and to fight with the bayonet only.
He was the fourth son of Sir Henry Grey, 1st Baronet, of Howick and Hannah, daughter of Thomas Wood of Falloden in Northumberland. Grey was born at his family's estate, known as Howick, 30 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and one mile from the North Sea. His exact birthdate is unknown, but he was baptized 23 October 1729, so he was probably born in October.
Because he had three older brothers, Grey did not expect to inherit his father's titles and estates, so he pursued a career in the military. Two older brothers Sir Henry and Thomas both died without issue.
In 1744, with financial assistance from his father, Grey purchased a commission as an ensign in the 6th Regiment of Foot. He soon went to Scotland with the Sixth Regiment to suppress the Jacobite Rising of 1745. Following victory there, the Sixth Regiment spent the next few years in Gibraltar. In December 1752, he purchased a lieutenancy in the Sixth Regiment. In March 1755, he formed a new independent company and became their captain. Two months later, he purchased a captaincy in the 20th Regiment of Foot, also called the East Devonshire Regiment (and later the Lancashire Fusiliers), in which James Wolfe served as lieutenant colonel. In 1757, while with Wolfe's regiment, he participated in the unsuccessful attack on Rochefort.
Seven Years' War
In the Seven Years' War, he served as adjutant in the staff of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick and on 1 August 1759 was wounded at Minden. On 14 October 1760 he commanded a Light Company at the Battle of Campen, where he was again wounded. One year later, as Lt. Colonel of the 98th Foot, he participated in the Capture of Belle Île, off the coast of Brittany. Next, he served at the Battle of Havana in 1762. Later, he was on the staff of Wilhelm, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe during the Spanish invasion of Portugal (1762). In 1763 he retired on half-pay, but in 1772 he received a promotion to Colonel and served as aide-de-camp to King George III.
American War of Independence
During the American War of Independence he was one of the more successful army leaders. He was rapidly promoted, becoming a Major General in 1777 and commanded the 3rd Brigade at the Battle of Brandywine. He earned the nickname "No-flint Grey" after the Battle of Paoli in 1777 when, to ensure surprise in a night attack on an American encampment, he ordered the infantry of his command to remove the flints from their muskets and use only their bayonets. He commanded the 3rd Brigade again at the Battle of Germantown and the Battle of Monmouth.
In 1778 he led raids at New Bedford on 5–6 September, destroying nearly all the shipping and burning twenty shops and twenty-two houses in the town, and Martha's Vineyard, where between 10 and 15 September, the British carried off all the sheep, swine, cattle and oxen that they could find with promise of payment in New York. On 27 September 1778, Grey used the same methods as he had at the Battle of Paoli in a controversial night attack at Old Tappan, New Jersey, which came to be known as the Baylor Massacre. He was recalled to England and became a knight of the Order of the Bath and a lieutenant general. He later was appointed commander-in-chief of the British troops in America, but hostilities ended before he could take command.
French Revolutionary Wars
At the outset of the war with Revolutionary France, in 1793, Sir Charles Grey was appointed commander of the West Indian expedition. First, however, he went to Ostend to participate in the relief of Nieuwpoort, Belgium. In early 1794, he and Admiral Sir John Jervis led a British force to capture Martinique. The campaign lasted about six weeks with the British capturing Fort Royal and Fort Saint Louis on 22 March, and Fort Bourbon two days later. The British then occupied Martinique until the Treaty of Amiens returned the island to the French in 1802. Next Grey was involved in the invasion of Guadeloupe.
In late 1794 he returned to England. From 1798 to 1799 he served as Commander of the Southern District, retiring in 1799. In acknowledgment of his service, he was raised in January 1801 to the peerage as Baron Grey, of Howick in the County of Northumberland. In 1806, he was created Earl Grey and Viscount Howick, in the County of Northumberland. He died the next year, at the age of 78.
In 1762, Grey married Elizabeth Grey (1744–1822), the daughter of George Grey of Southwick (1713–1746), their children were:
- Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey, (1764–1845) British statesman and prime minister after whom Earl Grey tea is named. and who married Mary Elizabeth Ponsonby.
- Lady Elizabeth Grey (1765–1846) married Samuel Whitbread
- Sir Henry George Grey, (1766–1845) GCH GCB, Colonel in the 13th Light Dragoons, who married Charlotte Des Voeux (1789–1882)
- Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet of Fallodon, KCB (1767–1828), Flag Captain under Admiral Jervis, Flag Captain of King George III's Royal Yacht (1801–04) and Commissioner of Sheerness Dockyard (1804–06) and Portsmouth Dockyard (1806–28), married Mary Whitbread, daughter of Samuel Whitbread (1720–1796), whose sons: Sir George Grey, 2nd Baronet (1799–1882) was a British Statesman and Home Secretary, and Charles Samuel Grey, Paymaster of Civil Service in Ireland; and daughters: Mary married Capt Thomas Monck Mason, Elizabeth married Charles Noel, 1st Earl of Gainsborough, Harriet married Revd John Jenkinson, Hannah Jean married Sir Henry Thompson, 3rd Baronet, Jane married Francis Baring.
- Hon. Lt. Col. William Grey (1777–1817) married Maria Shirreff
- Hon. Rt. Revd Edward Grey (1782–1837) Bishop of Hereford married firstly Charlotte Elizabeth Croft, secondly Elizabeth Adair, and thirdly Eliza Innes
- Lady Hannah Althea Grey (1785–1832) married George Edmund Byron Bettesworth
Grey and his wife brought up Eliza Courtney, the illegitimate daughter of their son Charles with Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. He was also an ancestor of Prime Ministers Anthony Eden and Alec Douglas-Home, and of Diana, Princess of Wales
- Fredriksen, John C. (2001). America's Military Adversaries: From Colonial Times to the Present. (ABC-CLIO).
- De Garis, Marie (1995). History of St Pierre du Bois (PDF).
- Nelson, Paul David (April 1996). Sir Charles Grey, First Earl Grey: Royal Soldier, Family Patriarch. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-8386-3673-2.
- Nelson, Paul David (April 1996). Sir Charles Grey, First Earl Grey: Royal Soldier, Family Patriarch. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8386-3673-2.
- "Guernsey". World Statesmen. Retrieved 23 December 2015.
- The London Gazette: . 9 June 1801.
- The London Gazette: . 29 March 1806.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl Grey