Charles III, Duke of Parma
|Duke of Parma and Piacenza|
|Duke of Parma and Piacenza|
|Reign||17 May 1849 – 27 March 1854|
|Spouse||Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France|
|Issue||Margherita, Duchess of Madrid
Robert I, Duke of Parma
Alice, Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Prince Henry, Count of Bardi
|House||House of Bourbon-Parma|
|Father||Charles II, Duke of Parma|
|Mother||Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy|
14 January 1823|
Villa delle Pianore, Lucca, Duchy of Parma
|Died||27 March 1854
Parma, Duchy of Parma
|Burial||Cappella della Macchia, near Viareggio|
Charles III was born at the Villa delle Pianore near Lucca on 14 January 1823, the only son of Charles Louis, Prince of Lucca (later Duke of Lucca, and Duke of Parma) and his wife Princess Maria-Theresa of Savoy (daughter of King Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia). He was given the baptismal names Ferdinando Carlo Vittorio Giuseppe Maria Baldassarre. Until his accession as Duke of Parma in 1849, he was called Ferdinando Carlo or Ferdinando. His family called him Danduccio. At the death of his grandmother, Maria Luisa of Spain, Duchess of Lucca, on 13 March 1824, Ferdinando became the Hereditary Prince of Lucca.
Ferdinando Carlo spent much of the first ten years of his life following his parents in their frequent travels to their castles of Uchendorff and Weisstropp, near Dresden and to the court in Vienna. When he was four, the responsibility for his education was entrusted to a Hungarian priest, Zsigmond Deáki. He was taught Italian history and language by Lazzaro Papi, Director of the Library of Lucca. He learnt French, Hungarian, German, English, and Spanish.
Until 1833, when he was ten and the court returned to Lucca, Ferdinando Carlo was under the care of his mother in an austere and religious atmosphere. As an only child, Ferdinando Carlo was much loved by his parents, but they were a mismatch couple of opposite personalities. Ferdinando’s mother was very pious and turned increasingly towards religion. From his teens, Ferdinando saw little of her. Maria-Theresa retired completely from the court of Lucca, living in permanent seclusion, first in Villa di Marilia and later to her villa at Pianore, where surrounded by priest and nuns, she dedicated her life to religion. Ferdinando had more in common with his father: a skill for languages, a passion for travel, a coarse sense of humor and a restless nature. However, Charles Louis, Prince of Lucca, was an hedonistic man who could not have his son as company very often of for very long. As a consequence, Ferdinando grew up restless and very spoil. His teachers could control neither his rebellious nature nor his unbridled irresponsibility.
In his adolescence, Ferdiando Calos developed an interest in military life. He entered the army in Lucca living as a simple soldier, sharing the life in the barracks, hours in the training grounds and lengthy exercises among the foothills of the Apennines. He was well regarded by his soldiers. To regulate his military training, and hoping that the army would improve his character, Ferdinando's father obtained permission form Charles Albert of Sardinia to admit him in the Piedmontese army. In 1841, at age eighteen, Ferdinando Carlo was sent to the Military School of Turin. He received a commission in the Piedmontese army with the rank of Captain in the Novara Cavalry. After one year of service, he returned home in bad terms with King Charles Albert of Sardinia and even more so with the king's son, Victor Emmanuel who had spent a lot of time with him. Victor Emmanuel wrote: " Ferdinando of Lucca left here last summer rather angry with me and he has not let me know his news since. But I wish him every happiness -and also good sense, which however I firmly believe he would never achieve."
Marriage and issue
In 1845, as the duchy of Lucca was in great financial need, Ferdinando Carlo's father decided to marry him with a princess with a large dowry. The bride chosen was Princess Louise Marie of France (1819‐1864), the only sister of the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France, the Comte de Chambord. She was the daughter of the Duke of Berry and the granddaughter of King Charles X of France. Ferdinando Carlo, who was twenty-two years old at the time, was initially reluctant to marry her. She was four years older than him; his close relative and he disliked the ideology of her entourage, the legitimist party. He would have rather waited three more years to marry, finding then a bride more of his liking. However, as his father threaten to cut his privy purse, leaving him completely destitute, Ferdinando ended up agreeing with the idea.
Ferdinando Carlo and Louise Marie were cousins and they had known each other since they were children in Vienna. Their wedding took place on 10 November 1845 at Schloss Frohsdorff, Chambords's home in exile, near Lanzenkirchen in Austria, some 30 miles outside of Vienna. Their honeymoon took them to Scholoss Üchendorff in Germany, and afterwards to England, a country where Ferdinand Carlo felt most at ease. The couple's married life was happy for some years. Their first child was born thirteen months after the wedding and three more children followed in quick succession:
- Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma (1847–1893)
- Robert I, Duke of Parma, Duke of Parma (1848–1907)
- ∞ Princess Maria Pia of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (daughter of King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Maria Theresa of Austria), had issue.
- ∞ Infanta Maria Antonia of Portugal (daughter of King Miguel of Portugal and Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg), had issue.
- Princess Alice of Bourbon-Parma (1849–1935)
- ∞ Ferdinand IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany, had issue.
- Prince Henry, Count of Bardi (1851–1905)
- ∞ Princess Maria Immacolata of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (daughter of King Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies and Maria Theresa of Austria).
- ∞ Infanta Adelgundes of Portugal, Duchess of Guimarães (daughter of King Miguel of Portugal and Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg).
Louise Marie was described at that time as a pretty blonde, fair complexioned with golden hair and blue eyes, but not very tall. She was reserved, cold, insensitive and lacked charm. Like most legitimist, her political ideas were those of the preceding century. However, for the first years of their married life, Carlo Ferdinando was happy with her.
Until he became duke of Parma, Ferdinando was known as il Duchino, the little Duke, a reference to both his stature and his status a his father's heir. Although he was tall, he was slight built. His parents were both very good looking, but he was not. His hair was thick and dark and he had big prominent eyes. A large nose, a long neck and a receding chin completed his face. He had a trimmed, finely proportioned figure, of which he was very proud. He was a dandy who dress smartly and was very fastidious about his clothing. Ferdinando Carlo travelled a great deal. Outside Italy he often used the title Marchese di Castiglione; in Italy he often used the title Conte di Mulazzo.
Duke of Parma
On 17 December 1847 Empress Marie Louise died and Ferdinando Carlo's father succeeded as Duke Charles II of Parma. The Duchy of Lucca was incorporated in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and Ferdinando Carlo ceased being Hereditary Prince of Lucca becoming instead Hereditary Prince of Parma.
Charles II only reigned for a few months in Parma. In March 1848 revolution broke out in Parma supported by King Charles Albert of Sardinia. Ferdinando Carlo escaped from Parma, but was taken prisoner at Cremona. He remained a prisoner at Milan for several months until the British government negotiated his release. After a brief sojourn on the island of Malta, he travelled to Naples and then Livorno where he was joined by his wife Louise Marie who had just given birth to their first son. Then the family sought refuge in England and Scotland.
In August 1848 the Austrian army entered Parma, and officially restored Charles II. Ferdinando Carlo and his family, however, remained in England, since hostilities continued between the Austrian and Piedmontese armies. For several years Charles II had considered abdicating in favour of Ferdinando Carlo, but he delayed in the hope that when he did so things would be more secure for his son.
On 24 March 1849 the abdication of Charles II was announced. Ferdinando Carlo, still living in England, succeeded to the title of Duke of Parma, Piacenza, and the Annexed States taking the name Charles III. On 18 May 1849 he re-entered Parma, but left again two days later. He did not take over the administration of the duchy until 25 August.
On the evening of 26 March 1854 Charles was taking a walk in the streets of Parma. He was stabbed by an assailant, the anarchist Antonio Carra, who escaped. He was taken to the Palazzo di Riserva where he died the following evening.
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 13 March 1824 – 17 December 1847 His Royal Highness the Hereditary Prince of Lucca
- 17 December 1847 – 17 May 1849 His Royal Highness the Hereditary Prince of Parma
- 24 March 1849 – 27 March 1854 His Royal Highness the Duke of Parma, Piacenza, and the Annexed States
Charles's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son.
Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations – which means that if Duke Charles were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robert, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house.
Charles is a member of the House of Bourbon-Parma, a sub-branch of the House of Bourbon-Spain, itself originally a branch of the House of Bourbon, and thus of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians.
Charles's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. It follows the Dukes of Parma as well as the Kings of Spain, France, and Navarre. The line can be traced back more than 1,200 years from Robert of Hesbaye to the present day, through Kings of France & Navarre, Spain and Two-Sicilies, Dukes of Parma and Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg, Princes of Orléans and Emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest in Europe.
- Stubbs, Assassination in Parma: The Life and Death of Duke Carlo III, p. 71
- Stubbs, Assassination in Parma: The Life and Death of Duke Carlo III, p. 72
- Balansó, La Familia Rival, p. 104
- Balansó, Juan. La Familia Rival. Barcelona. Planeta, 1994.
- Cecchini, Bianca Maria. La danza delle ombre: Carlo III di Borbone Parma, un regicidio nell'Italia del Risorgimento. Lucca: Istituto storico lucchese, 2001.
- Franzè, Giuseppe. L'ultimo duca di Parma: potere, amministrazione e società dell'Ottocento. Modena: Artioli, 1984.
- Myers, Jesse. Baron Ward and the Dukes of Parma. London: Longmans, Green, 1938.
- Nettement, Alfred François. Madame la duchesse de Parme. Paris: J. Lecoffre, 1864.
- Stubbs, Alan R. Assassination in Parma: The Life and Death of Duke Carlo III . Royalty Digest.
Charles III, Duke of Parma
Cadet branch of the House of BourbonBorn: 14 January 1823 Died: 27 March 1854
|Duke of Parma and Piacenza